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May, 1915. 


1859 TO 1867.* 


I am neither one of the very early pioneers of Minnesota, 
nor yet a historian. In early life my horizon was very narrow. 
Yet I saw and experienced a few of the realities of frontier life, 
of which some of you saw and experienced many. 

Recounting events Avhich have occurred in our immediate 
neighborhood is to us the most interesting of all history. We 
are familiar with localities, and are much more impressed with 
the facts. Our imagination helps us to see the Indian canoe on 
our rivers and lakes, and the tepee upon the banks ; and later, 
our memory recalls the log cabins and rude surroundings of 
the pioneers, followed still later by beautiful farms and bright 
cities and villages. 

The lives and experiences of some of the early settlers of 
Minnesota are household words in this state, but of the history 
and experiences of many others little is known, and w^hat is 
being handed down is passed along by just such gatherings as 
we have here. 

In the early spring of 1859 my father and brother-in-law 
started with teams of oxen and covered wagons from ouriiome 
near Oshkosh, T\^isconsin, to seek a location in the "West, where 
homes could be gotten without money and without price. It 
was not definitely determined where they would go, but it vv'as 
to be somewhere in the great n<^w state of Minnesota, to us an 
unknown region. 

Pioneer emigration by the then only method known to us, 
the covered wagon drawn by oxen, was quite brisk that year, 
and inquiry made by father of explorers returning for their 
families, influenced them to go to the western part of Blue 
Earth county. 

•Read at the monthly meeting of the Executive Council. March 13, 1911. 



In October of the same year all the earthly belongings of 
my father, being my mother, seven children, and a handful of 
household goods, were loaded into a wagon drawn by a pair of 
unbroken steers, and we were ready to start for our new home. 
The two cows which we had were to be driven behind the 
wagon. My elder brother drove the steers attached to the 
wagon, and we, the younger children, drove the cows. In the 
short period of precisely thirty days we reached our new home 
near the southwestern corner of Blue Earth county. Now we 
make the trip in twelve hours. 

The year had been a peculiar one in Wisconsin. There had 
been severe frost at some time in every month during the en- 
tire summer. Corn and other produce was badly frostbitten, 
and by October first all vegetation was brown and dead. 

But there had been much rain in Minnesota, evidently pre- 
venting frosts; and when we crossed the great "Father of 
Waters" at La Crosse, much swollen and turbid, we were 
greeted by green foliage, and the freshness of spring. Vege- 
tation was rank, grass tender, crops good, foliage magnificent; 
and, boy-like, I at once fell in love with Minnesota. At that 
time the southern part of Waseca and Blue Earth counties was 
almost wholly uncultivated, producing a wonderful growth of 
wild grasses. 

"We crossed the Blue Earth river about thirty miles north of 
the Iowa line, and it then seemed that we had reached the very 
limit of civilization. One could look from the river west, south- 
west, and northwest, and except a few settlers' cabins near 
the river, not a sign of human life or habitation could be seen. 
In fact, the western part of Blue Earth, Faribault and Brown 
counties, and all of IMartin, Jackson, AYatonwan, Cottonwood, 
Rock, Nobles, Murray, and Pipestone, Redwood, Lyon and Lin- 
coln counties, were entirely unsettled, save for a few settlers 
along the Minnesota, Blue Eartli, AVatonwan, Des Moines and 
Rock rivers, and around the Chain lakes and lake Shetek. 

Our first impression was that we were entirely without 
neiglibors. The nearest settlers were a mile distant, and there 
were only four or five families nearer than four miles away. 
But we soon learned that we had neighbors, even though the 
distance was considerable. 


Frst one neighbor and then another would extend to every 
family in the vicinity an invitation to spend an afternoon or an 
evening. Someone would hitch his oxen to his wagon or sled, 
and, going from house to house, gather up a full load, and then, 
at the usual gait for such conveyances, we rode and visited 
until we reached the appointed place, where perhaps eight, ten 
or a dozen persons spent the afternoon or evening in the one 
little room where the meal was being prepared and the table 
spread. In this way many warm friendships were formed, 
never to be broken. Such neighbors are, as a mle, neighbors 
in fact, as well as in name. 

A man was asked, ''Why did you return to the west, after 
having gone back to New York, and having spent two years 
there?" His answer Avas, ''Neighbors! Would you want to 
spend your life where the people twenty feet away do not know 
your name, or care whether you live or die ? ^Ye used to have 
neighbors in the west, but when our baby died in New York 
not a person came near us, and we went to the cemetery alone. 
We thought we would come back home." 

How very many have had nearly the same experience ! On 
the frontier a settler becomes ill, and his grain is sown, other 
crops are planted, and the harvest is gathered. A widow buries 
her husband, and her experience is the same. Why is this? 
Because they have neighbors. It is no light thing for one to 
leave his harvest and go miles to save the crop of another, but 
it has been done times without number; and the neighborly 
sentiment, which prompts such kindly acts, counts for some- 
- thing in making up the sum total of human happiness in this 
short life of ours. 

What did we have to eat that year? Potatoes and corn, no 
flour, no meat, some milk. I doubt whether there was a barrel 
of flour within three miles of our home. No wheat had been 
raised, no hogs had been fattened ; corn and potatoes were the 
only food. 

In 1859, 18G0, and 1861, the Blue Earth valley was supplied 
with mail by a weekly stage route from. Mankato to Garden 
City, Yernon, Shelbyville, AVinnebago, and Blue Earth City. 
The post office for our country for miles around was Shelby- 


ville, then quite a promising village about two miles south of 
the present village of Amboy. 

We were five miles from Shelbyville, and to get our mail 
we must go this distance and cross the Blue Earth river, either 
in a canoe or by fording. I remember one occasion in the very 
early spring, when the river was scarcely free from ice and 
was much swollen, filling its banks. Five or six of us, neigh- 
bors, started for Shelbyville to get our mail, and to hear the 
postmaster read the news from a weekly St. Paul paper which 
came to him, there being at that time, I think, no newspaper 
taken west of the river. We reached the river, the ice had 
gone out, and the canoe was on the other side. We agreed to 
draw cuts and decide who should swim the river and get the 
canoe. The lot fell upon Jonah, and I have had chills ever 
since. I am not quite certain that the cuts were fairly held. 
Shelbyville is dead, very dead, and it is deserving of a parting 

The first religious service in our neighborhood was con- 
ducted in a little log school house near our home in the early 
summer of 1860, and was attended by very nearly the entire 
settlement. The men were nearly all in bare feet ; the women 
were dressed in drills and denims ; the children were compelled 
to stand for want of seats. 

In the autumn of 1860 large flocks of blackbirds, such as I 
think were never since seen in this country, attacked the corn 
crops and destro3^ed much corn. This was general over all 
southwestern ^linnesota. It is no exaggeration whatever, when 
I say that dense flocks would consume an entire day and even 
longer in flying over a given point. The state offered forty 
cents per hundred for their heads, many were poisoned, but 
apparently no benefit was accomplished. 

The same year sandhill cranes were so numerous, voracious, 
and bold, that they could scarcely be driven from the fields. 

The following spring of 1861, the water in the Blue Earth 
river rose twenty-six feet in forty-eight hours, breaking the 
record, I believe, for that eccentric stream, flooding the bot- 
toms, floating away much wood and fencing material gotten 
out by the farmers, and drowning several persons. One family 


living on the bottomland, wliose shanty was surrounded by 
water in the night, lost several children. 

Soon came the War of the Rebellion. i\[y older brother at 
once returned to Wisconsin and enlisted in the Third Wiscon- 
sin Volunteers. 

In 18G1 a state war tax of one dollar for each legal voter 
was levied. My father was a voter. It was not a very heavy 
emergency tax, to be sure, but my brother-in-law and myself 
worked an entire day and late into the night, with two teams of 
oxen, cutting a large saw log and hauling it to the mill at Shel- 
byville, which log we sold for a dollar in order to pay this tax. 

I enlisted on August 17, 1862, and on August 18 the Sioux 
Indian troubles began. There were no railroads, telegraph or 
telephone lines, but one stage line, and I could never under- 
stand how the reports of these troubles spread as rapidly as 
they did. Although the massacre began about sixty miles from 
us, yet on the 19th of August our whole country had reason- 
ably reliable information of the uprising. A neighbor came to 
our house in the night, neighbor went to neighbor, and so the 
news travelled. The men were in a fury of excitement and 
anxiety; the women and children were quaking with fear. 

Wagons were hastily loaded with women and children and 
a little food, animals were turned loose to provide themselves 
with food, houses were left unlocked, oxen were hitched to the 
wagons, and a general stampede was started toward the east, 
with all eyes turned toward the west. No one knew whither 
they were going; they only knew that they dare not stay. 

A halt was made at Shelbyville, the strongest buildings 
were selected for occupancy, the women and children were 
placed inside, and the men acted as pickets. In the whole 
country there were scarcely a dozen guns. 

Reports came worse and worse. New Ulm, twenty-five 
miles away, was attacked, and another stampede began for the 
east; some stopped at Wilton, Owatonna, and Rochester, and 
some, so far as was ever heard, are going yet. After waiting 
two or three weeks and hearing encouraging reports, some of 
the more venturesome returned to their homes with their fam- 
ilies, only to remain a few days, and were again driven away 



by the near proximity of the Indians and the sickening re- 
ports of their murders. What was true of our neighborhood 
was true of every settlement in all southwestern Minnesota. 

AYhen the stampede from our neighborhood started, my 
father drove our oxen with my mother and five children in the 
wagon. On reaching the Blue Earth river about four miles 
away, one of the oxen was taken sick, and could be driven no 
farther; he lay down and died. Here was a somewhat un- 
pleasant dilemma, but a swarthy young man in the caravan 
went into the woods and, as he put it, ''fiscated" a young un- 
broken steer, put him into the yoke, and make him work. 
When they returned several weeks afterward, the steer was 
turned loose where lie was found, and we have not yet ascer- 
tained whose property he was. 

The unsettled and terrifying conditions then existing con- 
tinued until late in the fall, when, under the general belief that 
the Indians would not move on the war path in the winter, the 
greater number of the settlers returned to their homes to save 
what they could of their nearly destroyed and wasted crops. 
Some of them, indeed quite many, never returned. "With feel- 
ings of partial security, and encouraged by their escape from 
slaughter thus far, the settlers remained at their homes, under 
an intense strain of anxiety but nearly undisturbed, until 1864, 
when rumors of Indian troubles were again heard ; but the set- 
tlers were not so easily terrified as before, and held their 

Many a day during this time my younger brothers and sis- 
ters sat upon the roof of our straw-covered cattle shed and 
watched for Indians, while father worked in the field. Little 
wonder, if some of the children of pioneer days became pre- 
maturely old and thoughtful. 

On the 11th day of August, 1864, after quite a long period 
of freedom from Indian disturbances, a party of eight or ten 
Indians suddenly appeared in the edge of the timber on the 
east side of the Blue Earth river, between Shelbyville and 
Vernon, and, taking wholly by surprise ^Ir. Noble G. Root and 
his two sons, who were stacking grain, shot and killed ^Tr. Root 
and seriously wounded one, and, as I think, both of his sons. 


The Indians then crossed the river in a westerly direction, 
reaching the open country where the ^Yillow Creek cemetery 
now is. On that day, 'Mr. Charles ]\Iack of Willow Creek, with 
his team and mower, had gone to the farm of Mr. Hindman, a 
near neighbor of ours a short distance from Willow Creek to 
mow hay for ^Mr. Hindman, who in exchange had gone to the 
farm of Mr. IMack to assist Mr. Jesse i\Iack in stacking grain. 
They were loading grain directly across the road from the 
cemetery, when, on looking toward the road, but a few rods 
away, they saw these Indians coming directl}^ toward them. 
They both hastily got upon the load, and Mr. Mack whipped 
his horses into a run, when, in crossing a dead furrow, Mr. 
Hindman was thrown from the load, pitchfork in hand, strik- 
ing upon his face in the stubble and dirt. Rubbing the dirt 
from his eyes as best he could, he started to run, and as soon 
as he was able to open his eyes and see, he discovered that he 
was running directly toward the Indians. He reversed the en- 
gine somewhat suddenly, put on a little more steam, and made 
splendid time in the other direction toward the creek bed, less 
than a quarter of a mile away. 

Once in the creek, the water in which was very low at that 
time, he followed the bed of the creek for nearly a quarter of 
a mile, and then stopped to rest and to wash the dirt and blood 
from his face. He then left the stream and started up the bluff 
on the opposite side, which was quite steep and covered thickly 
with timber and brush. Nearly at the top of the bluff he came 
to a little opening in the brush, and looking around about a 
hundred feet, he saw those Indians deliberately watching his 
approach. Utterly exhausted and unnerved, he dared not run ; 
he paused, and in a moment one of the Indians drew a large 
knife and started directly toward him. Concluding that his 
day of reckoning had come, he took the position of a soldier 
with his pitchfork at "charge bayonets" and awaited the ap- 
proach of the Indian, who came within a very few feet of him 
and stopped. Each stood, looked, and waited for the other to 
open the meeting; finally the Indian turned as if to retreat, 
and iMr. Hindman turned again toward the creek. He reached 
it. There was no official time-keeper, and the exact time is 



not recorded. He then followed the creek bed down to the 
house of ^Ir. Mack, where he found a pony belonging to him- 
self, which he had ridden there that morning, and started with 
all speed toward his own home, where he arrived just before 

His children were gone, his house ransacked, nearly every- 
thing broken or destroyed, and in the meadow a short distance 
from the house was the dead body of ]\Ir. Charles Mack. By 
this time darkness had set in. His wife had gone that day 
about two miles to the house of ^Ir. Jesse Thomas to attend a 
neighborhood quilting. He again mounted his pony and 
started across the prairie for that place. When about half the 
distance had been made, the pony looked sharply to one side 
and neighed loudly. i\Ir. Hindman looked through the semi- 
darkness in the direction indicated, and there, about two or 
three hundred feet away, were the Indians ; four of them were 
mounted, the others on foot. Mr. Hindman put whip and spur 
to his pony and ran him for nearly a mile, then he stopped in a 
valley to listen for the Indians; he did not hear them, and he 
has always insisted that he has never seen them since. 

On arriving at the home of Jesse Thomas he found it de- 
serted, ransacked, and nearly everything destroyed. 

It was later learned that his children saw the Indians at- 
tack Mr. Mack, that they ran from the house and secreted 
themselves in the very tall grass of the slough in which ]\Ir. 
Mack was mowing, and escaped with their lives. 

The ladies at the quilting had a visit from the Indians; they 
saw" them approaching from a belt of timber but a few rods 
away, and, escaping by a back door to the cornfield which came 
quite up to the house, all their lives were saved. 

No more honest, kindhearted and generous neighbors ever 
gave their lives in defense of their property and their families, 
than were Charles Mack and Noble G. Root. 

I need not dwell upon the furor of alarm which this Indian 
raid again caused in that settlement, and indeed all over south- 
western Minnesota. Many settlers again seriously contem- 
plated finally abandoning tlieir homes and property and flee- 
ing for their lives; they had nearly lost all faith in the assur- 


ances of protection by the public authorities. But squads of 
armed men were organized, the country was scoured, pickets 
were put out, the women and children were corralled as well as 
possible, and after a while confidence was again partially re- 

This was the last Indian raid into southwestern Minnesota, 
save the raid into Blue Earth county on the 2nd day of May, 
1865, in which the Jewett family in Rapidan were murdered, 
with the circumstances of which all are familiar. 

It has been written that the half-breed Campbell, who was 
hanged in Mankato for participation in this murder, ''was cap- 
tured by an armed citizen by the name of Dodge, and taken to 
Mankato." This is not correct. This man Dodge, whom I well 
knew, and who signed for enlistment in my company, was 
walking along a public road near Jones' Ford, going toward 
Mankato about three miles away, when he fell in with Camp- 
bell going in the same direction. Nothing was said or done in 
the way of a capture, but Campbell's actions and talk were 
such as to create suspicion that he knew of the killing of the 
Jewett family. On arriving at Mankato, Dodge related his ex- 
perience and suspicions, and Campbell was then taken into cus- 
tody. Campbell was on his way to Kasota at the time, where 
his mother then lived. He was tried a few days after this mur- 
der on the Court House lawn in Mankato, by a sort of drum- 
head court-martial, and tlien and there was executed by being 
hanged to a tree. 

William J. Jewett, who was a baby in arms when this fam- 
ily was murdered, and who was struck upon the head and left 
for dead, but who of the entire family survived, was this last 
summer killed in an automobile accident in the suburbs of 

I have said that I enlisted on August 17, 1862. We were 
mustered on the 19th and assigned as Company D of the Ninth 
Minnesota, but we did not meet the other companies of our 
regiment for more than a year thereafter. On the very day of 
our muster we learned of the Indian outbreak at the Lower 
Agency, and our company was ordered to march at once to St. 


-Company D was made up very largely of farmer boys right 
from the harvest fields, dressed in denims and straw hats, some 
in bare feet, and we were not in first class marching order, nor 
very presentable. Uniforms and Government clothing could 
not be had, and, more than this, the only arms with which we 
could then be furnished were old Austrian and Belgian mus- 
kets, which had been stored and poorly cared for since the war 
of 1812. Very many of the muskets were utterly useless as fire- 

Notwithstanding these little deficiencies in our make-up, we 
made a forced march to St. Peter, looking more like a squad of 
Missouri bushwackers than Union soldiers. On our arrival at 
St. Peter we at once dug a line of rifle pits along the crown of 
the bluffs, extending from the present location of the Insane 
Hospital on the soutli to the Minnesota river on the north ; and 
we spent the fall and winter in drilling, picketing in the rifle 
pits, and scouting the country toward New Ulm and Fort 
Ridgely and in the vicinity of Swan lake. I w^ell remember 
that there w^ere brought into St. Peter a woman and children 
who had been found hiding in the tall grass and rushes near 
their house which was yet burning, the husband and father hav- 
ing been killed. 

After the second battle at New Ulm, and when that city 
was evacuated, there came over the hill on the New Ulm road 
and into St. Peter, very early one morning, a very large num- 
ber of men, women and children, with horse teams, or oxen, on 
horseback and on foot, a veritable mob or rabble which had 
b^en on the road all night coming from New Ulm to St. Peter, 
in imminent peril of their lives. Two large stone warehouses 
stood on the river front at St. Peter, and these were hastily 
converted into barracks and what we then called ''soup 
houses" for these refugees, where they remained a long time. 
We so called these quarters because for want of sufficient ra- 
tions, on which to feed tliese people, they were fed largely on 
soup made in great kettles as the cheapest food and that which 
would make the food supply go farthest. The old Court House, 
a frame building not far from the Episcopal churcli, was con- 
verted into a hospital for the sick and wounded, of which there 


were many, the patients lying upon the floors for want of beds 
or cots. 

"We were diligently and persistently drilled in military ma- 
neuvers through the entire winter, and became quite proficient. 
"While as a steady diet we did not enjoy these drills, there were 
some amusing experiences. A company of German cavalry was 
there, and their orders on drill were given in German. Our 
infantry company and the German cavalry company would fre- 
quently have a sham battle. The infantry would advance, de- 
ploy as skirmishers, and the cavalry would charge us with their 
horses on the run. The infantry would rally on the center, and, 
as the cavalry came near, fire with blank cartridges; then the 
horses would throAV their riders and run away. This was too 
strenuous work for the cavalry and we discontinued it. The 
hospital was fast filling with injured cavalry men, and the 
horses were not at all schooled to their work by this manner 
of drill. 

A little incident illustrates the freight problem then and 
now. I was at a ford on the Minnesota river. A man came 
along with a team of oxen and a wagon loaded with cook 
stoves. He crossed the river and in going up a sharp hill the 
chain broke, the wagon ran back, tipped over upon the stones, 
and every stove was broken. The man was about ready to 
have a nervous collapse. He said that he had gone from Man- 
kato to St. Paul for this load of stoves for a Mankato dealer, 
had been on the road two weeks, that he was perfectly willing 
to lose his time and expenses, and to ask no compensation, but 
that if he should be required to pay for the stoves, it would 
take all the property he had on earth. I hope that he was not 
required to pay for the stoves. 

"While at St. Peter, in the early part of December, 1862, a 
few of us learned, by grapevine telegraph, late one afternoon, 
that an effort was to be made the following evening by the 
citizens of Mankato, New Ulm, and vicinity, to kill the Indian 
prisoners, three hundred and more, then in camp at Mankato 
near the present site of Sibley Park. As no admission fee was 
to be charged, tlie select few determined to attenJ the enter- 
tainment. After dark we corrupted a wagon-master, secured 


a team of Government mules and a wagon, and started for Man- 
kato, where we arrived about nine o'clock in the evening. I 
have never seen a correct history of this fiasco in print. 

The headquarters of the blood-thirsty citizens was the old 
Mankato House, located where the National Citizens' Bank 
now stands, and liquid refreshments were being served liber- 
ally, without money and without price. A very large crowd 
had gathered, but there seemed to be no great haste to march 
on the Indian camp. Several times a start was made by a 
squad of fifty or a hundred persons, who would proceed for a 
few hundred feet and then halt, finally returning for more 

Nearly at midnight the supply of refreshments must have 
become exhausted, for the army moved. Several hundred of 
the citizens started south along Front Street for the Indian 
camp, straggling along a distance of several blocks. When the 
head of the column reached West Mankato, it halted until the 
rear came up, and while a rambling discussion was going on as 
to just what they should do, and how they should do it, Cap- 
tain (since Governor) Austin and his company of cavalry sur- 
rounded the whole squad and ordered them to move on toward 
Colonel (since Governor) Miller's headquarters, right at the 
Indian camp, where now they seemed reluctant to go and re- 
fused to move. 

Captain Austin ordered his men to close in, which they did, 
crowding the citizens, and yet they refused to move. Finally 
he gave the command "Draw sabers," and when a hundred 
sabers came out in one movement, the army again moved on 
Colonel Miller's headquarters at the Indian camp. 

The scene there was supremely ridiculous. Colonel Miller 
came out from his tent and spoke kindly to the citizens, and 
asked why they had congregated in such large numbers. 
Every one who answered at all insisted that their mission was 
wholly peaceful, being utterly ignorant of any evil designs, 
and finally the Colonel ordered their release and suggested 
that they go home, which they hastened to do. 

The next morning these Indians were removed, und<^r guard 
of all the troops in the city, to log barracks which fed been 


built for tliem on Front street, diagonally across the street 
from where the Saulpaugh Hotel now stands. The removal 
was accomplished without incident, except that occasionally 
an epithet was hurled at the soldiers for being engaged in 
guarding and protecting the Indians. 

These barracks were occupied by the Indians only about 
two weeks. They had been there little more than a week, when 
the officer of the day, making his morning inspection, which 
was very formal, thought that he saw a hatchet or a knife un- 
der the blanket of one of thQ Indians. AYithout a change of 
countenance or a suspicious movement he proceeded in the in- 
spection until it was completed, retired from the barracks, and 
at once caused to be quietly mustered around the barracks 
every soldier in the city with loaded guns and fixed bayonets. 
Then with a squad of soldiers he entered the barracks, and, 
searching every Indian, secured a large number of hatchets, 
knives, clubs, and other weapons. These weapons, it was 
learned, had been gotten at the Winnebago Agency, about 
twelves miles from ]\Iankato, by several squaws who prepared 
food for these Indians, and who were allowed to go to the 
woods to gather fuel for their fires. 

Immediately after this discovery the Indians who were un- 
der sentence of death were removed to a stone building but a 
few feet distant, where they were kept under heavy guard. 
The guard which had been kept around the barracks had been 
comparatively light, and had the Indians moved in the night 
time before their plans were discovered, they would probably 
have escaped. 

A few days after this incident, my company came from St. 
Peter to :Mankato on December 26, 1862, to act as a guard on 
one side of the scatlold at the execution of the thirty-eight 
Indians who were then hanged, about one hundred and fifty 
feet nortlierly from the location of the Saulpaugh Hotel, and 
between Front street and the river, of which execution so 
much has been written and said. 

In the very early spring of 1863 my company was ordered 
from St. Peter to Judson on the southwest side of the ]\linne- 
sota river, very near where Judson station now is, about mid- 


way between Mankato and New Ulm. There we built a sod 
fort about 150 feet square and about ten feet high, making an 
excellent fort for resisting Indian attacks, and we there re- 
mained until May of that year, scouting the prairies and tim- 
ber lands, and bearing dispatches between New Ulm, St. Peter, 
South Bend, and Mankato. The remains of the fort can still 
be seen, and an engineer's draft of it is in the files of this His- 
torical Society. 

While in this fort I was on one occasion ordered to go to 
the stables, saddle the fleetest mule, and carry certain impor- 
tant dispatches to Mankato. Riding mules was not my long 
suit, but I obeyed. I had proceeded about two miles, when I 
came to a narrow bridge which my mule refused to cross. AVe 
fought it out and the mule conquered. I succeeded in getting 
him so unmanagable that he turned and ran back to Judson 
with me, in spite of all that I could do. I was so mortified that, 
rather than go to the fort, I let him go direct to the stables, 
where I dismounted and secured a driver's "black snake." 
Remounting, I applied it so vigorously that when we reached 
the bridge the second time, neither of us knew it. I was com- 
plimented for making such excellent time. 

In early May, 1863, one platoon of our company was or- 
dered to Fairmont in Martin county, and the other platoon to 
a small prairie lake in the same county, then called Chanyaska 
lake, about eleven miles northwest from Fairmont and a short 
distance north of Elm creek. 

I was with the platoon under Captain Skaro, which w^as 
ordered to Fairmont. We marched from Judson by the way 
of Garden City, Vernon Center, and Shelbyville to Winnebago 
City, and from there we marched across the prairie as nearly 
in a direct line as possible to Fairmont. If there were any 
roads, we did not see them ; our course the whole distance, w^as 
through prairie grass. 

We approached Fairmont from a northeasterly direction. 
Halting on a hill or elevation a short distance from there, we 
caught the first sight of our destination. From this standpoint 
the landscape was most beautiful and attractive. 

To the east from wlience we came could be seen a sea of 
rolling prairie, with the timber on the Blue Earth river eigli- 



teen or twenty miles away, and extending from the Blue Earth 
county line southerly to Blue Earth City and beyond. To the 
south our vision extended across the prairies to the Iowa line, 
with the timber of East Chain lakes as the only obstruction to 
our view. To the north was Elm creek, which could be traced 
by the skirting trees from a distance west of the Central Chain 
lakes in an easterly direction to the Blue Earth river, with the 
mounds in Blue Earth county, near which I lived, plainly visi- 
ble beyond the valley of Elm creek, twenty miles away. To 
the west, as placid as molten silver, were seen the waters of 
two of the Central Chain lakes, and the timber skirting two 
or three more, beyond which was an endless sea of rolling 

Immediately in our front, sleepy and quiet, was the little 
log fort which we were to occupy. The few little homes upon 
the lakes then occupied, were hidden in the woods, and the lit- 
tle fort was the only visible evidence of the handiwork of man. 

The fort was located just southerly from the present beau- 
tiful Court House, the westerly wall running about parallel 
with the high bluff of the lake shore, and about fifty feet from 
where the bluff begins to descend toward the lake. It was 
constructed of large, long logs, and was about eight feet high 
and a hundred and fifty feet square ; it enclosed the first Mar- 
tin county court house, which was used by us as a mess room. 
This Court House was about 18 by 24 feet, built of boards, one 
story high, and is there yet, just to the south of the Court 
House grounds, and should be preserved. 

This fort had just been vacated by a company of Wisconsin 
cavalry in anticipation of our arrival. _A draft of this fort 
made by government engineers is now in the files of this So- 

We found on investigation that we had inherited from the 
cavalry company two canoes and a small flat boat, wiiich were 
lying at vrhat is now the boat landing on Sisseton lake. These 
boats furnished us with very much amusement. It was a fa- 
vorite pastime to engage in naval battles, the two canoes 
against the fiat boat, and more than once I found myself and 
canoe tipped over in the middle of the lake, my paddle cap- 
tured, and T left to get ashore as best I could. 




The platoon ordered to Clianyaska lake, under command of 
Lieutenant Patton, arrived there about the time that we 
reached Fairmont. This was a shallow prairie lake, with 
heavy marsh grass all around it, and was literally alive w^ith 
geese, brant, and ducks, and quite frequently large swans could 
be seen upon its waters. This platoon constructed a sod fort 
near the shore of the lake much like the fort we had built at 

About once in each month our platoons changed locations, 
so that each platoon was in each fort about an equal length of 
time. Our duties consisted of scouting the prairies to the west 
of us for Indians, but not one was seen by us that summer. 

A line of forts was constructed and occupied that sum- 
mer, extending from the Iowa boundary northerly to Fort 
Abercrombie, and cavalry scouts frequently passed along this 
line, carrying our mails, and keeping us posted as to Indian 

Captain McLeod, General Sibley's chief of scouts, a very 
congenial man, frequently visited us. 

AYe had a few good musicians in our company and we de- 
termined to have a celebration at Fairmont on July fourth, 
and a dance in the evening. We invited our friends and rela- 
tives all along the line from Blue Earth City to St. Peter, and 
I think that about every one came. Our barracks, which we 
surrendered to the ladies, were filled tO overflowing. AYe sol- 
diers slept upon the stable roofs, the ground, in our boats, 
everywhere and anywhere; but, because of the mosquitoes, the 
most of us slept nowhere. The platoon from Chanyaska came 
over and we had a royal time, rounded out with an all-night 

The day before the 4th, six of us went out on lake Sisseton 
and lake George with our three boats and killed thirty-six 
geese ; another detail of men caught fish in abundance ; and on 
the fourtli our meals were mostly fish and goose, goose and fisli, 
boiled, fried, baked, stewed, and broiled. 

The unusual movement of Indians and troops on the west- 
ern plains that summer seemed to disturb and break up the 
usually large herds of buffaloes which roamed there, dividing 


them into smaller herds which wandered in many directions. 
On two occasions in the early morning our pickets discovered 
buffaloes across Sisseton lake to the west of us, on one occasion 
two, and on another three. We immediately organized hunt- 
ing paties, succeeded in killing all of them, and enjoyed the 
novelty of buffalo steak very much. 

We had one horse which belonged to one of our officers, 
and on one of these occasions there was a peddler at our fort 
who drove an old and somewhat crippled horse. These horses 
were both taken by the soldiers on the buffalo hunt. The man 
riding the peddler's horse approached quite near a buffalo 
after we had surrounded him, and fired, wounding the buf- 
falo, which quickly lowered his head and charged directly at 
him. It was with the greatest effort that this man succeeded 
in getting the machinery of that horse in motion quick enough 
to escape being caught; both man and horse then and there 
retired from, the field. 

We succeeded, at both of our forts, in catching alive foxes, 
prairie chickens, quails, cranes, geese, and an endless variety 
of ducks, making really an interesting collection, which we 
kept in cages and pens, cared for and fed, until we turned 
them over to our successors. We also had a tame hawk at each 
fort, wings entirely uncut, at liberty to come and go as they 
would, but they were the most tame of any of our collection, 
and came long distances to answer the bugle call for meals. 

At our fort at Fairmont we learned a lesson in order which 
I think none of us have ever quite forgotten. One dark night 
after midnight the drum sounded the long roll, which means 
*'An attack, get into line cpiick!" Things had been going 
smooth, and we had gotten extremely careless in the location 
of our clothing on retiring to bed, and such confusion as this 
call caused can hardly be imagined. I jumped from the upper 
bunk which I occupied, and fell straddle of the neck of an 
occupant of the lower bunk, who was trying to get on one of 
my shoes; the other one I could not find. In fifteen minutes 
from the first tap of the drum we were in line, some without 
shoes, some without hats, several without guns, nearly all in a 
partial state of undress, only to receive a well deserved scold- 
ing for our utter disorder. 



After two more similar experiments, we could, in utter 
darkness, get into line of battle, fully equipped, in three min- 
utes from the first tap of the drum. I am still inclined to prac- 
tice the lesson I th-en learned. 

About the first of October we were relieved by a company 
of Minnesota cavalry, and were ordered to join our regiment 
at Fort Snelling and go south. 

On the 8th day of October, 18G3, there stood upon the hur- 
ricane deck of a steamer gently steaming down the ]\Iississippi 
river past Lake City, where the present generation of soldier 
boys are wont to camp, and toward the Sunny Southland then 
grim with the smoke of battle, eight healthy, cheerful and light- 
hearted soldier boys, discussing the question whether we, and 
how many of us, would ever see Fairmont again. 

One lies buried at Benton Barracks, ^Missouri; one sleeps in 
the Soldiers' Cemetery at ^lemphis, with seventy-two thou- 
sand loyal comrades; five went to a soldier's death under the 
scorching sun, within the prison stockade at Andersonville. I 
alone, of all these, was privileged to look again upon Fairmont 
and those beautiful lakes. 

About the time of the close of the war, immigration became 
brisk, many new settlers came into southwestern ^linnesota, 
and signs of thrift and prosperity were for the first time mani- 
fest in all directions. In the years 1866 and 1867 there Avas a 
veritable farmers' boom throughout all the country; much new 
land was broken and much building done. All of the grain 
crop seemed to be needed for bread, seed, and feed for the 
newcomers. There was no occasion to haul produce to market. 
It was all eagerly taken at the farm. 

There was in 1866 a splendid crop of everything. AVlieat 
sold at the farm in the spring of 1867 at $2.00 to $3.00 per 
bushel; oats at 50 to 75 cents; potatoes at $1.00 and upward, 
and everytliing else accordingly. This caused a great increase 
in acreage of producing ground, which was increased many- 
fold. Some said that wheat would never go below $2.00 again. 

IIow about the result of all this? The crop of 1867 was a 
very bountiful one. Farmers were eom{)elled to pay from $3.00 
to $3,50 per day each for six or seven harvest hands to follow 


the old hand rake or self rake reapers, and the wheat crop sold 
at 35 to 55 cents per bushel. Debts had been created for new 
machinery at high prices and high rates of interest. Low 
prices of produce prevailed for many years, and the result was 
an extended period of great depression and very hard times. 
Many farms were lost under mortgages, and many of the early 
settlers were compelled to go elsewhere and start again. 

A true pioneer is very seldom fitted to compete with the 
more shrewd and experienced man of the world. Pie is as a 
rule quite unable to reason from cause to effect, or to foresee 
approaching conditions and profit thereby. He is quite incom- 
petent to deal with the average business man at arm's length, 
and tlie result is inevitably "the survival of the fittest," as 
has been very heartlessly said. He sutlers hardship and priva- 
tion, sometimes starvation and death, to open and develop 
some garden spot on this earth, only to be crowded out by his 
more shrewd successor, who lives to enjoy the fruits of his toil. 

In this day and age of great and rapid transitions, of in- 
dustrial and commercial war, wonderful inventions and intense 
life, when the industrial, commercial and social world is going 
at such a furious pace, let us not forget that the pioneers of all 
this country, both east and west, made all this possible ; yes 
indeed, made this country. They are the people who made 
this great state, and who are entitled to the credit for pretty 
nearly all that is good and worthy in it. 

They came in the days when men across the great river 
hitched oxen to covered wagons, and with their families and 
household goods drove over corduroy roads, tlu^ough sloughs 
and sand, tlirough forests and over prairies, across half a con- 
tinent to the frontier beyond. ]Mere girls and boys driving 
teams and following cows, as joyous as if life was one long 
holiday; tired women, gazing from under the canvas tops, 
wondering whither bound; children as ruddy as cherries, 
first riding and then running alongside, — all were chasing the 
setting sun. 

Stories of trampling of fighters on the march and in the 
clash of arms, there are in plenty, surrounded hy all the ro- 
mance and glamour of which poets love to sing; but because 


these heroes and heroines of pioneer days went forth from our 
own borders, because they shed a martyr's blood without a 
martyr's prayer or a martyr's whine, because, when they won 
the game of life's battle, they were dust grimed, ragged vic- 
tors, because they were heroes and heroines of the common- 
place, their history is largely unwritten. 

It is easier to be a hero of the regiment, marching in uni- 
form and pomp to the music of the trombone and tuba, than a 
hero of the spade and the axe, the milk-pail and the frying-pan. 
Yet the conquest of the frontier was wrought by the heroes 
and heroines of the homespun, by the men and women, too, 
with rifle in one hand, and the implements of toil in the other. 

Of no class is this more true than of the early settlers of 
southwestern Minnesota, men and women with muscles of iron 
and nerves of steel. 

"He is swart from the glow of the merciless sun, 
And his muscles are sore from the work he has done; 
He has builded his home where the prairie wolves roam; 
He's the hewer, the blazer of trails. 

He is crude with the strength of the seeker of toil, 
From the hot barren wastes he is gathering spoil. 
For a nation that lives from the bounty he gives; 
He's the builder, the winner of ways. 

Where the silent wastes bake in the summer's hot glow. 
Where the forests are choked in the shroud of the snow. 
By his brain and his brawn a new nation is born; 
He goes forward to conquer new realms. 

And the world has its heroes of lace and gold braid, 

That are honored and wined for the waste they have made; 

But the world little knows of the debt that it owes 

To the hewer, the blazer of trails." 


Vol. XV. Tlatk XI T. 



When Fort Sumter was fired upon and the greatest war of 
history was launched by the Southern Confederacy, it aroused 
determined opposition over the northern states and created a 
patriotic warlike feeling that perhaps has never been equalled 
in history, for defense of the American Republic against im- 
pending division and destruction. At the same time, it created 
also a feeling of depression and disappointment that might be 
likened to the appearance of the sun in time of a total eclipse. 

As the war progressed and vast armies were called out on 
both sides, nearly every family in the north Avas filled with 
apprehension as to some member of the family or relatives or 
friends that were in the army and subject to more than even 
chances of being killed or severely wounded. It clouded every 
household. The wheels of industry, trade and commerce, in 
fact all occupations, seemed almost entirely to stand still, ex- 
cepting the routine work of the farmer. The call for 75,000 
men brought out one or two hundred thousand volunteers more 
than were called for; and it took so many men from the col- 
leges of the country, and caused so much discouragement, that 
some of the colleges were closed. 

I joined two Ohio military companies, and, as a represent- 
ative of them, used up a month or two trying to get either one 
of them into camp at Cleveland. But all the time, when prom- 
ised the next vacancy, companies would come in from different 
parts of the state witliout permission and would more than fill 
all vacant quarters. 

I had shipped to Grand Rapids and Chicago several car- 
loads of grindstones, which constituted all the capital that T 

•Read at the Annual Meeting of this Society, January 12, 1914. 


possessed, mostly earned by work in the hardwood forests of 
northeastern Ohio. Finding that the feeling of disappointment 
and destruction of trade, during the first year of the war, had 
led those to whom the grindstones were sold to refuse to take 
them, I started AVest to look after them. First I went to Mich- 
igan, and finding that the men who had bought the grindstones 
at Grand Rapids would not receive them, and that no others 
would take them at any price, I was compelled to retail them 
to the farmers through western and central ^Michigan, taking 
them by team through the country and selling them singly at 
reduced prices. Then going westward to Chicago, I found it 
impossible to sell the grindstones there, located on the wharf, 
to anyone at any price, so I went to Milwaukee, hoping that 
the big firm of Nazro would purchase them. But neither he 
nor any other hardware dealer could see any object in pur- 
chasing them, as trade was almost entirely dead. I then went 
westward to ]\Iadison, and found it as impossible there to sell 
as it had been in the other places; and as I could not sell the 
grindstones, it became necessary to seek employment to gain a 

Having spent a number of years in the study of the sciences, 
particularly of mathematics, mostly outside of school but car- 
ried on to a knowledge of the higher branches, I thought teach- 
ing along that line would be of interest to me, both in pursu- 
ing my studies further and in securing a livelihood. I therefore 
went to the home of the president of the University of AVis- 
consin and called to see him. His very pleasant and queenly 
appearing wife told me to be seated in the library and she 
would bring the president from down in the grove, in which 
the house was situated. He had quite a considerable collec- 
tion of books on his library shelves, and among them I was sur- 
prised to find Newton's Priucii)ia, which I had never found in 
any library before, with one exception. I had taken down this 
book and was looking it over, when the president came in, in 
his slippers and dressing gown, and without my knowing of 
his coming. He looked over my shoulder and saw the book I 
had in my hand, and wanted to know what I was doing with 
that. I said to him that I wanted to find out if he had studied 


it, and how far he liad succeeded in getting. Having told me 
how far he had gone, he questioned me about a problem or 
scholium that he, and even those who had for several years 
studied the Principia in Yale or Harvard, had never been able 
to solve. Upon my showing him that I had succeeded and had 
proved it to Professor Schuyler of Baldwin University, he then 
inquired what I knew about Schuyler. I told him that I was 
from Berea, where Dr. Schuyler was professor of mathematics 
in Baldwin University. To this he said that Professor Schuyler 
had written a very admirable series of textbooks on mathe- 

AYhen I told him that I would like a position to teach mathe- 
matics, it struck him more than favorably, as he said that that 
was his line of work, and that it did not give him any time to 
run the university and he wanted some one to handle the 
classes. Y'e went around with his horse and buggy among the 
members of the Board, and I found that the general scare 
which everywhere existed made them hesitate about making 
any arrangements for the future running of the school, not 
knowing whether or not it would ever open again. The presi- 
dent, whose name I have forgotten, said that when school 
would open again, which he hoped would be in the fall, he felt 
quite certain that I vrould be offered a position as assistant 
teacher in mathematics. A majority of the board were really 
in favor of engaging me, and the other members were not op- 
posed, excepting only their apprehension as to future pros- 
pects of the university in such calamitous times. This came to 
pass in the fall, when I was on the government surveys in the 
northern part of Minnesota and could not accept. If this open- 
ing had occurred or had been decided upon before I came to 
this state, it would without doubt have changed the course of 
my whole life. 

I then went westward to ^McGregor Landing. On the way 
I stopped at several places, but could find no market for my 
grindstones as far as Prairie du Chien. As ^McGregor was the 
liveliest little town in the "West, the farmers coming in for fifty 
or a hundred miles with their grain and to buy their goods, I 
went there witli more hope of selling. I stayed there one day 
but could sell no grindstones. 


In the evening, in front of the hotel, a very plain but 
friendly appearing man sat down beside me and explained that 
he was in charge of lumber rafts, coming down the river from 
the city of Minneapolis. Upon inquiring of him where Min- 
neapolis was, he was perfectly astonished that I, an American 
citizen, did not know where the great town of Minneapolis v>'as 
located. But after excusing and explaining, I learned a great 
many other things of importance pertaining to this Northwest 
and particularly Minneapolis. I learned that Mr. George B. 
AVright, the principal government surveyor of this region, was 
going with a party to survey a large tract of land for the gov- 
ernment. Upon inquiring about it, I concluded to go to Min- 
neapolis to see him, as my health was somewhat out and I was 
in need of employment, particularly because I could not sell 
my grindstones that were piled up in Chicago. Upon learning 
from the landlord, who sat on the other side of me, that the 
steamer, Diamond Joe," the best steamer on the river, was 
due about this time, on the way to St. Paul, and hearing, while 
he w'as explaining this, the old bull whistle of Diamond Joe, 
that rolled up and down the river for thirty miles in favorable 
weather, begin bellowing about five miles below, and upon be- 
ing informed that the boat sometimes did not even throw the 
gangplank unless passengers or freight appeared on the dock, 
I settled with the landlord for my hotel bill, for which I had 
previously arranged rates, and when the boat landed, which it 
did for an hour or so, I secured my passage in a good, airy, 
pleasant state room. On the upper deck I found a very capa- 
ble business man going through to Minnesota, with whom I 
had a very pleasant acquaintance and from whom I gained 
many points of interest and value in practical life. 

In St. Paul I tried again to sell my grindstones. I then 
went to Minneapolis, and not wishing to get rid of the extra 
quarter of bus fare, I carried my satchel from the east side 
station over to Minneapolis, across the suspension bridge, for 
which I had to pay five cents toil. I tried there to sell the 
grindstones, but none were wanted. Mr. Curtis 11. Pettit, who 
kept the hardware store nearest to the bridge, remembers my 
coming and often speaks of it, as I carried my hand satchel 


with me and presented myself to him at his front door, where 
he was standing without a single customer in his store, and 
perhaps not one had been there that day. 

The war had paralyzed everything in the way of business 
and industry, except that of the farmer, who used his old tools 
and machinery without purchasing anything more to work 
with. I arranged with ]\Ir. Wright to go on the surveys with 
him, and then having made a sale, deal or trade with D. C. 
Jones, the agricultural dealer of St. Paul, for the two carloads 
of grindstones in Chicago, I went back to arrange for this ship- 
ment and to arrange some matters in Michigan, and came back 
to Minnes\)ta in time to deliver and settle for the grindstones 
before the surveying party was to start. 

"When my stock of grindstones, which I had sold or traded 
to Mr. Jones, arrived at the wharf in St. Paul, I was present, 
and Mr. Jones brought his contract to the wharf and directed 
the clerk to supervise the handling of the grindstones and to 
take out of the lot the nicked and spalled ones. When they 
were being unloaded I Avas there and met the clerk, who seemed 
to be a very pleasant, capable and straightforward young man, 
who showed me his directions for sorting out the nicked and 
"spalled ones. After he got through with the sorting and had 
not had occasion to take out any of them on account of their 
being damaged, he said that several had some little nicks but 
not one was damaged so much that it was not worth more than 
any other grindstones of their size which he had ever seen come 
into St. Paul; and hence there was no dockage, as he said the 
lot was freer from shot or hard spots than any he had ever 
seen. I was somewhat interested in his frank appearance, ac- 
tivity, and apparent ability, and asked him what wages he was 
receiving. He informed me that he was getting $75 a month, 
and upon inquiry as to whether that represented the current 
wages here, he informed me that it was not by any means the 
case, but that when he came three years before, he worked for 
only $20 a month to begin with, and that they had granted 
freely an advance to this point, and he explained that it was 
because he liad made himself so useful that they could not get 
along without him. Upon my wanting to get more of his name 


than ''Jim," I was informed that the more complete title that 
he was known by was Jim Hill. 

Twenty-eight years afterwards, I went with Bierstadt, the 
painter, at the time of the exposition in Minneapolis, to see 
Mr. Hill's art gallery. He took us in person up to his house, 
and went so far as to give us prices and history of the pictures ; 
and at lunch, which we took at his house, he asked me if I 
remembered the circumstances of our first meeting down on 
the wharf, when he was clerk for Borup & Oakes, and when I 
shipped those grindstones that he was assigned to sort out. I 
told him I certainly did, and he thereupon said that it was the 
finest lot of grindstones, the freest from nicks and spalls, the 
best in shape, freest from shot, with the truest eyes and smooth- 
est surfaces, that he had ever seen, and told me who had pur- 
chased them. 

The explanation to his key to success, expressed by making 
himself so useful that they could not get along without him, 
represents characteristic features, which, added to his com- 
manding abilities and matchless energy, have made his life- 
work most useful and helpful, from a material, industrial, and 
economic point of view, and quite comparable to that of any 
person in this country. 

Sir AVilliam Van Horne, the American-born citizen, who 
performed valuable services in building railways in Canada, 
for which he was honored and credited for services to his coun- 
try, which were much less than ^Ir. James J. Hill's contribu- 
tion to this country, said to me a couple of years ago in New 
York city, and repeated subsequently the same last year here 
at my home, that ]\Ir. Hill's services in the development and 
settlement of the Northwest are not to any worthy extent ap- 
preciated and cannot be estimated, that his integrity and re- 
liability as to all trusts and confidence placed in his hands cause 
him to be more relied upon than anyone with whom he ever 
became sufficiently acquainted to make a definite comparison. 

He said, '* Perhaps you are better acquainted with ^Ir. Hill 
and know his character and history better, and he has per- 
liaps more confidence and good will toward you than to any 
of us, yet 1 know him from a railroad and transportation point 



of view better than anyone else." He illustrated his views by 
saying, "If I were suddenly called upon to select an adminis- 
trator, and Hill were present, and I should ask him to act for 
my estate, he would not care to undertake that additional trust, 
but would do so if I asked him ; and when he had accepted, I 
will say that there would not be the slightest scruple about 
leaving my affairs in his hands. I should know that even the 
benefit of doubts would go to my estate, and that a complete 
and satisfactory business method would be used in the adjust- 
ment of all affairs. All the millions of money tliat have been 
placed in his hands to build railways with have been most 
faithfully and conscientiously used to carry forward to a suc- 
cessful termination the object in view. In pursuing his rail- 
way affairs, whoever or whatever gets in his way must get out. 
If he comes to mountains, he goes around them, over them, or 
through them, the best way to get there. His life-work in this 
Northwest has been invaluable to the people, far beyond their 
appreciation of his services." But Sir AVilliam Van Horne fur- 
ther said, "AYhen it comes to competition with 'Mr. Hill in the 
railway business, well, the last time I met him in New York 
city, on Wall Street, we took luncheon together and we passed 
a very pleasant hour of time; but, I pledge you, we never 
passed a word regarding railroads, or traffic arrangements, or 
anything pertaining to them." 

On the 15th of August, 1862, I was in Minneapolis and 
helped Mr. "Wright in his outfitting, and started on the 20th 
of August for the government surveys. AYe were met, just as 
we arrived opposite St. Cloud, with the news of the fearful out- 
break of the Sioux Indians and tlie murder and massacre of so 
many of the settlers, which was even exaggerated beyond its 
actual and fearful proportions. We continued on our journey 
to Fort Ripley and stayed there, standing guard with a view 
to defend the fort against an army of Sioux that were reported 
coming from tlie New Ulm country, the region of the outbreak, 
and also against an additional force of Chippewas who were 
reported as coming down from Leech lake to attack the fort. 

On oar way from St. Cloud to Little Falls, we met the Chip- 
pewa agent, Lucius C. Walker, coming down in a buggy with 


his driver, and he seemed not so much excited as instead to 
have a rather apprehensive look, saying that the Indians were 
trailing him down and were then going down parallel to the 
road that we were on, but two or three miles farther east, on 
the old Indian trail from Crow AYing to St. Cloud. He waite.d 
a little and told us about this, and then proceeded on to- St. 
Cloud, where he left his buggy and took a saddle horse, and, 
with his revolver for defense, continued his travel down the 
road. About three miles below Big Lake, his body was after- 
ward found by the roadside, with a bullet through his head 
and from such direction and evident distance that John Arm- 
strong, the wood dealer, who found him, said the shot came 
from a more distant place than would be possible if he had shot 

The real facts of the death of Agent AYalker were never 
definitely known, but there were two theories, one that he shot 
himself, as one barrel of his revolver was emptied, and from a 
reported bad record in his Indian Agency affairs. This record 
was afterward found to be perfectly straight, and no reason 
whatever was found in his family or business affairs that would 
have the slightest tendency to lead him to commit suicide. The 
other theory was that the Indians killed him. 

After our surveying crew had remained at Fort Ripley for 
some time, we came away and the party disbanded. George B. 
Wright and myself took the job of examining land grants for 
the St. Paul and Pacific railroad company, north of IMinne- 
apolis and St. Paul and extending above St. Cloud on the east 
and west side of the river. 

After returning from the work on the railway lands, I went 
into the office of Levi M. Stewart, in the Dayton Block, on 
Washington avenue and Helen street (now Second avenue 
south), to continue my studies that I had been pursuing during 
my spare time for three or four years. AYhile there, I became 
acquainted with AY. S. Chapman and Henry T. AYelles, the two 
most prominent capitalists and business men then in Minne- 
apolis. ]\Ir. Stewart was attorney for ^Ir. Chapman, who came 
there almost every day about land matters, and I became quite 
well acquainted with him, and having heard considerable about 



the pine timber, although I had not seen any of it, I advised 
him to secure land scrip and let me locate timber on joint ac- 
count, with payments of principal and interest on my part to 
be made from the sale of the timber or logs. Mr. Chapman 
readily agreed to this, and he began purchasing Sioux half- 
breed scrip, which he was obtaining at the very modest price 
of 50 cents to 75 cents an acre. Thereupon I prevailed on Mr. 
George B. "Weight to go into the woods in the winter to carry 
on the government surveys in the timber, with the intention 
on my part to keep records of the best tracts of pine timber 
for location with ^Ir. Chapman. Although ]\Ir. Wright said it 
was unprecedented and impractical to work in northern Min- 
nesota woods in the winter, yet I persuaded him that it could 
be done and got him to outfit and start for the country north- 
east of the site of Brainerd, which town did not exist for a 
number of years later, and to survey several townships in which 
was some good pine timber. AVhen we left Crow AYing on our 
way, it was 22 degrees below zero, — cold, clear weather, with 
about one foot of snow. The snow got to be two or three feet 
deep before we got through, but we surveyed two townships 
and a portion of a third one, when the ugly appearance of the 
Indians, who had not quieted down since the Indian war had 
begun, induced us to leave a little earlier than we should have 
done otherwise. 

^Yhile I was at work, I received a letter from ]\Ir. Chap- 
man, asking me to come to Minneapolis and go with him to 
California, where he said the Sioux scrip was worth from $5 
to $10 an acre to locate on redwood timber, which was very 
valuable and the land enormously heavily timbered. I could 
not leave, so he went without me, taking with him the scrip. 
This made my extra efforts to secure timbei" land notes fruit- 
less, and so I turned them over to ^Ir. AYright, and he got some 
profit from them through lumbermen who located claims on 
some of the lands. 

The next year I went with Mr. Yv^ight and finished up his 
quite large contract of surveying. The next year after that, I 
vrent on the St. Paul and Duluth railroad survey, and remained 
during tlie early part of the year in laying out the road 


ready for grading, from St. Paul up to AVyoming; and then 
moved on up to Duluth, to begin a return survey to meet the 
one running up from St. Paul. At Duluth, Mr. Dayton, presi- 
dent of the road, Mr. Banning, ^Ir. Saxton, and two others of 
the directors, came there to look over the situation, and as far 
as they could see following up the river where the road was 
to run, to the Falls of the St. Louis. 

AYhile at Duluth, Mr. Thornton, the clwef assistant, and 
Mr. Gates A. Johnson, the chief engineer, were trying to locate 
a true meridian line by means of a solar compass, when they 
found themselves unable to secure the declination of the sun. 
They had the latitude exactly marked where Minnesota Point 
joins the main land, and where General Meade had laid off the 
four-mile base and built a level table the whole length in order 
to secure an accurate base to work from. He had it measured 
about a hundred times with rods adjusted to temperature, and 
took the average of all the nearest measures. From this base 
line he had measured the shores of the whole of Lake Supe- 
rior by trigonometric surveys, without laying out any other 
base. Having found a Tribune Almanac, giving the length of 
the day, they wondered whether or not I could find the decli- 
nation from those figures. I was catching trout a couple of 
miles farther up the shore, there being nothing for me to do 
in the work of laying out a meridian, as my instrument was 
only the level. Having been summoned, I had to leave two 
large trout that I had not been able to catch, for they would 
not look at my bait nor condescend even to smell of it. 

I went back to the U. S. district land office, where the di- 
rectors and officials were located, and found a formula, which, 
as I remember it now, was that the sine of the ascensional dif- 
ference is equal to the tangent of the latitude into the tangent 
of the declination of the sun, from which, having the latitude 
and the ascensional diff'erencc, or the difference between six 
o'clock and the time of the setting of the sun, it is sufficient 
to find the declination. From this I made a table of hourly 
difference, and gave it to them about ten o'clock. Tliey had 
secured a solar compass from Mr. George R. Stuntz, the gov- 
ernment surveyor at Superior City, and, having made use of 


my table, they laid out a line at that hour through the cen- 
tral portion of what is now the city of Duluth, about one-half 
mile in length. Having laid it out then and set up their pickef, 
they waited until an equal time after twelve o'clock at noon, 
and upon testing it again, there was but two or three feet dif- 
ference given for the picket at the end of a half mile distance. 
As this error was as much to the right after dinner as it had 
been to the left before dinner, the hub was put in halfway be- 
tween the two, and the nail for the center. This was used in 
starting the transit survey from there to the connection with 
the line from St. Paul up to about Chengwatana, on the Snake 
river, some sixty or seventy miles from St. Paul. The survey 
starting from Duluth was followed down, and it was far into 
the winter, the later part of December, when we connected with 
the survey from the south and returned home, where I found 
my wife very sick and anxiously waiting for me. 

The next year I secured quite a large contract in the south- 
western part of the state, to subdivide a portion of Rock and 
.Nobles counties, where General Bishop had some time before 
run the township lines for these and some other counties. Be- 
fore going, I arranged with one of the prominent lumber firms 
of Minneapolis to go into the northern pine forests and sur- 
vey a number of townships in the Pokegama region, and to 
cruise the timber lands and locate a lot of land scrip on lands 
for use by this firm for lumbering purposes. I was authorized 
to secure a lot of scrip at the price of $3.50 per acre, and any- 
thing that I could get as a commission on this price I would be 
entitled to. I secured from Mr. Oakes, private banker in St. 
Paul, who in some way through the agency of Bishop Whipple 
had much to do with the Indians, a quantity of Chippewa scrip 
to the extent of something over four thousand acres, on which 
Mr. Oakes finally reduced the price to me, allowing me a com- 
mission of 25 cents per acre. Having arranged for the pur- 
chase of the scrip, it came to St. Paul from Chicago. The firm 
did not take it tlien, but said they would take it later, and, as 
I had to go to my surveys in southwestern IMinnesota early in 
June, I had to leave the timber surveying and land scrip mat- 
ters for this firm to settle and arrange. 



When I came back, a couple of months later, and sometime 
before the southwestern survey was completed, I found to my 
^ surprise that the scrip had been taken up and I was not cred- 
ited, a statement being made that a certain Mr. Brown had pur- 
chased this scrip for his own use ; and I also found that George 
R. Stuntz had been engaged to do the government surveying 
for which I had been engaged, in the quite noted timber lands 
around Lake Pokegama and on the ^Mississippi river below. 

My intention was at this time to follow railroad surveying, 
and afterwards to be a contractor and builder of railroads, and 
finally, perhaps, as Mr. James J. Hill afterward did, to become 
interested as a stockholder in the roads. But this disappoint- 
ment of not receiving my commissions on the scrip, which 
would have amounted to a little over $1,000, and the loss of the 
work in doing the surveying, led me to abandon the railroads 
and join Dr. Levi Butler in a pine timber enterprise, whereby I 
should secure the land notes and locate and look after the af- 
fairs in the pine timber region. I then put in the latter part 
of the winter in attending to some of Dr. Butler's previously 
arranged timber enterprises, and in the spring made my way 
to Pokegama in a large dug-out boat that I made at Pine Knoll, 
which carried me and the spring and summer's supply of pro- 
visions, wherewith I examined the whole timber region tliat 
Mr. Stuntz had surveyed. 

Having made full preparations for locating the timber when 
the plats were received at the local land office, I succeeded in 
what the newspapers call a "scoop," securing almost every 
fine forty acres of timber that was near and most valuable, 
around Pokegema lake and the river below. That lumber 
firm failed to get one single quarter section that was good. 
They did locate one quarter that was in a swamp, from a wrong 
description of the land which they intended to locate, and the 
scrip was afterward removed. The breach of faith on the 
part of the lumber firm changed my whole course of life into 
that which I had not intended to follow, lumbering. Having 
located these lands, it became necessary for me to continue in 
the firm of Butler, Mills and Walker; and when the logs which 
Dr. Butler and Mr. Mills had secured in the winter's logging 


that I had no financial interest in, only to look after it for 
them, came into the booms, they were taken into ownership 
of our new firm. Some of the east side mills were engaged and 
rebuilt, and through Mr. Ed. Brown, the east side lumberman, 
the logs were manufactured into lumber ; and this work marked 
the beginning of the lumber firm then incorporated, of Butler, 
Mills and Walker. 

Later in the summer, I went up by way of Leech lake with 
a haying crew, and went through the temporary, noisy Indian 
disturbance that came tolerably near ending in our being 
killed by the Indians ; but, having finally gotten there, by way 
of Leech lake and Leech river and down the Mississippi to 
Pokegama, I secured an abundant supply of hay from the ex- 
tended hay meadows running along the river, and prepared for 
logging that winter. I met there two very industrious Chip- 
pewas, by the name of Naugonup and Chechegum, who had 
locations at the outlet of Trout lake, a mile, or so from where 
the town of Coleraine and the AYalker-Hill iron mines are now 

Finding that I intended to begin lumbering and bring in 
some 'crews of lumbermen that winter, they set to work to raise 
a crop of potatoes to sell to the contractors during the fall and 
winter. Their experience and that of Joseph Tuttle, who em- 
barked in a civilizing enterprise at AYaukenauboo lake, which 
I will refer to later, gave me the first real view of the calamity 
of socialism. These two men, Naugonup and Chechegum. raised 
about thirty-five bushels of potatoes on a little tract of very 
rich land that is now occupied b}^ Gilbert Hartley as a summer 
home, in a very beautiful and attractive situation. It was cov- 
ered with hardwood timber, mostly maple, and in a storm all 
the timber on this tract was swept down in so much of a heap 
that afterwards it burned off clean the great mass of wood, 
fuel, and brush that was available, thus completing the clear- 
ing. These potatoes were stored in holes under the houses, and 
some rough poles and boards were put over them for a floor. 
There being no road from ^Ir. Ilaney's lumber camp, six or 
seven miles distant, the potatoes could not be moved until the 
swamps froze, when they could be hauled over a summer trail 
that a team could go over to bring them. 


The Indians at Oak Point, twenty-five miles away, heard of 
this horrible conspiracy on the part of these two Indians with 
Mr. Haney, to deprive the band to which they belonged of their 
natural rights to appropriate all the surplus above the day's 
supply and to transfer it to a lot of white men in the lumber 
camps. This was so repugnant to their ideas, of the rights of 
one fellow in the product of the other fellow 's labor, that they 
went in force with their canoes down the Mississippi, past the 
Pokegama falls, and up the Prairie river and past its falls, and 
thence on a portage across to Trout lake, thence across the lake 
to the two little log houses under which the potatoes were 
stored, and took away across the lake and over the river and 
thence down, retracing their w^ay, every potato that the enter- 
prising two Indians had raised for their own benefit, to buy pro- 
visions and carry them through the winter. Afterward these 
two Indians were always at a discount and somewhat ostra- 
cized by the band, because of their attempt at robbing the 
band of its interest in the produce of their labor. 

Naugonup and Chechegum were at that time up on Swan 
river above Swan lake, when the Indians came to take the pota- 
toes. If they had been at home, very probably the invaders 
might have meted out to them greater punishment, even more 
than the confiscation of their supply of potatoes. 

Several years before this, a very enterprising and capable 
young Chippewa Indian, named Joseph Tuttle, was sent to Al- 
bion, Michigan, by his friends in St. Paul, or by the Indian 
missionary association, to be educated. He went through the 
school course and graduated and returned to his native heath, 
which w^as at Waukenauboo or Hill lake, about ten miles south 
of Pokegama. He tlien married a young woman whom he had 
known before he left, perhaps being engaged to her, and started 
out to establish a nucleus of civilization and progressive life 
among his native people. lie built a two-story house down by 
the junction of AVillow river and the outlet of Hill lake, cleared 
up a piece of ground, put in some fish traps, was the owner of 
a good ^Winchester ritie, was a good hunter, and altogether was 
an industrious fellow. His liouse was not veiy large, but suffi- 
cient for himself and his family, if he could have been pro 


tected from the multitudes of relatives and friends who saw 
no reason why, if he caught more fish than he needed for his 
family for that day, they should not take the remainder. 
When his corn was ripe or ready to eat, or his potatoes ready 
to dig, there was not the slightest reason or good citizenship 
in his raising any objections to his friends, relatives, and mem- 
bers of the band, taking the remainder above the immediate 
needs. Nor was there any reason why, when it came night and 
any of them were short of blankets or wigwam room, to sleep 
in, they should not occupy the floor of his house, and sometimes 
even the second floor where he and his family were sleeping. 
All the game that he secured, any rice that he had left over, 
or sugar from his maple trees, must be subject to division, from 
the natural rights of the others to share the product of his 

Two years later I met him at Pokegama, living in a wig- 
wam. He spoke perhaps the best English of any one around 
the lake. He told me that the customs of the Chippewas were 
absolutely a bar to progress and resulted in complete paralysis 
of any ambition or industry being pursued by any members 
of his band and race, that he had been compelled to abandon 
his homestead where he had located, and that he had changed 
his residence to Pokegama lake. 

During the spring and summer and in later years in the 
logging operations in that region, it w^as our custom to employ 
the Indians so far as we could, as a policy, as well as from 
necessity ; but we were quite disappointed by the fact that they 
worked only a little while, then collected their pay, and went 
off on a hunt and a resting spell. This was, as we found, be- 
cause any further earnings that would leave a surplus above 
their immediate needs must be divided among the neighbors or 
other members of the band. In gathering rice in the fall, in 
making sugar in the spring, the custom of the Indians was to 
use this product to pay off the traders for supplies obtained 
during the i)revious winter, and, to very great extent, to buy 
back piecemeal, on credit at a much higher price, the rice and 
sugar which they had sold to the traders for the double pur- 
pose of settling their account and, if possible, to leave a sur- 


plus that could be doled out to them during the winter, instead 
of having to divide it up with their neighbors. 

We found that it was not indolence or lack of willingness 
to work, which caused the Indians to live in poverty and want, 
but from the inevitable outcome of the socialistic doctrine that 
has prevailed in all tribal life, which in, the long ages before 
civilization began has made life a burden and a period of pov- 
erty, hardship, and dire want, through the impossibilit}^ of any 
person receiving the benefit of his own labor or enterprise. 
My observations of these experiences among the Cliippewas 
were nearly duplicated also when carried to a trip of inspec- 
tion in the South, where I found the same customs and habits 
to a large extent prevailing, so that they keep the colored race 
at the bottom and in general poverty, in place of being inde- 
pendent farmers, mechanics, and workmen, living in comfort 
and with the conveniences and advantages of life as their com- 
mon inheritance. 

In addressing a large school of over 1,200 negro boys and 
girls in Montgomery, Alabama, not long ago, I said that social- 
istic customs existing among them are the calamity of their 
people ; the fact that no one could profit by his own industry 
and build up a home and a fortune, because he was compelled 
to divide up with his relatives and neighbors to that extent 
that it became practically impossilUe to advance from a renter 
to a landholder and prosperous citizen. Afterward the several 
colored teachers came to me and in the most emphatic manner 
expressed the view that I was the first one that had ever 
seemed to apprehend or understand the real cause underlying 
the misfortune, poverty, and hard times of the colored people 
of the South. 

The next year but one, after Butler, Mills & Walker began 
operations at Pokegama, the mills on the St. Anthony side 
burned down and the firm of L. Butler & Company was organ- 
ized while I was absent in the woods. They constructed a big 
mill on the east side, and in this I became interested more par- 
ticularly in selling stumpage to the new firm; and finally, 
when it came along toward 1873, I saw the impending twenty- 
years* panic coming and I withdrew from the business entirely, 


refusing to retain any interest in the lumber business, from 
which I had foreseen that our lumbermen could not stand the 
competition with Canada, on a free trade basis. My partner, 
Mr. Butler, at first agreed to join in at least suspending opera- 
tions until better times, or to withdraw entirely from the fur- 
ther manufacture of lumber. Afterwards he decided to con- 
tinue, and the result was that the panic wasted almost his 
entire fortune, which his will indicated to have been about one 
million dollars. 

In anticipation of the panic, for over a year before it came, 
I used every feature of persuasion to induce Dr. Butler, my 
then partner in the firm of Butler & AYalker, to withdraw and 
to avoid that whicli I considered inevitable, under the circum- 
stances existing in the lumber business, which, even at best 
and in good times, gave but small margin of profit. AYhen re- 
verses came, they more than ate up any surplus profits above 
the cost of living, that the lumbermen could secure from their 
lumber business. At first he agreed to withdraw, but after- 
ward made the matter worse by continuing on a less favorable 
basis than before. He purchased my half interest in a consid- 
erable amount of timber we owned jointly, which I let him 
have at one dollar a thousand less than the amount that J. Dean 
& Co. had rather urgently offered to pay for it. When the 
panic came, I had no lumber, logs, nor any interest in any mill- 
ing plant, but had paid off my debts and w^as free from all such 
obligations, whicli would otherwise have closed out my much 
smaller capital and property interests. 

The panic of 1873 broke down the nervous system of Dr. 
Butler to that extent that he never rallied from it, and after 
several months of prostration he died, ending a very strenuous, 
active life. 

In 1877 I joined with IMajor Camp, who had some surplus 
capital, and began the Camp & AValker firm of buying timber 
and selling logs. Sometime after this, ^lajor Camp desired to 
enter into the lumber manufacturing business, which I reluct- 
antly went into, more on tlie policy which I have always pur- 
sued, of trying to adjust my views and the policy to be pur- 
sued, as far as it appeared not too objectionable, to the wishes 



and judgment of my partners, of whom I have had quite a num- 
ber, including Henry T. Welles, Franklin Steele, Levi Butler, 
Major Camp, Herrick Brothers, Mr. Akeley, and one or two 
others that I do not now name. 

After my joining with Major Camp, it soon came to pass 
that the J. Dean Pacific Mill was for sale at auction. By a 
thorough investigation of the value of the mill, machinery, and 
outfit, for which we secured j\Ir. Menzel of Milwaukee to ex- 
amine for us, and which was perhaps the beginning of his in- 
terest in Minneapolis, where he located and spent the remainder 
of his life, it was figured out that the mill and machinery were 
worth about $90,000, and the real property $20,000 or $30,000. 
When the auction sale began, there were gathered in the J.. 
Dean lumber office, next to the mill, the Harrisons, Deans, and 
Mr. Johnson, who owned the big iron works adjoining the mill 
property, and a considerable number of lumbermen, among 
wiiom several had formed little organizations or associate inter- 
ests to purchase the mill. Major Camp and I concluded that 
we would bid up to about $80,000, and I was installed as bid- 
der for Major Camp and myself. 

The property was started off at $20,000, and then by bids 
of one thousand it went up to $25,000 or .$26,000; then by 
500 's, to about $30,000 or $32,000; then by 100 's, coming very 
slowly, it ran up to $35,000; and then, to my utter astonish- 
ment. Major Camp came to me and said he did not care to go 
higher, although we had agreed to go more than double that. 
I said, "Very well," and continued on bidding; and as I was 
in the back part of the house, near to where the ow^ners were 
sitting, the report was spread that I was just bidding up for 
the owners, and not in good faith for myself. That seemed to 
take the starch out of the bidders who had come there with the 
same intention tliat iMjijor Camp and I had, of bidding up to 
$80,000, and tlv final outcome was that it was struck off for 
$37,500 to me personally. 

The next day Major Camp came to me and said that, if I 
was williog, he would be glad to take a half interest in the mill 
and make use of it in manufacturing the logs from the timber 
that we had secured. This established the firm of Camp & 



Walker, which continued for eight or ten years, until I became 
weary of trying to make a sufficiently profitable lumber manu- 
facturing business by cutting only twenty millions of logs in a 
season, when there was about as much overhead or general 
expense as there would be in cutting forty or fifty million. As 
Major Camp refused to go beyond the small cut, we decided to 
sell the mill. I then embarked in the northwestern enterprise 
of manufacturing lumber at Crookston and Grand Forks; and 
Major Camp withdrew or retired on a comfortable fortune and 
property interests that we had together, including the Central 
Market and the property around it, together with some timber- 
land interests in the pineries. 

The beginning of my lumber manufacturing on the Clear- 
water river was owing to the fact of my having sold logs to 
the lumber firm of Jarvis & Barridge of Winnipeg, who failed 
to meet their payments so that I had to take security on the 
lumber sawed and piled; and afterward, through the agency 
of the banks in Winnipeg and Montreal, I closed out and se- 
cured most that was due me and canceled off the balance. 

As I had continued lumbering on the Clearwater river, I 
began the construction of a mill at Crookston, in which I manu- 
factured lumber from as many logs as the limited driving facili- 
ties of the river would allow, until later when I constructed 
another mill at Grand Forks, which I ran for several years. 
After this later mill once burned down, I rebuilt it, and when 
it w^as destroyed a second time I did not rebuild it, but gave 
the millsite and boomage to the city and closed out the busi- 

The plant at Crookston ran for some time afterward, and 
then was sold to the Shevlin-Carpenter Company, who have 
been running it from that time to this. 

In 1889 a general agreement to sell my Minnesota timber- 
lands to parties in jMichigan was made, with terms, conditions, 
and estimates arranged; and, presuming that the sale would 
go through, I turned my attention to the western coast, to se- 
cure there a tract of timber to continue lumbering after clos- 
ing out here, more on account of; my sons, who bad all decided 
to go into the lumber business. I began explorations of the 



western timber from I\rontana through Idaho, AVashington, 
Oregon, and California. My many years' superintendent, Mr. 
Kline, with many assistants, explored all of these states in a 
general way, at least sufficiently to determine the advantages 
of each ; but as the timber deal that I had arranged here fell 
through, from serious misfortune in one of the families, I did 
not follow up the western timber deal until 189-1. 

While I was in New York about 1890, my superintendent of 
logging and general business man, Mr. F. J. Kline, who was a 
graduate of Chicago University and was with me thirty-seven 
years, telegraphed to me that a man from ^lichigan, Mr. Healy 
C. Akeley, was looking for a location for a millsite at St. 
Cloud, with a view of handling the Itasca Lumber Company's 
timber that Mr. Turnbull had arranged for in northern Minne- 
sota. I therefore wired 'Mv. Kline, to ask ]\Ir. Akeley to wait 
until I got home, as it would be a serious drawback to Minne- 
apolis, and to the whole lumber interests, including himself, if 
he should locate on the highway of our logs coming to Minne- 
apolis, for which reason I urged him to wait until I could get 
back home. I started immediately, and came back to Alinne- 
apolis. I had never heard of 'Mv. Akeley before. He lived at 
Grand Haven, Michigan, and had been extensively engaged in 
lumbering with parties in Chicago. 

\Yhen I came, I went over the map with him, showing him 
the misfortune that would come to all parties if he located on 
the river where he would not be able to handle the four or five 
hundred million of logs coming to ^Minneapolis, from which he 
should sort out his, whatever amount it would be, which at 
most would be only a fractional part. After talking this over 
with him, he turned to me and said, "If I should come here, I 
do not suppose that you would sell me an interest in your tim- 
ber?" This was rather a stumper, as I had then not tlie slight- 
est thought of selling to him or anybody else any interest in 
the timber that I owned in that great area around Leech lake 
and extending off beyond Itasca lake. 

I did not know what to say, but I had been advising him to 
come to Minneapolis and manufacture lumber here, so that I 
said to him, ''I have no timber for sale, at least have had no 


intention of selling, excepting to sell logs or stumpage ; but if 
you wish to buy a half interest in this large uncut tract, I will 
sell it to you." Thereupon he asked how much timber there 
was per acre, and how many acres there were. I had no map, 
as I did not have any expectation of having to use it, so I ex- 
plained to him about how much white pine and how much 
Norway pine there was on the land, and made a general guess 
only, as to the acreage, which was quite a large tract. He then 
inquired when I would want him to pay. I told him that could 
be arranged by making a sufficient cash payment and leaving 
the remainder on a moderate rate of interest until it was paid 
off. He then said, "I will see you about this tomorrow." 

The next day I went back and carried a map and showed 
him where the timber lay. The timber that I offered him was 
in what was then a remote timber region, which my compet- 
itors and friends in the lumber business had decided I needed 
a guardian for locating, as they looked upon it as inaccessible 
timber that would cost more to log and drive than it would be 
worth when the logs were in the booms. 

I told Mr. Akeley what these reports were, but explained 
to him that there were practicable ways of handling the tim- 
ber, and that it would soon be necessary to reach that more 
distant timber in order to supply the mills with logs. He then 
said that he would purchase a half interest in this timber at 
the prices I named, and would pay me a very considerable sum 
in cash and the balance in deferred payments, running over a 
couple of years, if that would be satisfactory to me. I in- 
formed him that that was entirely satisfactory and that he 
could have the timber on those terms, and he said: "Very 
well, I will take it." I then said, ''I suppose you mean after 
you have examined the timber;" and upon this he said, "Well, 
you know what you are selling." I said, "Yes, but how does 
that show to you what you are buying?" He then replied, 
"As you have looked up the timber, I have looked you up, and 
that satisfies me as to what I am buying." 

We closed the deal, he paid me the money, and I gave him 
a list of the lands, but he did not call on me for a deed for 
twelve or fifteen years. He afterward expressed great regret 


that he did not confine his entire operations in Minnesota to 
his dealings with me, as these have been very satisfactory and 
profitable in place of the reverse in his other operations. 

After several years of experience in the timber industry, I 
found that the lumbermen on our side of the line could not 
compete with Canada successfully, to make a reasonable profit, 
excepting in the favorable years that came around occasion- 
ally. The Canadian lumbermen were favored in quality of 
timber and market facilities, and in special favors from their 
government, while our lumbermen were handicapped by prej- 
udiced treatment and discrimination, even to persecution for 
practices that were freely given in Canada. Timber supply, 
taxation, wages, and freedom of organized business and co- 
operation, were all strongly in their favor and against us. In 
seasons when the market had been overstocked by the floods 
of lumber from Canada, bringing hard times and failure, it 
made conditions for the lumber industry here the least favor- 
able and the least favored, through adverse laws and their en- 
forcement, and through public prejudice without just cause, 
that pertained to any industry or occupation. 

"When from these causes the lumber trade was prostrated 
and lumbermen largely closed out, then, upon recovery, a num- 
ber of years later when the demand exceeded the supply for 
several years and prices '\vent up temporarily, there was a 
margin of profit in lumber. I w^atched carefully the signs of 
the times and the prospective coming of the panics, which prej- 
udiced treatment of the lumbermen aided materially in bring- 
ing on and intensifying; and when the panic or depressed years 
could be foreseen, I got from under, as in 1873, and also in 
another period of depression about halfway betAveen then and 

In 1892, I provided for the anticipated panic of '93 by sell- 
ing logs and stumpage and some tracts of timber and some 
stocks, bonds, etc., from which proceeds I could see my way 
through tlie panic. I cut no logs that winter excepting a small 
stock on tlie Clearwater river, and in this way would have been 
comfortable during the panic, had it not been for others who 
were satisfied that no serious troubles were in store and re- 


fused to make any arrangements to provide for such financial 

In 1894, I began the timber enterprise in California, which 
had been explored in 1889 but had been laid aside because the 
sale of my entire tract of Minnesota timber was not completed 
as I had made agreement for it. I have since then secured a 
large tract of timber in northeastern California, in Siskiyou, 
Shasta, Modoc, Lassen, Plumas, and Tehama counties. It is 
the best and finest tract of pine timber left in the country, and 
it is being made accessible by branch lines of the Southern 
Pacific railway, of about one hundred and fifty miles. This 
railway line is completed and ready for operation to within 
fifteen or twenty miles of the new town of Westwood, where 
we are installing one of the largest lumber plants in the United 
States. We have one preliminary mill built that has furnished 
lumber for houses for about twelve hundred people, and the 
superstructure of a very large plant is about completed, for 
which the machinery will be available in a month or so by 
means of the completed railroad line. 

In 1895, I made a stumpage agreement with several promi- 
nent lumber firms for the sale to them of the AValker & Akeley 
timber, and also, at the same time and terms, to cover the Pills- 
bury timber in the same territory that I had been engaged in 
locating for them. This was the largest timber contract that 
has been made in i\Iinnesota. The logging company, consist- 
ing of the lumber firms of the Brainerd Lumber Company, 
Nelson Tenney, E. W. Backus Co., J. AY. Day & Co., and the 
Carpenter, Lamb Co., was called the Minnesota Logging Com- 
pany. They built the Brainerd & Northern railway to Leech 
lake and beyond, and cut several hundred millions of logs, 
when the continuing depressed prices and hard times led them 
to an adjustment and cancellation of the contract with AValker 
& Akeley and the Pillsbury Company. 

About 1898, I decided to buiUl a mill on the Upper Crow 
"Wing lake, where I located the town of Akeley and changed 
the name of the lake to Akeley lake, in honor of my partner, 
Ur. H. C. Akeley. I had fifteen million feet of logs in'the lake, 
which I had cut for a Michigan firm who had agreed to build 


a mill at that point, and I was to supply them with sixty mil- 
lions of logs for a term of years. 

Among the many beautiful regions of northern Minnesota, 
explored by timber cruisers and first occupied by logging 
camps and lumbermen's mills, none surpasses the vicinity of 
the villages of Akeley and Walker, with the very remarkable 
and unique Crow Wing chain or series of lakes. When nearly 
all the pine timber has been cut off, after many years the 
stumps left by the axman will disappear, leaving no reminders 
of the first great industry of this region; but it then will be 
not- less valuable for the stockman and farmer than formerlj^ 
for the logger and lumber manufacturer. Pasturage, mowing 
lands, and cultivated fields, are taking the former place of the 
pine woods. 

About twenty years ago, before the founding of these vil- 
lages, this chain of lakes was examined by Warren Upham and 
Prof. J. E. Todd for the Geological Survey of Minnesota. Their 
descriptions are published in Volume IV of its Final Keport 
(pages 77 and 8j:-88), which show that many interesting ques- 
tions connected with the glacial and modified drift deposits, 
and including the origin of this series of lake basins, await 
further investigation. 

The first saw^mills in St. Anthony and IMinneapolis marketed 
their lumber by rafting below the Falls, over which the lumber 
was carried in sluiceways down to the quiet waters, where the 
lumber was put in rafts containing one million or two million 
feet. The rafts were taken down the river sometimes by steam 
tugs and sometimes being floated with the current and steered 
by very large rear oars that kept them in the channel. This 
piloting required very careful w^ork and experienced men to 
avoid breaking the rafts on the curved banks of the river and 
on the bars and shallow^s. 

After the coming of the railroad builder in 1862, and with 
the great extension of railroads during the decade of 1870-80, 
they have ever since furnished abundant outlet to eager mar- 
kets for all the lumber manufactured from the once immense 
but now nearly exhausted ^Minnesota pineries. 


1851 TO 1861.* 


In the early days of which I speak there was no zealous 
rivalry, nor even friendly competition, |)etween the Twin Cities. 
Minneapolis v\^as not yet on the map, and St. Anthony was only 
a wayside village ; while St. Paul had already assumed the form 
of a thriving and bustling city, of prosperous proportions, with 
two thousand people or more, the capital of the Territory. Of 
course there was a town of St. Peter, on the St. Peter river, 
the would-be rival and competitor for capital honors, but it 
was of less size, less prospects, and far away from the tem- 
porary and permanent head of navigation. For no little time 
both St. Peter and Minneapolis later strove, with much federal 
aid and no little misappropriation of money, to become the 
head of navigation, but all efforts and subsidies proved vain. 
Nature discountenanced, disfavored, and rendered futile all 
such artificial efforts. 

Above the Falls of St. Anthony stretched an unbroken 
wilderness of prairie and pine forest, trodden only by the foot 
of the wandering red man. At the confluence of the Missis- 
sippi and St. Peter rivers stood Fort Snelling, . with its stone 
walls and frowning batteries, the military guardian of the un- 
bounded West. Opposite to the fort and beneath it, crouched 
the modest hamlet of Mendota, wherein dwelt that prince of 
men, Henry Hastings Sibley, whose humble but baronial home 
yet stands as a memorial of him, the first governor of the state 
of Minnesota, and at no time less than among the first and fore- 
most of its pioneer citizenry. 

The textbook of geography in 1815 speaks of all this region 
as a country ''unknown and occupied by Chippewas, ]\Icnom- 
inees, and other Indians; wild rice in the marshes, furnishing 
food; tlie soil fine, and certain districts rich in mines of iron, 

♦Read at the monthly meeting of the Executive Council, May 12, 1313. 



lead, and copper." Be it observed that so late, then, as only 
six years before my personal observations begin, this section 
was reckoned as unknown, an unexplored region. 

In 1848 Hon. Stephen A. Douglas introduced a bill into the 
United States senate, which became a law March 3, 1849, creat- 
ing Minnesota Territory, to which a governor was shortly ap- 
pointed. In 1851 all that land about Fort Snelling westward 
of St. Peter river and the Mississippi was a military reserva- 
tion under the immediate control of the commandant of the 
fort. ^linnehaha sang its joyous notes to the wild Dakotas 
and the birds of the air. Two white men with their families, 
alone, lived on the entire reservation, leagues in extent. Phil- 
ander Prescott and John H. Stevens. Prescott came hither in 
1820 as a clerk to a man named Devotion, who first brought 
merchandise here for the Indian trade. About two years later 
the Columbia Fur Company brought the second installment of 
goods and opened extensive trading with the Indians. In 1826 
Joseph R. Brown made a claim near ''Little falls," or "Brown's 
falls," as Minnehaha was then called, but he abandoned it in 
1830. An impression had prevailed that farm products would 
not mature in this high latitude, and all military provisions 
were shipped from the south until 1823, when the soldiers un- 
der Lieutenant Camp experimented in potatoes, corn, cabbages, 
and onions, and discovered that they would grow and mature. 

Early pioneers from the Hudson Bay Company and the 
Selkirk colony had settled on this reservation in 1827, and on- 
ward, but were driven olf by the United States soldiers in the 
year 1840, and their houses were torn down or burned. Abra- 
ham Perry, having large herds of cattle, was forced from his 
claim. He pitched his tent on the east side of the river, be- 
yond tlie limits of the reservation. Pliilander Prescott, govern- 
ment farmer for the Indians, broke the first sod outside of the 
vicinity of tlie fort, on a piece of ground near lake Calhoun, in 
1830, under the dirce-tion of ^lajor Lawrence Taliaferro, gov- 
ernment agent of the Sioux. On that very ^^pot in August, 
1852, my sister and I, with tlic family of Dr. A. PI Ames, picked 
bushels of wild strawl)erries. The abandoned cornfield was 
literally one vast bed of the prolific and luscious native fruit. 

Prescott 's house and his small farm adjoining it were but 
a few rods from Minnehaha creek and its waterfall. lie was 



married to an Indian woman of the Dakotas, and tliey had a 
large family of girls and boys, whom I knew. Owing to his 
marriage and kindly spirit, he was most influential among the 
Indians, and was not less popular among the incoming white 
settlers. He was the first white man to fall a victim to the sav- 
age butchery of the massacre in August, 1862. His death was 
a sacrifice for his fellowmen. Aware of the conspiracy among 
the hostile Sioux to rise and destroy the palefaces, he sternly 
opposed it in secret council and also openly. He was ambushed 
and murdered, lest his better and wiser counsels should prevaiL 

It may be well to recall that the portion of our state west 
of the St. Croix river and east of the Mississippi, in which the 
greater part of the city of St. Paul is located, was originally 
in the Northwest Territory ceded by Virginia to the United 
States. Out of that generous cession were created Ohio, Mich- 
igan, Indiana, Illinois, and Wisconsin, and so much of Minne- 
sota as lies between the St. Croix and the ^Mississippi ; but the 
larger part of this state west of the Mississippi, including Fort 
Snelling, comes of the Louisiana Purchase from Napoleon 
Bonaparte for fifteen million dollars in 1803. Thus the area of 
Minnesota's tenure passed through not less than six or eight 
jurisdictions before it became either a territorial or state unit. 
Referring to this peculiar fact. General Sibley was wont to 
remark jocosely, "I was successively a citizen of Michigan, 
Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota, both state and territory, with- 
out changing my residence at IMendota." 

The second of the two men living on the military reserva- 
tion in 1851 was Colonel John H. Stevens, a veteran of the 
Mexican war, the first settler in Minneapolis proper, in 1849, 
ever a prominent and influential citizen. I well recall his cot- 
tage, a story and a half in height, perched on the very edge of 
the river bank, and hard-by the landing place of the ferryboat, 
of which Captain John Tapper was for a long time the able- 
bodied and trusty ferryman. 

The ferryboat itself was of the primitive character familiar 
enough to all pioneers, whose running stock consisted of a rope 
cable stretched from shore to shore, the river's current supply- 
ing the force to drive it to and fro according as the movable 
keel or side board was raised or lowered. 

General James H. Baker has well stated, in his sketch of 



Governor Alexander Ramsey, how much is due to the state- 
craft of Sibley, the skill of Ramsey, and the combined wisdom 
and diplomacy of both, with the government and in treaties 
made in 1851 with the Sioux Indians, in securing so vast a 
fertile region on the west side of the ^lississippi, claimed, oc- 
cupied, and sold by the aboriginal tribes. 

In 1851, between St. Paul and the village of St. Anthony 
there stretched an old Indian trail, used as a highway, mid- 
way of which stood a solitary road house or tavern, known as 
Desnoyer's, whose deep dug well and iron-bound bucket fur- 
nished water to the laboring horses, and whose bar quenched 
the not less thirsty pioneer. Of its kind it was a sort of Samar- 
itan inn, such as yet stands on the downward slope from Jeru- 
salem to Jericho, a resort for the wayfaring and w^eary man, 
but so decently kept that no scandal or scene of riotousness 
was ever associated with it. 

It was in August, 1851, when the Coolbaughs, with other 
passengers, disembarked in St. Paul from that famous old ]\Iis- 
sissippi steamer, AVar Eagle, and stepped for the first time on 
the soil of ^Minnesota Territory. We had come immediately 
from farm life in Winnebago county and from Freeport, Illi- 
nois. My father's health failing, he was advised to seek a 
higher latitude and healthier climate, and, hearing of Minne- 
sota, he sought a new home here. We came as a family from 
Pennsylvania, from the banks of the Susquehanna in Bradford 

My father, Daniel M., was of German descent, yet repre- 
sented by the Von Kaulbachs of the fatherland. The first Cool- 
baugh in America is said to have come twenty-three years after 
the Jamestown colony of 1607, a sea captain from Holland. 
My mother was of English blood, born in Stockbridge, of the 
Massachusetts Whitneys, whose names are enrolled among the 
minute num of 1775, similarly as members of my father's fam- 
ily furnished recruits to the worn and battered ranks of Wash- 
ington's army at Valley Forge. 

Our journey from the Susquehanna to Rock river, Illinois, 
was through that long stretch of country known as "the Over- 
land Road West," in a prairie schooner drawn by four horses, 
camping by the wayside when taverns were not at hand. When 
we subsequently landed in :\rinnesota; we were five in number. 

EARLY DAYS OP MINNESOTA, 1851 to 1861. , 433 

my father and mother, my sister, a baby brother, and myself. 

The day we disembarked was fair and beautiful. The scene 
that first met our eyes was not unattractive. Tall rugged cliffs 
of white sandstone, capped with gray limestone, rose to view 
as we looked westward on both sides of the river. A few scat- 
tered shacks and larger warehouses confronted us, while far- 
ther up the hill shoreward we beheld scattering stores and 
some few residences. To the right and eastward, near and 
far away, stretched a great wide-spreading green morass, look- 
ing so deep and forbidding that seemingly no foot of man could 
traverse it; but all that waste has long since been recovered 
and now is occupied by the Union Station, its extensive yards, 
and the very many wholesale and other establishments in the 
immediate vicinage. 

A pleasant feature of our voyage up the Mississippi was 
the passing of certain points that have since taken on increase 
of size, city form, and urban beauty and interest, such as 
Winona, Red AYing, Hastings, each of these being then marked 
as habitations only by slab shacks and Indian tepees. Along- 
side of these places, the War Eagle discharged her cargo of 
live stock. The work was accomplished by the cattle being 
forcibly pushed over the gunwales, and each beast, as it fell, 
was submerged for the instant, then rose, and, expelling the 
water from its nostrils, made for the shore, a process so rude 
and novel that it brought every passenger to view the scene. 

Among the most notable incidents, how^ever, w^as the ap- 
pearance on board of the governor of the new territory. Young 
as I was, I had already noted the presence of this stranger 
among us, a tall, stately man, dark visaged, heavy-browed, of 
giant form, wliom my father introduced afterward to my 
mother as Alexander Ramsey. A feeling of satisfaction and 
added security seemed to pervade the body of passengers when 
aw^are of the companionship of the chief magistrate of our 
destined home. 1 still clearly recall my first sight of this 
great man, for as such we iMinnesotans can truly think and 
speak of him. In the fullness of health and maturity of vig- 
orous strength, Ramsc}- stood a prince among men. I have 
heard it said that when Daniel AVebster was in London and 
walked the Strand, or threaded the not less crowded Hyde 
Park, passcrsby would stop and question each other, ''What 


king is that?" Such was the dignity of AYebster's carriage, 
the massiveness of form, the majesty of brow, the eagle eye of 
the great Expounder of the Constitution. Similarly Governor 
Ramsey throughout all his life exercised a powerful personal 
influence. He needed no cro'\\Ti to mark the dignity of his 
bearing, the royal majesty of his nature, or the wisdom of his 
reign and rule. 

With Ramsey at the helm, whether in St. Paul or in "Wash- 
ington, with his inspiring genius and commanding figure, there 
never was any question as to how ^Minnesota stood or should 
stand during the trials and despondencies in the Civil War. 
It has ever seemed to me that with the glory of the old First 
Minnesota Regiment and its heroic deeds of valor, at Gettys- 
burg and on other fields, should be interwoven the life-story 
of Alexander Ramsey, who was the first governor among all 
the states to proffer a regiment to Lincoln at his first call for 
troops in the beginning of the war. 

Finding a temporary shelter for the family, my father pro- 
ceeded at once to St. Anthony on a prospecting tour. In his 
absence we who were left behind, a Sunday occurring, attended 
the only religious services known to us at that time, that of the 
Rev. Edward D. Neill, whose subsequent career proved him to 
be one of our state's most accomplished gentlemen, scholars, 
and authors. Later, during the early years of my ministry in 
the Parish of the Holy Trinity, St. Anthony, we became friends 
and neighbors, when he assumed the presidency of the newly 
created IMacalester College, located then in the heart of St. 
Anthony, being opened and maintained some years in the large 
stone structure known as the Winslow House. This hotel was 
an adventurous proposition, having been built for the accom- 
modation of wealthy southern patrons, who early flocked hither 
in summer time w^th their negro slaves. Upon the breaking 
out of the war, they deserted in a body, which ruined the pat- 
ronage and prospects of the Winslow House, so that this large 
building stood unused till the founding of Macalester College. 

With my father's return from his prospecting tour, we 
learned that he had determined to make St. Anthony his home. 
Thither immediately he, with my motherland the other child- 
ren, drove in one of tlie old fashioned Concord coaches, 
drawn by four horses, of the stage line owned by Borup and 



Oakes. I was left to follow with the household goods. Seated 
beside the driver on the top of the high piled furniture wagon, 
it seemed a long and toilsome way to the Falls. Having passed 
Desnoyer's halfway house, suddenly the driver left his seat, 
and, seeking the road, brought back in his hand a horrid-look- 
ing instrument, which he described as an Indian scalping knife. 
From that hour on till we reached the village, I was in mortal 
terror lest a painted savage might spring from behind a tree 
and scalp us. 

Being settled in our new home, we children began to attend 
the school, in its building on University avenue, about two 
blocks from the AYinslow House. Of this school E. P. Mills, 
E. W. Merrill, and D. S. B. Johnston, were teachers at different 
times. It was the foundation and beginning of the State Uni- 
versity. A Congregational meetinghouse was already built, 
and a minister of that denomination settled, the Rev. Charles 
Secombe. An Episcopal church was also in process of erection, 
of which twenty-one years afterward I became the rector. 

The year 1851 was of the period when the flood tide of im- 
migration set in, transforming the territory in a short time 
and at a rapid rate into the full age and strength of other com- 
monwealths. The people who flocked hither were not of for- 
eign birth and polyglot tongues as now. They were native- 
born citizens, some being stalwart sons of Maine, from the pine 
forests of the Penobscot, who loved the echoes of the resound- 
ing axe; others came from the rugged hills of Vermont and 
New Hampshire, and from the low shores of ^Massachusetts and 
Connecticut, sturdy and intelligent pioneers; yet others were 
from the Empire State, and not a few from the steep hills and 
the beautiful valleys of Pennsylvania, and from the City of 
Brotherly Love. Of the foreigners who came, France, Ireland, 
and Scotland furnished the larger part. 

A finer class of people, I am led to indulge the thought, 
never souglit the "West than those who first came to these 
shores of the Mississippi. They flocked here not only from the 
states mentioned, but from Little Rhody" and New Jersey, 
also Buckeyes from Ohio and Iloosiers from Indiana, with now 
and then ''the man from ]Missouri," and a scattered few from 
Virginia and Kentucky, of pure Englisli blood, gentle manners, 
and large vision. 


Some of you may remember the address of Gov. John A. 
Johnson, remarkable for its winsome simplicity and pure elo- 
quence, delivered Commencement Day in 1907 at the Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. -He happily touched upon the close rela- 
tionship existing between that state and Minnesota by reason 
of kinship and mutual sympathy, and through Governor Ram- 
sey and other less notable but worthy folk coming from thence. 
As a fact, two of our territorial governors were from Pennsyl- 
vania, and, of the state governors, ^ililler, the fourth, and Mc- 
Gill, the tenth, were also natives of Pennsylvania. Thus four 
of our chief magistrates came from the Keystone State. 

Without disallowing or lessening what was so felicitously 
spoken by Governor Johnson, in the beautiful and tender allu- 
sion to the feeling of fellowship between the great state of 
William Penn and Minnesota, the thought may be extended 
without attenuation of the chain, that Minnesota is bound not 
only by more than a fourfold tie to Pennsylvania, but also by 
a bond of many ply to other states which have contributed 
largely to the Nation, whose sons came to Minnesota to help 
lay deep and strong the foundations of a new commonwealth 
not less great than that of their fathers. Let us not forget that 
if our state stands not far from the foremost of seven and forty 
sister states, it is not our rivers and lakes alone, our forests, our 
broad acres of fertile soil and Avaving grain, that in fifty years 
have elevated ^linnesota to her place as the great cereal and 
dairy producing area of the continent, with other features not 
less contributary to the welfare of humanity, not solely her 
natural resources, great and manifold as they are ; but more is 
due to the spirit, the inexhaustible energy, and the resource- 
fulness of her high minded citizenry, who have enlarged and 
ennobled the annals of accomplishments, not less in the field, 
in shop and factory, by the arts of peace, than on the battle- 
fields of our great Civil War, for liberty, justice, equality, and 
the preservation of the Union. 

I am not ashamed to confess that my heart swells with pride 
when I think of the long list of honored names ^Minnesota has 
enshrined in her bosom and inscribed, too, on the deathless roll 
of fame, not all equally known and published, but each in his 
place and function lielping to approximate to the fulfillment of 
duty, rendering civic, social, and moral benefit to his state and 



nation, according to the ability within him, and in the figure 
employed by Paul when speaking of a temple growing into the 
stateliness of perfection, "by that which every joint supplieth." 

In 1853 it began to be understood that the officers of Fort 
Snelling were not so opposed to the occupation of the Military 
Reservation as formerly. Two men were already there, Phil- 
ander Prescott and Col. John H. Stevens. Another ventured 
over, Calvin A. Tuttle, moving into the abandoned barracks 
which the soldiers had occupied while constructing the govern- 
ment sawmill and grist mill in 1821 and 1823. Under their long, 
low-browed roof, the first funeral in ^Minneapolis occurred, 
upon the death of a child, my sister singing the appropriate 

Other men crept over the river as if by stealth. Among the 
first was Anson Northup, the early adventurer who built the 
first hotel in Stillwater in 1816, the American House in St. Paul, 
1848, and the St. Charles in St. Anthony in 1850. He also ran 
the first steamboat on the Red river of the North. His house 
stood on the high bank facing and overlooking the Falls, near 
the site of the great Washburn flour mills. Dr. xVlfred E. 
Ames, whose family came from Belvidere, 111., also moved over 
and built a house in 1853. At his suggestion, my father moved 
over, making a claim of eighty acres and building the third 
new house. Other pioneers followed thick and fast, and soon 
the west side was spotted with little habitations. 

Recognizing the fact that with such abundant water power 
an industrial town would likely spring up, the settlers organ- 
ized an association for self protection, agreeing that no one 
among them, squatting near or about the Falls, should lay 
claim to more than eighty acres of land. This was strictly ad- 
hered to, and the same association administered such law, jus- 
tice, and punishments, as it deemed necessary ; for as yet there 
was no court, no judge, no jury. ''Jumpers" and other un- 
desirable intruders were unceremoniously notified, and, if nec- 
essary, they were forcibly and bodily ejected. 

In 1851 a newspaper was published on the east side, called 
the St. Anthony Express, under Elmer Tyler, edited by Isaac 
Atwater, who was assisted directly or indirectly by several 
other young men, as Colonel Spooner and George D. Bowman. 
All these young men were poor, and it was understood that they 


were "keeping bachelor's hall" in the printing office. It was 
reported that they lived principally npon mush, milk, and mo- 
lasses. Whether true or false, it matters little, but one thing 
I do know, that the young editor was inured to hard fare and 
plain living ; for I heard him say some years later, in a public 
address delivered at the laying of the corner stone of the great 
Episcopal schools in Faribault, that when working his way 
through Yale College it was his habit to eat for his noonday 
meal the cold boiled potatoes left over from his breakfast. I 
visited the printing office one day, and upon the huge stove, 
centrally located for the diffusion of heat, I saw a big iron pot 
and within it a seething, bubbling mass of yellow meal. Few 
lawyers had a more extended or lucrative law practice than 
Judge Isaac Atwater, who became a resident of the west side, 
accumulated a large fortune, and died not long since at an 
advanced age, laden with honors, leaving generous bequests to 
church and eleemosynary uses. Mr. George D. Bowman, who 
had studied at Bowdoin College, was for a time an inmate of 
our home, a young man of rare taste and fine education. To 
him, following the suggestion of Charles Hoag, is to be accred- 
ited the public adoption of the future name of the growing 
town, Minneapolis, "the Minnehaha City." He advocated this 
name in the Express, and talked not a little about it. 

Charles Hoag and Miss iMarion Coolbaugh taught school in 
the First Presbyterian church, which, in allusion to its very 
slender spire, was called "the Toothpick." Rev. Dr. Knicker- 
backer, the Episcopal pastor, later bought the "Toothpick" 
church, and established in it the first parochial school. This 
school was taught by ]\Irs. AV. E. Jones and Miss Leonora Hall, 
who later was the wife of George H. Christian. 

Minneapolis soon began to have its own newspapers. In 
1853, the Northwestern Democrat appeared, beginning in St. 
Anthony under George W. Prescott, but the next year it was 
sold to "W. A. Hotchkiss, who moved it to the west side of the 
river. Electa Hartwell and my sister IMarion folded the first 
Minneapolis issue, from the old Franklin hand press. In 1857 
it was again sold, to iMr. W. F. Russell, who changed its name 
to The Gazette. After other changes of both name and own- 
ership, the paper came into the pososssion of Hon. AVilliam S. 
King, who rechristened it as The State Atlas. 



The Chronicle was started in 1866 by my friend and school- 
mate, AVillard S. Whitmore, nephew of Congressman Cyrus 
Aldrich, associating with him Col. John H. Stevens, Fred L. 
Smith, and Col. Le Vinne P. Plummer. The following year it 
was joined to the Atlas and appeared under the name of The 

, The original sites of St. Paul, St. Anthony, and Minneapolis, 
were far more attractive in their natural setting and landscape 
beauty than would now appear, even under their present urban 
improvement and embellishments. ^Yooded hills surrounded 
one and all. Not the least attractive was St. Paul, w^hose entire 
early settlement nestled closely within the valley of the cir- 
cumjacent and overlooking hills. The rough and rugged cliffs, 
of snowy whiteness as seen from the river's edge, were sur- 
mounted with a heavy growth of oak and pine. The natural 
and simple grandeur of the Falls of St. Anthony, unbroken 
and undimmed by the later constructions of apron and dam 
and mills, cannot now well be conceived of, even in the glow of 
a fervent imagination. They were grand and beautiful, as 
every old settler can testify. 

The lofty bluffs in the rear of Minneapolis, crowned with a 
rich growth of stately oaks, stood as a splendid background to a 
picturesque landscape. Along the summit of these ancient 
cliffs ran a well-worn footpath, an old trail, giving touching 
evidence that the red man appreciated these heights and sought 
the solitary haunts to enjoy the beauty of his native land. One' 
autumn night from the top of these natural watch towers, I 
beheld the oft dreaded prairie tires, raging in many distinct 
and far separated places, illuminating with spectacular and 
fearful splendor the darkness of the sky. 

Another feature, not the least interesting to the lover of 
humanity, has been withdrawn. Three tribes of the North 
American Indians centered around the Falls of St. Anthony, 
the Winnebagoes, the Sioux, the Chippewa. Their trails cen- 
tered at and radiated from the Falls, like the spokes of a wheel 
to the iron-bound felly, leading to and from their respective 
homes and hunting grounds. Here, on the broad and smooth 
rock ledge above tlie Falls, they forded the river on foot and- 
astride tlieir ponies. Not infrequently bands of these several 
tribes peaceably invaded our settlement, danced in our streets, 



and sought our favor and our gifts of bread and pork and 
beans. Of course they were armed, each equipped with toma- 
hawk, scalping knife, bow and feathered arrow, or flintlock 
gun. Scalps hung at their waists, and eagle feathers adorned 
their head gear and war locks, bearing conspicuous but silent 
evidence of battles fought and enemies slain. 

To their credit, be it said, however, that during all their 
close neighboring and frequent visits (not wholly unwelcome 
to break the monotony of frontier life), I never knew nor saw 
an immodest act of Indian maid or woman, nor did I hear of 
theft, crime, or misdemeanor. Law or no law, little "fire 
water" was sold or given to these children of the forest, and 
though I saw hundreds at a time, and not at infrequent inter- 
vals smaller groups and scalping parties, and at one time sev- 
eral thousand, yet I saw little intoxication. I say it boldly 
and gladly, in the defense of the much abused and maligned 
red man, that the Indian of early times, uncontaminated by the 
bold, bad white man, was not of and by himself the vicious, 
hostile, repulsive, defiant creature so oft depicted. If from his 
original estate he has fallen into the low, sneaking thief, tramp, 
robber and cut-throat, dissolute and debauched, it is the wliite 
man who has done it, who has injured and betrayed his simple 
habit and confiding nature. 

You may call me wise or call me foolish, but I am now, and 
for life long have been, the constant friend of the red man; 
and I say unhesitatingly that I believe Fenimore Cooper has 
not more greatly or erroneously exaggerated his native virtues 
than his adversary has grossly distorted his vices and traduced 
his virtues. I have some sense of the smiling incredulity with 
which I may be heard, but I have not the less assurance of the 
fairness and justice of my judgment, formed from personal 
acquaintance and from the observation of wiser and better men. 

The venerable Bishop AVhipple, known among the red men 
as ''old Straight Tongue," because he always told the truth, 
used to quote Generals :\Iiles, ]\[eade, Sheridan, Halleck, and 
other officers, to attest that not one treaty out of the many 
had been fully and fairly carried out by our Government. Tlie 
Bishop was further wont to say, that in all cases where the 
Indian had been charged with wrong and misdoing, later in- 
vestigation and subsequent facts proved that these acts were 

EARLY DAYS OF MINNESOTA, 1851 to 1861. 491 

invariably in retaliation for the white man's prior misde- 
meanors, not less cruel, not less injurious, murder and outrage 
being not excepted. 

In 1872, as United States commissioner, with others, I vis- 
ited the various tribes of Chippewas from Leech lake and Lake 
Winnebagoshish to Red lake, tributary to the Red river of the 
North; and during the length of those days I found them as I 
knew them in the earlier days of my boyhood, unperverted, 
friendly, a faithful and confiding group of men and women, 
ready and willing to be led, and brutish only when misled by 
swinish lusts and distraught and maddened by the fiery flames 
of the paleface's whiskey. I met Hole-in-the-Day, knew Little 
Crow, Good Thunder, and other less notable chiefs and head 
men of the Northwest, and not a few of the common rank and 
file. I can even say that I knew "Old Bets," of long and doubt- 
ful recollections, here in the city of St. Paul ; but there were 
better days even for her, the earlier, wiien fairer things can be 
well said, before she became a common vagrant, 

Will you bear with me while I relate a single incident ? In 
Lafayette, Indiana, I met a lady parishioner, who chanced to 
show me a daguerreotype which she cherished with the fondest 
attachment. To my great surprise, it was that of "Old Bets." 
The lady was the daughter of an army officer who had been 
sent with his company to occupy Fort Snelling. She was born 
while the company was in winter quarters on the little island 
in the jMississippi just below the Fort. The company was there 
encamped because of the insufficient barracks of the uncom- 
pleted fort. Strange to say, upon this lady's birth, "Old Bets" 
or "Young Bets," as it was then, was summoned and acted as 
nurse to mother and child. So kind and so gentle, so efficient 
were the services of the Indian girl, that the lieutenant and his 
family ever cherislied the kindest thoughts and warmest afl:'ec- 
tion for her. 

The first building used in ]\Iinneapolis as a schoolhouse is 
said to have been an abandoned lumbermen's camp, a veritable 
shanty 20 by 30 feet in size, on xVnson Northup's laud, near his 
house, and hard by the present St. Paul and ^Milwaukee station. 
Between it and tJie site of the station was a small, deep pond, 
in wliich tlie boys used to swim during the noon recess and 
after school. In front was a wide-spreading swamp, wliere 



cowslips grew in abundance, and the white and yellow moc- 
casin flowers. The teacher of this school was ]\tay Miller, sis- 
ter of Col. John H. Stevens' wife, later Mrs. Robinson. She 
was succeeded by a seafaring man, Green by name, who, learn- 
ing the utility of flogging in the English navy, extended its 
service lustily and at short intervals upon us boys. 

I recall several other private schools in different places, one 
especially on Bridge street, taught by Miss Electa Hartwell, 
since we boys used to infest the baker's shop just over the way 
and invest our change in gingerbread, in pieces of so large di- 
mensions that we were wont to speak of them as ''quarter sec- 
tions,'' not an unfamiliar term or epithet to the sons of 
pioneers. Mr. A. K. Hartwell, a brother of Electa, also kept a 
school in Fletcher's Hall on Helen street. 

In November, 1858, the historic Union School, a two and a 
half story brick building, built by the city, was opened under 
George B. Stone, with a staff of teachers, two of whom were 
]\Irs. Lucy Rogers and i\Irs. S. B. Grimshaw. At a later time, 
when the city of Minneapolis wanted the block of land on which 
this first schoolhouse stood, to erect the present City Hall, the 
block was found a portion of my father's original plat of eighty 
acres, secured, patented and owned by him, then and now, re- 
corded in the county records under the name of D. M. Cool- 
baugh. Under the ruling of Judge Lochren, this valuable piece 
of property was adjudged forfeited by our family on the score 
of its having been in possession of other hands for twenty 
years without protest, no witnesses nor documents appearing, 
either of his giving or in any wise disposing of the same. Here 
in this school I acquired a sufficiency of Greek and Latin and 
other knowledge to gain an entrance to an Eastern college. 

Mr. George B. Stone was called from Fall River, Mass. He 
was a graduate of Brown University, a ripe scholar and skill- 
ful teacher, a wise disciplinarian and thorough organizer, un- 
der whose guidance the several city schools took form and or- 
der. All of the old surviving pupils, as I myself, look back 
with precious and grateful memories to the sweet and tender, 
but strict and strong, personal influences he brought to bear 
upon us. Under liis loving and masterful sway we had to work, 
learned to work, and, further, learned to love the work. ^ His 
was the most thorough and rigid discipline I ever knew, of 



which there was no let-iip until we acquired the habit of ab- 
solute self control. He put every pupil upon his honor, both 
as to behavior and study, and then attended to our keeping it 
untarnished. In the due course of time, the order was most 
perfect and self regulating, and the zeal and interest in study 
unequalled. ^Ir. Stone resigned to accept the broader field and 
more lucrative position of a professorship in AVashington Uni- 
versity, then as now a favorite institution of St. Louis. Dur- 
ing the Civil War lie visited the barracks of the young soldiers, 
particularly those of the ^Minnesota troops temporarily quar- 
tered there, relieving the tedium of idle camp life by supplying 
school books to the soldiers and instructing them in the pros- 
ecution of studies broken off by enlistment and service. 

One schoolmate, George Case, grandson of Emmanuel Case, 
years after the war, told me that under the kindly and gen- 
erous tuition thus furnished he completed his algebra and 
geometry. Under Prof. Stone's supervision other soldiers ad- 
vanced themselves in interrupted courses of reading and study. 
To many besides myself, he remains the ideal, most beloved 
teacher. Thoroughness was the marked characteristic of his 
life and his work. 

Under his guidance an organization was form^ed of the High 
School and intermediate classes, known as ''The Chrysalis," in 
which the study of parliamentary law was cultivated, with 
presentation of original essays, recitations, and an occasional 
play before the footlights. Thus were engendered the love of 
books and some elementary familiarity with the best British 
and American authors. At ]\Ir. Stone's suggestion we had a 
course of public lectures by professional men of local reputa- 
tion, and now and then of wider prominence. One most pleas- 
ing and acceptable lecture was by AYilliam L. Banning of St. 
Paul. AVe secured Bayard Taylor, then perhaps the most pop- 
ular lecturer in the country, his subject being, ''The Land of 
the Midnight Sun;" his price was high, several hundred dol- 
lars, but we cleared seventy-five dollars. 

This sum Ave devoted to the establishment of a public 
library, of which at that time there was none. To the best of 
my knowledge and belief this was the first money donated for 
that laudable purpose, and not long afterward it eventuated, 
with increase of other gifts and the growth of popular interest, 


to the founding of the xithenaeum, which still later and more 
fully developed into the present Minneapolis Public Library. 
Years after our humble incipient effort a splendid endowment 
came, to make sure and permanent our feeble enterprise, 
through the generous bequest of lands and rentals from Dr. 
Kirby Spencer, a dentist, then a resident of the city. 

Between the years of '51 and '61 many men of note, and 
some of more than national reputation, visited the Twin Cities. 
The wife of Cyrus Aldrich, first Congressman from ]Minne- 
apolis, once told me the very great number of well known and 
distinguished personages she had entertained in her hospitable 
home. The number was so great, the names so numerous, I 
would fail in any attempt at recall. Two came whose name 
and fame were equally great at home and abroad, Edward 
Everett and AYilliam H. Seward. 

The visit of Seward in the newly created state of IMinne- 
sota was not an ordinary event. It was more than of local 
importance. It encouraged the feeling that we were a real 
and increasingly large factor of the mighty forces upbuilding 
the Greater Union yet to be. His coming was of national sig- 
nificance. His words and his prominence in the world's pol- 
itics combined to create and make substantial (to democra- 
tize) that growing sentiment, that Minnesota was to bear an 
essential and conspicuous part in the nation's glory, which sub- 
sequently Alexander Ramsey, the War Governor, could rely 
upon when in AYasliington he offered to Lincoln the first body 
of volunteer troops to face the rising, yea, the already risen 

Seward was full of statecraft, an accomplished scholar and 
cultivated gentleman, a diplomat of the highest order, a royal 
patriot, a wise far-seeing citizen, an American whose vision of 
his country's greatness was like that of ^Marcus TuUius Cicero, 
of unlimited scope, wliose eagle eye scanned the horizon on 
land and sea to extend his country's mission. No man now 
doubts the wisdom of the Alaska Purchase, though at the crisis 
of its issue he stood quite solitary and alone in the advocacy 
of the scheme Avhose ratification has strengthened tlie long arm 
of the republic, with Pacific coast lines from San Diego on tlie 
south to Bering's strait on tlie north, and has further enriched 
her with inexhaustible mines of gold, silver, copper, and coal. 

EARLY DAYS OF MINNESOTA, 1851 to 1861. 495 

Seward was heralded to speak in St. Paul on September 18, 
1860. AYell nigh all Minneapolis invaded St. Paul to hail the 
chief of statesmen and give him welcome. The streets of the 
city were alive with citizens from near and far; wide-awakes 
and military companies marched in procession with the citi- 
zens, at beat of drum and martial airs. Upon the steps of the 
first Minnesota capitol, the venerable statesman faced an im- 
mense throng of the new state's representative sons, and ex- 
pectancy beamed from every eye. From that rostrum of the 
public forum, he delivered an address of singular and prophetic 

This address, entitled ''Political Equality the National 
Idea," is published in The Works of William H. Seward, edited 
by George E. Baker, 1861, forming pages 330-347 of Volume 
IV. First he alluded to his voyage by steamboat from Prairie 
du Chien to St. Paul, with praise of the grandeur and beauty 
of the river valley, its inclosing bluffs, "sentinel walls that 
look down on the Mississippi," and the splendor of Lake Pepin 
seen at the close of an autumn day. Continuing in the intro- 
ductory remarks Avhich led up to his main theme in the presi- 
dential campaign then in progress, Seward said: 

I find myself now, for the first time, on the highlands in the center 
of the continent of North America, equidistant from the waters of 
Hudson's bay and the gulf of Mexico, from the Atlantic ocean to the 
ocean in which the sun sets ".In other days, study- 
ing what might perhaps have seemed to others a visionary subject, I 
have cast about for the future, the ultimate central seat of power of 
the North American people. I have looked at Quebec and at New 
Orleans, at Washington and at San Francisco, at Cincinnati and at 
St. Louis, and it has been the result of my best conjecture that the 
seat of power for North America would yet be found in the valley of 
Mexico; that the glories of the Aztec capital would be renewed, and 
that city would become ultimately the capital of the United States of 
America. But I have corrected that view, and I now believe that the 
last seat of power on the great continent will be found somewhere 
within a radius not very far from the very spot where I stand, at the 
head of navigation on the Mississippi river and on the great Mediter- 
ranean lakes. 

If Seward's words and vision of tlie future helped to create 
and. substantiate the idea of ^Minnesota 's fellowship in the un- 
exampled development of the great middle west, Edward 



Everett, a year later, awakened the latent ardor and kindled 
the slumbering embers of loyalty to duty into flames that led 
our patriots and their sons in the First Minnesota and other 
regiments on the fields of carnage to make more bright and 
enduring the glory of Freedom's heights, and to leave the Star 
of the North shining with increase of splendor. T^^ho shall say 
that the voice of Everett, appealing to loyalty and to duty, was 
less efficient, in preaching the crusade of war, than the Chicago 
minstrel, Jules Lombard, of whom Lincoln said that his pa- 
riotic verse and voice of wondrous melody enlisted more sol- 
diers for the Union army than any hundred and fifty recruiting 
officers with beating drums and sounding fifes? 

Everett delivered in St. Paul in 1861 his famous oration on 
the Life of George AYashington. I was fortunate in being able 
to crowd in and secure a seat in the front row. His was the 
first form, figure, face, and bearing, that filled my youthful 
dream of an ideal patriot, scholar, statesman. Nothing seemed 
wanting in the man before me that could more fully round out 
a great orator. His splendid stature, his dignified demeanor, 
his noble countenance and lofty brow, his matchless voice, his 
scholarly choice of phrase and diction, his noble subject, "First 
in. war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen," 
— these, one and all, enthralled me. 

When in the peroration, in view of the ''irrepressible con- 
flict" of the Civil "War and the dire necessity to rise and save 
the Union, he called on old men and children, young men and 
maidens, to fly to the rescue in the name and power of Wash- 
ington, lifting high his hands above his lordly head, he cried, 

"Come one, come all! 
Come as the winds come, when forests are rended. 
Come as the waves come, when navies are stranded." 

My feelings were one with the wrought-up multitude beside 
me, that we thought we heard, as it were, the voice of God and 
the great prophet of Sabaoth, calling us to arms and to duty. 
With the lapse of more than half a century, I cannot even yet 
think long nor speak well of that awe-inspiring hour, when 
American eloquence reached its climax, without a return oi tlic 
thrill that then convulsed and the power of speech that over- 



Along with the great flood of western immigrants caused by 
the discovery of gold in California in 1848, came a fuller tide 
of men and women into the Mississippi valley, pioneers of 
more substantial type than the hardy adventurers who went 
over the Rockies, — men who sought homes for their families, 
not sudden wealth for themselves. These came into the fertile 
prairies of Illinois and Iowa, from New York and New Eng- 
land, a generation later than the same class of worthy pioneers 
settled northern Ohio and Indiana. From 1848 to 1860 they 
streamed up the great river and its tributaries by hundreds 
and by thousands, settling in Minnesota and adjoining states 
and territories. Some authentic figures of comparison will 
make this remarkable influx more evident. 

In 1850 the town of St. Anthony was credited with 538 in- 
habitants, and there were a half dozen people on the west side. 
Only four years later that town had 3,000 citizens, if we in- 
clude the 500 then estimated to be on the w^est side; and on 
November 2, 1854, they asked the Legislature for a city char- 
ter, "in order to manage their local affairs better," and to 
make a better comparison with St. Paul, which then claimed 
7,000 inhabitants. This charter was obtained in 1855. The 
wild-cat currency" of '57, and the hard times of the two years 
following, checked this rather too rapid growth, but yet there 
were over 6,000 people at the Falls when the Civil "War broke 
out. In 1849, when Minnesota was organized as a territory, it 
had 4,057 inliabitants, and 6,077 a year later ; after eight years, 
in 1857, there were numbered 150,037 souls, and 172,022 three 
years later, showing more than 4,000 per cent increase for the 
eleven years. 

•Road at the moTUlily mootinf? of the Executive Council, May 11, 1914, 
This papfr was illu.strated with about yixty laiUei-u views, loaned by 
Edward A. IJroniley, ii}ioto,u"ra[)iicr and journalist, whose extensive anti- 
quarian kuowIedt;c- of the Twin Cities has also supplied much other aid. 



As typical of the homes these sturdy settlers built, I may 
mention the log cabin by Joseph Dean in 18i9, just off the 
Shakopee road on the north bank of the Minnesota river. This 
claim shanty" still stands in most excellent preservation, a 
hundred yards from the north end of the Bloomington bridge, 
being used as a storehouse for household goods, just as sub- 
stantial and dry a receptacle as a bonded warehouse. Mr, 
Dean's interests and home were transferred to the city of 
Minneapolis, where he became a leading lumberman and citi- 

The Falls of St. Anthony were really the pivotal point in 
this region, for they promised a splendid water power, waiting 
development. Each settler in the new village of St. Anthony 
strove to make it the center of commercial activity. There was 
the Upper town," around the site of the Pillsbury mill, and 
extending along Main street as far up the river as to Third 
avenue north; and the lower or ''Cheever town," the region 
now recently made part of the larger University campus, in- 
cluding Prospect, State, Church, Union, and Harvard streets. 
Near the site of the Elliott Hospital of the University, in front 
of his hotel, the Cheever House, Mr. "William A. Cheever erected 
a wooden lookout tower, on the door of which a sign read ''Pay 
your dime and climb." He was on the stage route up the old 
Territorial road, and received many guests and dimes. But the 
following event as chronicled in the Minnesota Republican for 
Thursday, October 19, 185^, quite cut off Mr. Cheever 's chances 
for being the center of the town. 

The Regents have consummated the purchase of the Taylor & 
George property on the hluff above Cheever's, as a site for the Uni- 
versity buildings. They have obtained 25 acres at this point, which 
Is universally admitted to be the most beautiful location in the West, 
commanding, as it does, a magnificent view of the Falls, river, and 
country on the west of the river, and covered with large and stately 
oaks. The price paid was $^,000. 

Eighteen years later, as a student, I actually surveyed the 
old campus with rod and chain and found it to contain twenty- 
three acres and a fraction. The *'view of the Falls" is not so 
good since the apron was put in. Spirit island has disappeared, 
and the Great Northern viaduct, tlie Tenth Avenue bridge, the 
Pillsbury dam, and the railway freight bridge just below, have 



been built, quite cutting off the outlook up the river. But the 
greater University campus, more than five times as large now, 
really affords fine river views. The value of this really beau- 
tiful site has gone up into several hundred times its original 
cost, evidencing the wisdom of those first Regents. Yet I must 
confess great sympathy with Dr. Folwell's plan once laid be- 
fore the Legislature, to set aside on upper Lake Minnetonka 
several hundred acres for all the departments of the Univer- 
sity, and thereon to construct such stately buildings as are now 
being erected, but far away from the trains and noise of tlie 
city and in ideal setting of suburban beauty. 

The St. Anthony Express, the first newspaper at the Falls, 
founded in ^lay, 1851, is remarkable for its high note of citi- 
zenship in its local items, as for instance: "Let us place ]\Iin- 
nesota University on a basis eciual to that of Yale;" "Keep 
litter off the streets, improve your lots w^ith shrubbery and 
fence, and build in good taste back from the sidewalk." It 
printed a series of "Letters to Young Ladies," after the style 
of the modern Ladies' Home Journal. 

No story of Minneapolis is complete without prominent 
mention of Col. John IT. Stevens, who for Franklin Steele and 
himself located the first claim dwelling house on the west side of 
the river, a modest wooden building which I well remember in 
my boyhood, on the hillside some 100 feet from the river, where 
the recently discarded Union Station stood. Winding down to 
the river in front of his house, from the bridge road, after the 
ferry w^as superseded, was the road up which was hauled most 
of the water used for domestic purposes in the town. At any 
time during the day could be seen a flat cart backed into the 
river, one horse and one or more barrels, to be filled by dipping 
with a pail, completing the outfit. Later from this little shore 
line in front of Col. Stevens' house we venturesome boys would 
walk out on the logs, backed up from the mill pond below, to 
the boom line, some 75 feet. If we slipped and went between 
the logs, as we did occasionally, for the whole trick was a for- 
bidden one, we might come up between logs and be saved or liit 
our heads on one and stay under forever! The former expe- 
rience was mine, once only. Lower down the river, where the 
fl-our mill raceway now begins, was a shady, unfrequented high 
shore, where our fathers used to take us to teach us to swim. 

r" — 


You know how this Stevens house, well preserved, built in 
1849 by Charles INIousseau (whose son is still on the police 
force) and Captain John Tapper, the ferryman, was purchased 
by the city and hauled by the school children of Minneapolis, 
on j\Iay 28, 1896, from Sixteenth avenue south and Fourth 
street to its present permanent and picturesque resting place 
in Minnehaha Park just north of the west end of the bridge 
leading to the Soldiers' Home. 

Colonel Stevens was always a factor in the growth of the 
city and the state, being especially enthusiastic and untiring in 
his devotion to intelligent agriculture. A beautiful bronze 
statue of him, in his long coat and slouch hat, stands at the 
foot of Portland avenue, placed there in his memory by his 
daughter, the late Mrs. P. B. "Winston. 

The Minnesota Republican records that "the Minnesota 
mill, Capt. Rollins owner, ground 36 bushels and 29 pounds of 
corn into flour in less than one hour." Such was the humble 
beginning of the greatest flour industry of the world. "When, 
as a student in Philadelphia in 1876, I told that our city ground 
25,000 barrels of wheat flour daily, no one believed me ! Last 
year (1913) the Minneapolis production of flour was in round 
numbers over 17,000,000 barrels, averaging over 50,000 daily. 

Affairs boomed in the new town of "All Saints," as the west 
side was known until I\Ir. Charles Hoag, November 5, 1852, 
devised the combination of Minnehaha, Dakota for "Laughing 
Water," with the Greek affix, "polls," a city, meaning "Laugh- 
ing Water City" or "City of the Falls." This unique and 
euphonious name, although objectionably hybrid from a phil- 
ological view, has helped to make our city famous ; for it tells, 
even without the silent "h," long since dropped, just what 
and where it is. The town in Kansas that adopted our name 
has by no means the same right to it. Under date of November 
2, 1854, we read : 

In this promising town there are already built, and in process of 
building, fifteen stores, of which ten are open to trade, one hardware, 
one book-store, one extensive furniture establishment, one well sap- 
plied with carriages and chairs, and the balance pretty well filled with 
dry goods and groceries, etc. Minneapolis has also a sawmill, a black- 
smith shop, a Government land ofiice, a printing office, a post office, 
a land agency and surveyor's office, one physician, three organized 



churches with pastors, and about 500 inhabitants, with room for a 
good many more. It is directly opposite St. Anthony, and the two 
places are in a few weeks to be united by a complete and elegant wire 
suspension bridge. When that bridge becomes free and the two towns 
are incorporated into one, maybe there will be a city as large as any 
in Minnesota. 

This naive prophecy has been fulfilled, but not immediately. 
The bridge was not free until after the Civil "War, for I myself 
later used its tickets, three cents one way or five cents over 
and back. The bridge was paid for by stock, the first issue 
being for $35,000, sold to the people of the two towns. ''Six 
dwellings a week or 300 a year," is the rate recorded for the 
growth of Minneapolis, November 25, 1854. No wonder they 
could afford a bridge ! 

It is a pity that there is no picture of John Tapper's ferry, 
over which, up to January in 1855, all the citizens and the 
manufactured supplies for the little town were brought. 

There were many delays in completing the bridge. As early 
as December 11, 1851, E. H. Conner, the foreman, and the five 
or six men employed, first crossed the loose planking. Foot 
passengers were thereafter allowed to cross, but in January 
the bridge swayed in the wind so violently as to break up the 
planking, and it became necessary to place fresh wire guys to 
new" piers on shore on each side The toll for crossing on these 
rather uncertain planks w\is one dime for each foot passenger 
each way. Not until January 23, 1855, was the bridge formally 
opened to travel, and the occasion was part of a brilliant cele- 
bration and dinner at the St. Charles Hotel. 

In the spring of 1855 the census of Hennepin county was 
taken as 4,100; and it is recorded, "We have had an east- 
ern mail every day for four days." That spring was evidently 
an early one, for we read that Allen Harmon, whose claim was 
away out near what is now Twelfth street and Hennepin 
avenue, and who gave his name to Harmon Place, ''had pota- 
toes in bud on the 30th of May, and new potatoes on June 24th." 

This new community, largely derived from New England, 
was not unmindful of the education of its youth. May 29, 1856, 
the Board selected the northwest half of block 77, where the 
City Hall now stands, as a site for the Union School House; 
and in 1857 this "double brick school house, the best school 


building north of St. Louis," was opened to scholars. It was 
built by Robert E. Grimshaw, a contractor who came to ^lin- 
neapolis two years before, tlie father of U. S. Marshal AY, H. 
Grimshaw, Elwood G. of Deadwood, ]\Irs. James Hunt of Cali- 
fornia, Mrs. George W. Cooley, Mrs. Charles M. Jordan, and 
Mrs. A. E. Benjamin of this city. He designed it as an exact 
copy of a school building in his home town, Bustleton, a suburb 
of Philadelphia. Mr. Grimshaw was responsible for many of 
the larger early buildings, including the Harrison Block, at the 
corner of Washington and Nicollet avenues, the First National 
Bank, and Vogeli's drug store on the opposite corner, which 
were recently razed for the Gateway Park, and the four Harri- 
son residences, w^hich are still standing. 

In my childhood recollections Mr. Grimshaw was notorious 
for his leading connection with a debating club, ''The Liberal 
League, abhorred by the good church people, but kept much 
alive each Sunday afternoon in Harrison's Llall by ]\Ir. Grim- 
shaw, S. C. Gale, C. A. Widstrand, 0. C. Merriman, Dr. A. F. El- 
liott and others. 

That Union School House was my first, and it brings back 
many recollections. It seemed to us very palatial. A broad 
central hall led through the building to rooms on either side, 
cut off from the hall by sliding glass partitions, so that the 
four rooms of each floor could be practically thrown into one 
for general school exercises. A huge wood-burning stove, long 
enough to receive four-feet cordwood, heated each room; and 
each stove gave more radiation by having a long, hollow circular 
sheet-iron drum above the Are box. This school house, with its 
lively assemblage of some 250 children, was the scene of as many 
epoch-making events as any of the seventy school buildings in 
the present city. We w^ere likew^ise ''Good, bad, and indiffer- 
ent," as nowadays. 

The second principal, who shall be nameless, was a powerful 
man, of a very fiery temper. Two brothers of Scotch descent, 
living not far from the school, were to him especially exasperat- 
ing by their breaclios of discipline. He so far forgot himself 
one day as to kick these boys down the stone steps. The boys 
went home, nursing their bruises and tlieir temper, and tiu-ough 
their parents m.oved for the principal's dismissal. He was a 
good teacher and disciplinarian, and was kept in his position by 


a lenient community because good teachers were scarce. The 
boys could not forget and one night in 1864 the Union School 
went up in smoke. Shavings saturated with kerosene were 
seen burning on each floor, so that there was no doubt as to the 
incendiary origin of the fire. The Scotch family suddenly dis- 
appeared from the community, and the board had to house their 
children in temporary quarters while a new building was being 

Although the ambitious citizens of Hennepin county held 
their first fair in 1854, a year before the United States gave 
them clear title to their claims and enabled them to record a 
plat of Minneapolis, the first State Fair was not held until 1860, 
being then in the old quadrangle at Fort Snelling. Governor 
Lewis Cass of ^Michigan, whose name was given to nine counties 
in as many states and to two towns in Michigan, was the orator 
of that occasion. To Fort Snelling we took all eastern visitors 
and strangers, where *'The Old Lookout" gave a truly magnifi- 
cent view of the valleys of the Mississippi and Minnesota. The 
removal of that old round wooden platform, in the modernizing 
of the Fort in the 90 's, was a distinct scenic loss to the vicinity 
of the Twin Cities. 

Minnehaha Falls, known as Brown's Falls until made famous 
by Longfellow's ''Song of Hiawatha" in 1855, has done more to 
advertise Minneapolis than any other one thing, for no one can 
come here without seeing the supposed scene of his legends. 
This waterfall and the beautiful Minnehaha Park surrounding 
it are one of the most familiar and valuable assets of the city. 

The first daily paper at the Falls was The Falls Evening 
News. From Volume I, No. 1, September 28, 1857, I select the 
following interesting and instructive advertisements in the 
separate Minneapolis columns. 

**W. D. Washburn, Attorney & Counselor at Law, Cor. of 
Helen & Second Sts., Collections, to invest and loan money, enter 
and locate lands, pay taxes, examine titles, and attend promptly 
to all business entrusted to him." Here follow in full fifteen 
references to eastern men and firms outside of the territory and 
five in St. Paul and elsewhere, as the humble beginning of the 
business and fortune of the future United States senator. 

Edwin S. Jones, afterward Judge of Probate and president 
of the Hennepin County Bank, has a similar card; also Cornell 


& Vanderbergh, who became judges, one of the Supreme Court; 
Sherburne & Beebe (the late Judge Franklin Beebe), with some 
twenty references ; Henry Hill, Parsons & Morgan, Cushman & 
Woods, Carlos Wilcox, etc., all in the real estate and legal lines. 
I think it was David Morgan of the above firm, whose funeral 
five years later in the old Plymouth Church, at the corner of 
Fourth street and Nicollet avenue, was the first I ever attended. 
It was an awesome occasion, with a large attendance, for Mr. 
Morgan had gone out among the first volunteers in the Indian 
outbreak, and was brought home with an arrow through his 

C. A. Widstrand, advertising his ''Music & Stationery Store," 
was an independent and notable figure on the streets of those 
days, much beloved by all who knew him. 

Thomas Hale Williams, Minneapolis Bookseller and Sta- 
tioner, Minnetonka street (next south of the Suspension 
Bridge), became, upon the organization of the Minneapolis 
Athenaeum two years later, in 1859, its librarian, and was for 
years the uncompromising custodian of this really excellent 
book collection, the nucleus of our present Public Library. It 
may be of interest to note here that the original stockholders in 
the Athenaeum, in lieu of their former legal rights given up to 
the public, have the privilege of demanding the purchase by 
their permanent librarian of any line of books they may see fit, 
with the furtlier understanding that tlie original Athenaeum 
Library is always to be kept intact. 

To go back to our advertisements : George H. Keith, M. D., 
dentist, was afterward postmaster; commemoration of his wife 
was recently very beautifully manifested by her son-in-law, 
Mr. E. A. Merrill, in the gift of the Free Baptist church prop- 
erty, on Fifteenth street and Nicollet avenue, to the Young 
Women's Christian Association. A. L. Bausman, dentist, min- 
istered to nearly all the early citizens of prominence, and was 
always an important political factor. 

C. L. Anderson and W. H. Leonard, my father, physicians, 
were partners and friends ; ^l. R. Greely, M. D., adds to his card 
this unique offer, ''Surgical operations performed either with 
or without the use of chloroform or ether," an offer that would 
not attract nowadays. 

On April 5, 18G0, the first Plymouth Church building, a 



wooden structure of some pretensions, facing Fourth street on 
the southeast corner of Nicollet, burned to the ground, having 
been set by incendiaries. The fire was thought to be the re- 
sult of the church's drastic action in a very stirring temperance 
movement. It was late in the afternoon, as I have reason to 
remember distinctly, for a certain small boy had been sent to 
bed early for punishment and found it a most exciting diversion 
to watch the fire from the upper back widow of his Second 
street home, just north of Hennepin avenue. As the flames 
lighted up the sky, the few intervening buildings were brought 
into bold outline, especially the original First Baptist Church, a 
brick building facing Third street between Hennepin and Nicol- 
let avenues, the most ambitious of the churches of that day. 
Plymouth Church was rebuilt larger than before, on the same 
site ; and it was removed in the 80 's, to make way for the present 
buildings, to Seventh avenue north and Third street, where it is 
now a crowded tenement building. 

The Plymouth Church quintette in those early years con- 
sisted of Harlow A. and S. C. Gale, brothers, Mr. and Mrs. C. 
M. Cushman, and Mr. Joseph H. Clark. They were in demand 
not only on Sundays, but for many funerals and concerts. Mr. 
S. C. Gale, Llrs. Cushman, and her brother, Mr. Clark, still sur- 
vive, the latter living in Santa Monica, California. 

Refugees from the Sioux massacre, in 1862, came even to 
Minneapolis, more than eighty miles from the scenes of the 
slaughter. Scores of the frightened settlers and their families 
came, generally in the covered farm wagons or "prairie schoon- 
ers'* in which they had journeyed forth only a few years before. 
On the wagons were all the household goods they could crowd, 
with the family ; and behind were such cows, calves, colts, and 
dogs, as could travel. Every home was opened to them for the 
days of the scare. They flocked into our side of the town from 
Bottineau prairie, in AYright county, as the unwooded stretch 
from Buffalo to Monticello was called, and from the northern 
part of Hennepin county, wild, tired, and hungry. I remember 
how our big house served as barracks for a time, even the halls 
being occupied by women and children. 

It will always be tlie glory of ]\rinnesota, that she was the 
first to respond to the call for troops in the stirring first months 
of the Rebellion. But, as elsewhere, the burdens fell doubly 


upon those left behind. 'Men were actually scarce. It was 
impossible to get work done, and women and children were 
pressed into tlie service for unusual labor. Many physicians 
went into the army, leaving more than double duty for those 
left behind in a community rapidly increasing by immigra- 
tion. Dr. Pliilo L. Hatch used to tell how for one week he 
never had an opportunity to sleep in bed,- but went from one 
call to another, day and night. The mails were never more 
eagerly sought. "We small boys had the regular duty of going 
for letters, and in doing so had to either wade through or skirt 
a small frog-pond at the lower end of the present Gateway 
Park, where the City Hall stood from 1887 to 1912. 

The post office of war times was in various locations around 
Bridge Square, at First street and Hennepin avenue, later at 
the Pence Opera House corner, and for years in Center Block 
(recently razed), in a building kno^vn as 216 Nicollet avenue, 
owned by R. E. Grimshaw ; ^nd later still it occupied the first 
floor of the City Hall, until the present Post Office Building 
was completed, which again is soon to be succeeded by the 
new building now in progress of construction. 

Everybody lived ''down town" in those days, for there was 
no strictly residence portion of the city. All were neighbors 
and friends, greeting each other with a ''Good morning," and 
going home to dinner (not lunch) at noon, closing their shops 
for an hour or so. 

The Gale brothers, S. C. and Harlow A., lived near Third 
avenue south and Third street, in a white wooden house long 
since torn down. Judge E. S. Jones lived on Second ave- 
nue north, between First and Second streets, in a two story 
brick dwelling, now a hotel for Icelanders. B. S. Bull lived 
across the alley from Judge Jones ; 0. M. Laraway and Thomas 
Gardner, over stores on Bridge Square ; J. B. Bassett, in a very 
substantial brick dwelling on the river bank in the present 
Omaha freiglit yards. My father, Dr. William H. Leonard, and 
Mr. Schuyler Johnson, ]\Irs. Andrew Rinker's father, lived on 
. the south side of Second street near Hennepin avenue, in build- 
ings which are now a hide store and the headquarters of the 
Volunteers of America ; and I might recall many other familiar 
names of early citizens, whose homes were down on Fifth and 
Seventh streets toward the old Court House. 



Dr. Alfred E. Ames, whose large and splendid home (for 
those days) was on the corner of Fourth street and Eighth 
avenue south, had the first greenhouse in the city and employed 
\Yilliam Buckendorf, a young German, as his gardener. In the 
very stringent times of 1857, AYilliam received a letter from 
the old country on which was due ftfty cents postage. He 
knew it contained money and asked Dr. Ames for the change. 
The doctor replied, ''William, I know I owe you for several 
months' wages besides, but I have not seen half a dollar in 
many days. I'll tell you what I'll do, you take this deed to 
lot so and so, on Seventh street, next to William Washburn's 
house, and see if you can raise some money on it." Just what 
William got for a lot, now worth thousands, the story does 
not tell, but he paid his postage ! 

The second schoolhouse stood on the corner of Helen street 
and Washington avenue, where the Post Office is now being 
built, and where the Windom Block stood for years. It was 
used while the new Washington School was being built, in 
1864-67. It was a rambling wooden building, owned by ^Er. 
Loren Fletcher, housing all the scholars of the city only by 
considerable crowding. Back of it, near the center of the 
block, was a low wet spot frequented by the pigs belonging to 
the owners of the shanties between there and the river along 
First and Second streets. On warm afternoons, when lessons 
lagged and we were anxious to be out of doors, we boys on the 
front seats, while the teacher was in the back of the room, by 
a skill acquired by long practice outside, would call those pigs 
so enticingly that they actually came up to the back door and 
would stick their fore feet and heads into the room. One day, 
when quite engrossed in this pastime, a resounding wliack on 
the side of the head reminded me that I was guilty of a serious 
breach of discipline. The Russell brothers, sons of R. P. Rus- 
sell, sat behind me and aided and abetted this scandal. 

The close of the war brought back the veterans and their 
accompaniments. In my father's case, these included two 
horses, one of which, a big white charger known as "Charlie," 
had carried him as surgeon through the siege of Vicksburg. 
A colored woman servant was also included, "Aunt Hester 
Patterson," wlio had been his cook for a year or more in that 
and other campaigns. "Aunty" proved a notable darkey char- 


acter, a stalwart ex-slave from ^lississippi. She arrived in true 
soutliern fasliiou, with all her earthly belongings tied in a huge 
sheeted bundle on top of her head. As she strode over from 
the East Side stage office across the bridge to my father's house 
on Second street, she literally swept down with her bundle all 
the loose store goods hanging to the low wooden awnings of 
those days. Her path through Bridge Square was strewn with 
wreckage, making her coming notable for days. Her destina- 
tion was *'Dr. Leonard's mansion," for that was her sole idea 
of the unfamiliar North. Aunty lived to become a well known 
figure among her own and the white people and finally died in 
the 70 's, in a shanty built for and given to her by some of the 
lumbermen on Hennepin island, who operated their line of saw- 
mills, known as the ''East Side platform," burned in 1870 and 
never rebuilt. 

Minneapolis became a town by act of legislature in 1856, 
but it Vv^as not until 1867 that she obtained a city charter. In 
the beginning of this last corporate existence she had essen- 
tially the limited boundaries of the old town, being bounded 
on the east by the river, north by Sixth avenue, west by Lyn- 
dale avenue, and south by an irregular line from Lyndale and 
Hennepin avenues to Cedar avenue and to the river. Only five 
years later, in 1872, Minneapolis absorbed the older town of 
St. Anthony, had a population of about 20,000, and began to 
expand in all directions. 

In July, 1906, a half century as town and city was celebrated 
by the Hennepin County Territorial Pioneers and the Native 
Sons of Minnesota, w^ith a procession across the city and 
speeches on Richard Chute Square, at the same time establish- 
ing the "Godfrey House" in that little park as the oldest dwell- 
ing in St. Anthony and a repository of local historical memen- 

June 22, 1862, the "William. Crooks" was the first railway 
engine to haul a train up to the Falls, arriving on Main street 
in St. Anthony at the east end of the bridge from Nicollet 
island. The depot was soon removed to Second avenue north- 
east and Fourth street, and for a year all west side people had 
to go over there to take or meet a train. Our first Minneapolis 
depot was on TJiird street and Third avenue north, that of the 
St. Paul, Minneapolis & IManitoba railway, earlier the St. Paul 



& Pacific railroad, which was in some ways a better name than 
the final one, the Great Northern railway. 

In 1868 the value of the manufactured product of the new 
city of Minneapolis was $5,000,000. The next year St. Paul 
and Minneapolis sent out the Northern Pacific railroad survey, 
starting from "Washington avenue. 

Our ambitious town got a great scare in 1869, when a sec- 
tion of the limestone ledge under the Falls fell into and 
wrecked a tunnel that Mr. "William AY. Eastman was building 
under Hennepin island. ''Save the Falls" was the cry heard 
in Washington, and the United States government proceeded 
to spend over a million dollars to construct a concrete barrier 
from shore to shore underneath the limestone, a dam of solid 
masonry some twenty-five feet high, fifteen feet wide at the 
base and four feet at the top. 

Washington avenue was the main street of those days. 
Some notable houses were the leading dry goods store, of Bell 
Brothers (J. E. and D. C. Bell), at the corner of Nicollet ave- 
nue; Charles M. Cushman's book store, and George Savory's 
drug store; and lastly Bond's restaurant, the only good place 
for spread" in town, except that of Cyphers, a later rival, 
which stood next to Deshon's livery on Nicollet avenue below 
Washington avenue, where the Miller-Davis printing plant is 
now. All of the University eating functions in the early years 
were held in one of these then palatial parlors, but there were 
strict regulations as to being away and at home by ten-thirty 
o'clock! That would seem strange nowadays. 

By 1867 the W^ashington School was completed and occu- 
pied, on the site of the Union School and of the Court House. 
It was a fine substantial building of four stories and basement, 
built of limestone from Minneapolis quarries. There were four 
grade rooms on each floor, except that the third story had at 
its north side one large room devoted to the High School. 
Recitations were held in the upper French-roof story. The first 
principals managed the whole from an office in the basement, 
and taught classes in the High School at certain hours. Other 
ward or grade schools multiplied as the town grew, but this 
building was the headquarters for years. 

The first Superintendent of Public Schools was George B. 
Stone; W. 0. Hiskey in 1868 reigned over twenty-seven teach- 



ers; but to Orson V. Tousley, who was superintendent from 
1871 to 1886, should be given the credit of putting the school 
system on its feet. During the early part of his administration, 
indeed from the opening of the AVashington building, there 
stood on the corner of Third avenue north and Fifth street, in 
the extreme corner of the school yard, a wooden bell-tower or 
Pagoda," perliaps two and a half stories high, the bell of 
which not only summoned to school, rang for recess, etc., but 
for years rang the alarm for all fires in the city, day or night. 
The fire alarm duties extended to James Bulger, the janitor of 
those days, and it was certainly a privilege to a boy to live 
within one block of that tocsin and get warning of all fires! 
The habit of responding to fire alarms is sometimes strong with 
me yet. There Avas no mistaking its warning, when in August, 
1872, it rang for the destruction of my father's residence and 
five other dwellings in the block where the Security and ]\Ic- 
Knight buildings now stand, while the firemen, through some 
mistake in cut-offs, stood by helpless without water. This bell, 
with its too frequent clangings, was soon afterward superseded 
by a fire-alarm telegraph system. 

Superintendent Tousley was a noted character whom many 
of us remember well. A graduate of AYilliams College and a 
lawyer, he came to us from a school in Ohio, tall, stern, a bril- 
liant speaker and teacher, but rather given to bullying his 
pupils. He occasionally met his match, as, for instance, when 
Miss Lillie Clark (late llrs. Fred C. Lyman) flashed back, ''You 
are talking to a lady, Professor I" At another occasion he sur- 
prised George II. Morgan (now a major in the U. S. army) and 
myself in the coat room, when we should have been in our seats. 
*'AVhat are you boys doing here?" he roared; "Swapping jack 
knives, unsight and unseen, ' ' w^as our truthful answer. * ' Who 's 
getting the best of it?" he asked, with a relaxing smile; ''I 
am," promptly answered the lucky one, disclosing the knife 
in his hand. The humor of the situation appealed to him, and 
he laughingly dismissed us to our seats without further com- 

One day, in the midst of the lessons, a little boy timidly ap- 
peared at the door and stood trembling, awaiting recognition. 
"What do you want?" roared Tousley; "I want to see Pro- 
fessor Toosley," stammered the boy. "Who sent you here?" 


he roared back across the long room; "Miss Cruikshank from 
Room A," was the answer. "You go back to Miss Cruikshank, 
and tell her that the 'ou' in my name is pronounced like 'ow' 
in 'cow/ " and the boy disappeared as though shot from a gun ! 

He was appointed a Regent of the University and served 
one term, when federal duties took him from the city. Return- 
ing on a visit some years later, he told some of us grown-up 
boys that he could not believe we dreaded and hated him so, 
and endeavored to correct the earlier impressions by a cor- 
diality of which he was very capable. After most excellent 
service in compiling the official records of the Chicago Exposi- 
tion of 1893, for the United States government, he died in 1902, 
at the age of sixtj'-eight years. 

On August 26, 1S65 (the date I find in "Mrs. Abby Men- 
denhall's Diary"), Gen. U. S. Grant visited Minneapolis. I 
well remember how my father lifted me above the crowd in 
the Nicollet House lobby, to look at the grim, gray warrior, in 
whose command he was for three years, and who was then be- 
ing groomed for the presidency. My impression is of a retiring 
man, short in stature, weary of the vociferous attention he was 
receiving, but a man of iron strength and will. 

In those days after the war, the Athenaeum gave each win- 
ter a "star course" of lectures in the old Pence Opera House, 
among which I recall (for they were real treats even to small 
boys) Anna Dickinson, on "Breakers Ahead;" Wendell Pliil- 
lips, on "The Lost Arts;" and Richard Proctor, on "Astron- 

The Academy of ]\Iusic, on the site of Temple Court, was 
built in 1869, and there the lively growing town heard opera by 
Adelaide Phillips and many others ; Robert G. Ingersoll, in "The 
Mistakes of Moses;" John G. Holland, who used to stand in 
the lobby and study his audience as they filed in ; and, of local 
talent, Rev. James H. Tuttle, and many others. The Academy 
was burned on Christmas Day, 1884, when the thermometer 
ranged away below zero. 

In the 70 's were held "Bill King's Fairs," in a now thickly 
settled territory south of Franklin avenue from Twenty-tliird 
avenue south to tlie river. Great wooden buildings displayed 
the mercliandise and stock, and a really fine race course brought 
the best horsemen of America. Col. William S. King was a 



wonderful impresario and manager and always kept things 
lively, while his secretary, Hon. Charles II. Clark, was a most 
efficient aide. On one occasion Horace Greeley, of the New 
York Tribune, was the orator and received from the manage- 
ment the finest pair of blankets the North Star AYoolen Mills 
then made, valued at $50. 

In 1875 the second Suspension Bridge, with its fine stone 
towers and broader dimensions, superseded the one of 1855, to 
be itself torn down, giving place for the present stone arch 
bridge, in 1890. 

May 2, 1878, in the early evening, six great flour mills were 
blown up by an ignition and explosion of flour dust, and eigh- 
teen lives were lost. Over in Lakewood cemetery, on the knoll 
overlooking Lake Calhoun, is a fine granite shaft commemorat- 
ing the event with the names of the victims; and a similar 
memorial tablet is placed on the north side of the rebuilt 
"Washburn A" mill. Each of these memorials bears the in- 
scription; "Labor, wide as earth, has its summit in Heaven." 

On the East Side, a place of much repute in the early times 
was "the old Chalybeate Springs," on the river bank just be- 
low the site of the Pillsbury "A" Mill. The city of St. Anthony 
built wooden steps and a long platform at these springs, for 
strangers and tlie public generally; and in the palmy days of 
the Winslow and Tremont hotels, before the Civil AYar, the 
walks were thronged with people who came down on summer 
afternoons and evenings to enjoy the scenery and the health- 
ful iron water. Later, in my student days at the University, it 
was a resort for those who would walk together and alone ! 
Only a few weeks ago, my daughter and I found the springs, 
with the red-stained ground and the old iron pipe, still flow- 
ing as of yore, but with no steps nor walks and an outlook 
badly damaged by the debris of new channels and by the city 
ownership of nennei)iu island with its pumping station. The 
water still smacks of iron, and is still therefore "chalybeate;" 
and just above, as it has stood since 1855, was the old limestone 
shop of E. Broad, the first iron w^orker, where the broad-axes 
and logging tools of tliat day were made. 

Instead of tlie Minikalida, Interlachen, and Athletic and 
Boat Clubs of today, society of long ago resorted to the Lake 
Calhoun Pavilion, a large summer hotel, where Mrs. Foreman's 



fine residence now stands. Hops and functions were held there, 
it being reached by carriages, and by sleighs in the winter time. 
This Pavilion was destroyed by fire within two years and was 
never rebuilt. It is worthy of note that it stood on the site of 
the first dwelling of white men in this city, as commemorated 
by the tablet on a boulder beside the Lake Calhoun parkway, 
bearing this inscription: ''On the hill above was erected the 
first dwelling in Minneapolis by Samuel W. and Gideon H. 
Pond, Missionaries to the Indians, June, 1834. Dedicated by 
the Native Sons of Minnesota, May 30, 1908.'' 

The University Coliseum, a huge wooden structure seating 
more than 3,000 people, the forerunner of the present Univer- 
sity Armory, knowTi irreverently among the students as " Pills- 
bury 's Barn," was the place for University commencements, 
balls, military drilling, and gymnasium work, from 1884 to 
1894, when it was burned quite to the ground. It stood just 
southeast of the present Sanford Hall, the women's dormitory, 
on the triangle of ground added to the campus from the home- 
stead of Mr. George W. Perkins, the late father-in-law of L. S. 
and George M. Gillette. 

The first street car in Minneapolis, horse-drawn of course, 
was started in 1875 ; but the first electrifying did not take place 
until 1888. Many will remember that just before this change 
for using electricity the Minneapolis Street Railway Company 
had spent many thousands of dollars in placing a cable line out 
First avenue south (now Marquette avenue), and was ready to 
put it in operation when electric power was shown to be far 
more economical. 

This paper may well be concluded by noting the names for- 
merly borne by the streets (now called avenues) which run 
transverse to the course of the Mississippi. These were re- 
named numerically as avenues within the first year after the 
union in 1872 of St. Anthony and Minneapolis, to distinguish 
them conveniently from the streets which are parallel 'svith the 
river, being therefore intersected by the avenues. Washington 
and University avenues arc exceptional, l)eing parallel with the 
Mississippi, so tliat more properly they should be called streets. 

Under dates of 1873 and 1874, maps of the enlarged city show 
in their order southeastward from Nicollet avenue and parallel 



therewith, running thus transverse to the river, the following- 
streets: Minnetonka, Helen, Oregon, California, Marshall, Cat- 
aract, Russell, Ames, Rice, Smith, Pearl, Huy, Hanson, Lake, 
Vine, Clay, Avon, and Lane streets, these being respectively the 
First to the Eighteenth avenues south, lying between Nicollet 
and Cedar avenues. Both the old names as streets and the new 
names as avenues are given on these maps, which belong to the 
time of transition from the old to the new. 

East of Cedar avenue on these maps are Aspen, Oak, AYal- 
nut. Elm, Maple, Pine, Spruce, "Willow, Birch, and Orange 
streets, being respectively the present Nineteenth to the Twen- 
ty-eighth avenues south. 

In the order from Hennepin avenue to the northwest and 
north were Utah, Kansas, Itasca, Dakota, Nebraska, Harrison, 
Lewis, Seward, Marcy, Benton, the next unnamed, then Moore, 
Fremont, Clayton, Bingham, Breckenridge, Cass, Douglas, Bu- 
chanan, Christmas, Howard, Clay, Mary Ann, and King streets, 
these being renamed respectively as the First to the Twenty- 
fourth avenues north. 

On the St. Anthony side. Central avenue had been earlier 
called Bay street; and thence southeastward were Mill, Pine, 
Cedar, Spruce, Spring, Maple, Walnut, Aspen, Birch, Willow, 
Elm, and A, B, etc., to G and H streets, now respectively the 
First to Nineteenth avenues southeast. 

Passing northwest and north from Central avenue, in the 
northeast part of the city, were in succession Linden, Oak, 
Dakota, Todd, Dana, W^ood, St. Paul, St. Anthony, St. Peter's,, 
St. Martin, St. Genevieve, Prairie, "Grove, and Lake streets,, 
which now are, in the same order, the First to the Fourteenth 
avenues northeast. 

Evidently the confusion arising after the two municipalities-, 
were united as the new and greater Minneapolis, through the: 
several duplications of street names west and east of the river,, 
-was one of the chief reasons for their renaming as avenues and 
under numbers for the four main divisions of the city. What 
was lost in the historic origins of the former names, dating from 
the first surveys and i^lats, seems to have been more than offset 
by the increased convenience, local significance, and systematic 
definiteness of the present nomenclature. 

Minnesota Histoiucal Society 
Vol. XV. Plate XIII. 



I have heard it said that the most uneventful life, if care- 
fully written up, would make an interesting book, and I have 
been persuaded to prove this statement. 

My life has seemed to me to have experienced little be- 
yond ordinary, commonplace events, yet, at the earnest request 
of ray children, and overcoming my extreme dislike for the 
manual drudgery of writing, I shall try to jot down some remin- 
iscences of ray childhood in Illinois and AYisconsin, as well as 
those of later years in St. Paul, Minnesota, hoping to interest 
those who care for early memories of our city. 

My earliest remembrances are those in frontier life. My 
great-grandparents, both paternal and maternal, came from 
the north of Ireland and were what is known as Scotch-Irish. 
They came to this country in the eighteenth century and set- 
tled near Phihidelphia. I know very little about their lives, as 
they were too busy trying to establish homes to keep any record 
of daily experiences. 

My paternal grandfather, David Marshall, visited Kentucky 
before the War of the Revolution; at the outbreak of the war 
he enlisted and served throughout the war in the Pennsylvania 
troops under Gen. Anthony Wayne; after peace was declared, 
he married Sarah Graham, and bride and groom started for 
their future home in Kentucky on horseback, making the en- 
tire journey in that way. They bade good-bye to their rela- 
tives, never expecting to see them again; however, a sister of 
my grandmother married and went to Lexington to live some 
years later. A descendant of hers, James Fisher Robinson, was 
governor of Kentucky during a part of the Civil AVar, in 1SG2-3. 

We often talk and tell stories of heroes during the forming 

•Read at the monthlv meeting of the Executive Council, November 
10, 1913. 


of the AVest, but there were heroines as well, and I always think 
of my grandmother IMarshall as one of that number. In 1872 
I visited my ancestor's home in Kentucky; the farm on which 
my grandfather located was near Paris, Bourbon county. 
While I was there, one among many incidents which my mother 
had told me as happening there was forcibly brought to my 
mind; it occurred soon after the birth of my grandmother's 
eldest child. The first settlers had built their log cabins of 
one room near together as a protection from the Indians, and 
these little settlements were called stations; each cabin had a 
hole in the wall closed with a wooden plug, and every morning 
before opening the door the occupant would look out of this 
opening to see if any Indians were around. On the morning 
of this incident my grandfather looked out, as usual, and saw 
an Indian with his gun pointed at the door of the adjoining 
cabin. He took down his rifle, loaded it, asked my grand- 
mother to hold a charge in her hand, and then, not wishing to 
frighten her, said he sa^y a deer; he fired and wounded the 
Indian, whereupon other Indians appeared and carried off the 
wounded one. The settlers were roused by the noise of the shot 
and traced the trail of the Indians a long way by the drops of 
blood, but could not catch up with them. I was much inter- 
ested in visiting the cabin, which was then used as a chicken 
house and was still standing on its original site on the farm 
owned by my grandfather, and in actually looking through the 
very hole through which my grandfather fired. 

^ly maternal grandfather was Samuel Shaw; I know he 
lived in Carlisle, Pa., and married my grandmother there, her 
maiden name being Rebecca Lowry Black: I was named Ee- 
becca Lowry after her. My mother, named Abigail, was born 
in Carlisle, February 10, 1789, and was eight years old when 
her father and mother moved to Kentucky. My grandfather 
Shaw located on a farm near my grandfather IMarshall, and 
both families grew up together in the famous ''blue grass re- 

In the year 1820 a number of families emigrated from Ken- 
tucky to Ohio and ^Missouri ; my father and mother were among 
the emigrants and went to IMissouri. They located on a farm 
near Boonville, and there the four younger children were born, 


two sons, Joseph Miller and William Rainey, and two daugh- 
ters, Sarah Jane and myself, Rebecca Lowry. 

In 1830 my grandfather Shaw, having become dissatisfied 
with slavery, decided to remove to a free state and Illinois at- 
tracted him; he went to Quincy with his family, consisting of 
five grown children, his wife having died, and located on a 
farm three miles out of the village, where he died in 1832. 

My father had financial reverses in Missouri, chiefly owing 
to the burning of a large barn stored with tobacco, and he de- 
cided to join my mother's family at Quincy. I was born on 
May 30, 1830, and in the following September my father moved 
to Quincy. They traveled, as all emigrants did in those days, 
in covered wagons during the daytime, and camped out at 
night. i\Iy father bought a farm in the vicinity of grand- 
father Shaw, but before he was able to move onto it he was 
taken ill with typhoid fever and died, leaving my mother with 
six children, the eldest one twelve years old, and the youngest, 
myself, six months. Now came the time to show what a heroine 
my mother was ; she moved to the farm with her small children 
that fall, and the first winter proved a terrible one for her. 
She and all the family had the ague, as indeed all the inhab- 
itants of that region were subject to chills and fever; my 
mother had a chill every alternate day, and on the interven- 
ing well day she worked hard to get ready for the sick day. 
I was so ill that my aunts kept me at my grandfather's place; 
no one thought I would live, nor desired me to live, as it was 
deemed I could not have good sense should I live ; yet now I 
am well and vigorous after eighty-three years of active life. 

In 1832 an epidemic of cholera visited the country and was 
particularly severe in Quincy and the surrounding district. 
My grandfather Shaw and my oldest brother were stricken 
with the dread disease, and both died the same day ; my aunts 
were helpless from fright, and my mother had everything to 
do; she prepared them for the burial, and returned from the 
funeral to take up her burden again. One of her neighbors, 
^Ir. Edward Pearson, helped her in every way he could, and 
they both nursed cholera patients witliout catching the disease. 

My mother's next trial was the death of the eldest of the 
remaining cliildren from fever; after this she rented the farm 


and moved into the village of Quiney. My first recollections 
begin when I was about five years old; our family numbered 
five, my mother, two brothers, aged nine and eleven, a sister 
seven years old, and myself ; my sister died in her eighth year. 
My brothers and I attended a school taught by Mr. Stafford 
and his sister, situated near where we lived; I must have 
learned to read at this early age, as I can never remember the 
time when I could not read. Mr. Stafford's mother taught me 
to work a sampler also, and I well recollect how patient the 
dear old lady was, how stupid I was, and how many tears I 
shed ; I have thought ever since it was a mistake to teach chil- 
dren too young. From the time I was nine years old until I 
was fourteen, I was very fortunate in attending a school kept 
by a lady of fine character and education; she was a 'Mrs. 
Thornton, and I feel that I owe all I know to her faithful 

My mother was a strict disciplinarian; with her to speak 
was to be obeyed. I remember one instance : my brother Wil- 
liam was very easily provoked to laughter, and one day began 
laughing in school ; the teacher demanded to know what caused 
him such mirth; my brother's answer did not please the teach- 
er, and he gave him a severe whipping. My brother felt that 
the teacher was unjust, so he took his books and went home ; 
mother heard his complaint, and then took down a whip and 
told him to return to school, which he did. The teacher after- 
ward acknowledged he was wrong, and begged my brother's 
forgiveness. In those days discipline was strictly maintained, 
and there was no need of parental schools. 

My mother had two brothers who served in the Black Hawk 
War; one died during the war, and the other retired with the 
rank of captain; he lived in the mining region of AVisconsin, 
about twelve miles from Galena, Illinois. iMy brother Joseph 
went to live with this uncle when he was sixteen, and in a 
year or two my brother William joined him ; this left my 
mother and me alone. 

In the spring of 1844 mother and I visited my brothers, 
and we remained with them a year; to me it was a year full 
of physical benefit, as the great freedom from school, and out- 
of-door life at a period when I was growing rapidly, estab- 



lished my health, and I tliink my four score years are due to 
this one year spent in the lead mining district of Wisconsin. 

We returned to Quincy in the spring of 1845, and I again 
took up my school duties ; but my good, efficient teacher, Mrs. 
Thornton, had gone to Oregon, and the school seemed to be run 
to support the teacher, not to educate the pupils. I made very 
little progress, and have always felt that I was defrauded of 
the education I ought to have had. 

In 1849 my brothers left Wisconsin and went to the new 
territory of Minnesota. In ^lay of that year my brother Wil- 
liam came for mother and me, and, much to my delight, we 
started for our new home. We came by steamboat to Galena, 
and then changed to another boat for the upper Mississippi. 
The trip in those days was delightful ; the boats were large, the 
captains were gentlemen, and the food was of the best. Since 
traffic by railroad has been introduced, all this has been 

Our trip up the river was made at the most favorable time 
of the year, and most of each day was spent on the hurricane 
deck; the scenery of the upper Mississippi was grand, far sur- 
passing the Hudson. I feel very sorry for people who traverse 
Europe for the purpose of enjoying, grand scenery and have 
never looked upon the magnificent bluffs of the Mississippi 
river. Our boat, the Lady Franklin, with Captain Smith in 
command, landed at Mendota the morning of the tenth of ^lay, 
1849, for Mendota was then of more importance than St. Paul. 
Mr. Sibley, afterward Governor and General, lived there ; as 
he was the delegate to Congress from the territory of Minne- 
sota, his residence and influence had made Mendota a place of 
prime importance. After lying there most of the day to dis- 
charge freight, the Lady Franklin brought us to St. Paul, as 
all our passengers were bound for this point. 

The only hotel here was a small one built partly of logs and 
partly of frame work, called the St. Paul House; it was sit- 
uated on the corner of Third and Jackson streets, on the site 
of the present Merchants' Hotel. Besides being the only hotel, 
it v>'as also the ])Ost office, and ^Ir. J. AV. Bass was both land- 
lord and post master. Here we were crowded like sardines in 
a box, and some of the younger members among the passen- 


gers had to sleep on the floor, I among the number. One of 
the passengers was a Mrs. Parker from Boston, the future land- 
lady of the American House then being built. 

Those days are very vivid in my memory. The morning 
after our arrival a Miss Bishop introduced herself to us as the 
school teacher, and asked my mother and me to take a walk 
with her and see the village, I might say, the Indian village. 
Our walk took us up a high hill at the rear of the hotel, from 
which we had a splendid view of the bluffs on either side of 
the river as far as to Fort Snelling. All the surrounding coun- 
try was in its primitive state, and the prospect was a glorious 
one; as we gazed around there came to our notice Dayton's 
bluff (but not Dayton's then) on the east; what is now Sum- 
mit avenue on the west ; and the AYabasha bluff on the north. 
Could anything be grander than the view at that time? Who 
could imagine then that this little French and Indian village 
would one day become one of the largest and most important 
cities of the Northwest ? Oh, if our future citizens could have 
realized this great fact, how much more wisely would they 
have wrought ! The Third street bluff might have been kept 
intact as a boulevard for all time, and Summit avenue could 
have been laid out so as not to destroy the bluff line. God did 
everything for our citj^, but man's greed has defaced the 
Creator's work. 

, The second day after our arrival a party was made up to 
visit St. Anthony Falls, noted from the time it was discovered 
by Father Hennepin on his voyage down the river in 1680. T\^e 
drove up the river until opposite Fort Snelling, and then lost 
our way; no one in the party knew^ the road, but after going 
through the woods for some distance we finally struck the right 
path between St. Paul and St. Anthony. During our drive we 
saw several deer, and realized we were indeed in the wilder- 
ness. The thunder of the falling water reached our ears long 
before we came to the famous cataract; but when at last our 
eyes saw the great volume of water that rushed over the preci- 
.pice, the siglit surpassed all our expectations. It was superb; 
no one can realize now anything of the grandeur of the scene 
as it was then ; no vv^onder that the poor Indian worshipped 
the .Great Spirit of the cataract. But here again man has de- 


stroyed for utilitarian purposes what the savage worshipped. 

The only building, except sawmills, at the Falls of St. An- 
thony at that time, May 11, 1819, was a boarding house for the 
mill hands. Two sawmills were operated on the east side just 
below Nicollet island ; several small buildings were in the pro- 
cess of erection, however, and among them a one-story frame 
house was being built by my brothers, Joseph M. and AYilliam 
R. Marshall. The front room was intended to be used as a 
general country store, and the rooms back of that for a resi- 
dence ; it was the only plastered house in the village. Today 
the Pillsbury ''A" mill stands near the site of that early home, 
and the little village of 1819-50 has long since been swallowed 
up in the progress and enterprise which have built the stirring 
city of Minneapolis. 

After remaining a few weeks in St. Paul, waiting for our 
house to be finished, we moved to St. Anthony. AYe had very 
little furniture, as everything had to be hauled by team from 
St. Paul ; aside from merchantable things, only what was abso- 
lutely necessary for our living was taken over ; our dining table 
all summer was a dry goods box, although my mother had 
brought fine mahogany furniture with her, tables, chairs, sofas, 
bureaus, washstands, and dining-room set. Governor Ramsey 
wished to buy the parlor set, offering my mother several hun- 
dred dollars for it ; my brothers urged her to sell it and buy 
real estate, but she said that she had but a few years to live 
and she wished to live those few years respectably. Part of 
this furniture is still preserved by the family as an heirloom. 

The summer of '19 was a most interesting period in my 
life. I had been raised under the strict rules laid down by the 
straitest sect of the Presbyterians, and had never been to a 
dance, theater, or any place of amusement supposed to have 
the Evil One for a patron. Here I was like one let out of 
prison, and each day was one of joy and gladness. People were 
pouring into the Territory; every steamboat's passenger list 
was full; every stage arriving in the village of St. Anthony 
was crowded with tourists; some came to settle, others to spy 
out the land. The stage stopped within a few rods of our 
house, and the tourists always crossed from our side of the 
river to Hennepin island, on a foot bridge, in order to get the 



best view of the Falls. They were invariably enraptured with 
the sight; as I have said, the fall of water at this time was 
grand, the river not being obstructed with logs, and the preci- 
pice over which the river dashed not having broken away, ^ly 
brothers had inherited the hospitable spirit of our Southern 
ancestors, and our home, poor as it was, became a center of 
entertainment; and thus it was that those travelers from the 
far East partook of our meager fare, with many thanks, all 
the recompense asked. It is a great source of regret to me 
that I did not keep a visitor's book during the years of 1849-50, 
as so many distinguished people were our guests during those 
years, some spending two or three days, while others took only 
one meal. 

Our guests were not all white citizens, however, for many a 
time when I was busy in the house I became conscious that 
some one was near me, and on looking around I saw a half 
dozen Indians inside the door; their moccasined feet had not 
made the slightest noise. It was not very pleasant to have 
such visitors, although they were perfectly harmless ; they were 
inveterate beggars, and would never leave until you gave them 
something to eat. After a while I learned to keep the outside 
door locked. 

Altogether that first summer in our new home was delightful, 
but we all dreaded the approach of winter. It would be at 
least five months after the close of navigation before it would 
be resumed, and during that time we should be practically 
I)risoners, our only means of communication with the rest of 
the world being by stage, a very hard and dangerous journey 
in any direction. 

A great number of young men from eastern cities came also 
that first summer; most of them settled in St. Paul, commer- 
cial life appealing to them more than manufacturing. ;Many 
succeeded in business, went back east to marry, and returned 
with their brides ; few, very few, of these founders of our com- 
monwealth are now living, but their children and grandchil- 
dren are our present active citizens. Fortunately for our new 
Territory, the rough class which emigrated to Colorado, ^lont- 
ana, and the territories farther west, did not come to Minne- 
sota, there being no mineral resources to attract them. 



Governor Ramsey and the other territorial officers came in 
May, 1849. Most of those officials were old war horses, who 
had been living on j^olitics the greater part of their lives; al- 
though many of them were men of ability, I am sorry to say 
that in many respects they did not prove shining examples. 
Ramsey was an exception; he had plenty of good common 
sense, and though not as brilliant, perhaps, as some of the 
judges, he was a safe man and made a most excellent governor, 
never, however, losing sight of the political outlook and the 
part he was to play. He was most fortunate in having a charm- 
ing wife, to whom was due much of his success, and of wliom I 
shall have more to say later. 

The American House, with Mrs. Parker as landlady, was 
headquarters for the territorial officers. Mrs. Parker was a 
large, handsome woman, ratlier masculine, but well adapted to 
conduct the business of a frontier hotel. Hon. Henry M. Rice, 
afterward delegate to Congress and United States senator, was 
the principal owner of the American House, and he had secured 
her as landlady; there was a Mr, Parker, but he was chiefly 
known as ^Irs. Parker's husband. AVhen the hotel was first 
opened, it was called the Rice House, and it continued to be 
so called until there arose a quarrel between Mr. Rice and Airs. 
Parker. I do not know the cause of it, but I know that Airs. 
Parker felt so bitter that she practiced at a mark for weeks, 
declaring her intention of shooting Air. Rice. Finally, how- 
ever, she gave up her desire for blood, and revenged herself 
by changing the name of the hotel from Rice House to the 
American House, and later it was burned down. Airs. Parker 
built a fine dwelling on Irvine Park, was confirmed in Christ 
Church, and lived to an honorable old age. 

St. Anthony was first, settled by lumbermen who came from 
the vicinity of Bangor, Alaine ; they were a sturdy, honest, and 
industrious class of men. AVe were the only family of South- 
ern lineage, but my brothers were also typical pioneers, with 
plenty of enterprise and endurance. Brother AVilliam, although 
not then twenty-four years of age, became a leader in both 
business and political aft'airs. He surveyed and platted the 
village of St. Antliony in the autumn of 1849, and named the 


The inhabitants being also God-fearing men and anxious 
for mental improvement, built a schoolhouse, which was to be 
used as a church and lecture hall as well as for school pur- 
poses. The Presbyterian, Baptist, and Methodist ministers from 
St. Paul came over on alternate Sundays to hold service in this 
building, and my mother always gladly entertained them from 
Saturday night until Monday morning. 

St. Paul and St. Anthony united to celebrate the Fourth of 
July, 1849, with a parade, a banquet, and a ball. The army 
corps from Ft. Snelling was invited to join in the parade, and 
indeed it really was the parade, but I was too busy preparing 
for the ball to see it myself. The oration of the day was deliv- 
ered by Judge Meeker in a grove on the site of Rice Park; the 
banquet was held in the American House in the afternoon ; and 
the ball was in the same place in the evening. These festivi- 
ties also marked the opening of the American House. The elite 
of both villages attended the ball, and as the men outnumbered 
the women there were no wall flowers throughout the evening. 

Just before supper was served, my attention was attracted 
to a group of ladies who had entered the dining-room; they 
were Mrs. Ramsey, Mrs. Sibley, Mrs. H. ^I. Rice, and IMrs. 
Steele. I do not think four handsomer women could have been 
found in the United States. Mrs. Ramsey was easily distin- 
guished from the others, however, on account of her regal bear- 
ing, and she immediately captured my admiration to the exclu- 
sion of the others ; but meeting the other three at a later date, 
and seeing how beautiful they were, I wondered how I could 
have been so partial that evening. 

The first Territorial Legislature met in St. Paul in the fall 
of 1849; it met in the Central House, a boarding house near 
Third street and what are now Cedar and Minnesota streets. 
Besides being a hotel, it was also the place where many society 
functions were held. My brother William was a member of 
this legislature and frequently walked from St. Anthony to 
St. Paul to attend to his public duties. Tliis was the legisla- 
ture which decided the location of the Capitol, the State Uni- 
versity, and the State Prison; of course the capitol had been 
already located in St. Paul by Congress, wlien General Sibley 
was our territorial delegate, but many attempts were made to 


have it moved, and several times the efforts were very nearly 
successful. ]\Iy brother earnestly argued for locating the State 
University at St. Anthony. 

A few society people in St. Paul phmned to celebrate Christ- 
mas, '49, by a sleigh ride to Banfil's on Manomin creek, about 
nine miles above St. Anthony. I was invited to be one of their 
guests, and ^Ir. "U'hitall, a brother of ^Mrs. H. M. Rice, was my 
escort. The sleighing was fine and being well protected with 
fur robes the drive was delightful to us, and it seemed very 
short. We arrived at Banfil's in time for an early supper, 
which consisted of viands that even in these luxurious days 
would be tempting to the appetite; after supper the dining- 
room was cleared, and we had a grand dance. 

The musicians were colored barbers from St. Paul, and the 
leader was a large, fine-looking man named Taylor; he had a 
voice a brigadier general might envy, and as at that time the 
figures were called off, a clear, strong voice was much sought 
for. He was killed in the Indian outbreak of '62. This colored 
band was in great demand in both St. Paul and St. Anthony 
during several years. 

"We danced until the wee, small hours of the morning, and 
then retired for a short rest; after a breakfast equally as ap- 
petizing as our supper of the night before, we prepared for our 
drive home. 

An amusing incident occurred just as we were ready to 
start for home. One of our party was a stalwart, young man, 
afterward known as Sonny Dayton ; he was quite smitten with 
a young lady whose escort was a Southerner of blue blood, but 
of diminutive stature. This couple were seated opposite each 
other when suddenly Mr. Dayton came up to the sleigh, lifted 
the small escort out, jumped in himself and signaled the driver 
to start. The Southerner was what was called a fire-eater, and 
we fully expected coffee and pistols for two, but happily the 
affair closed without any blood being shed. 

When the restraints of an older and long settled community 
are thrown off, as they are to a large extent in newly settled 
districts, an unseemly indulgence is often a source of great 
embarrassment to those of stronger character, and the experi- 
ence of those early days bore ample testimony to this fact. 



I remember well the New Year's Day of 1850. I was spend- 
ing the holidays with Mr. and Mrs. Edmund Rice in St. Paul; 
early in the morning of this day a delegation of Sioux Indians 
from the west side of the village, which was still an Indian 
reservation, called to pay their respects. They shook hands 
with us, said in English, ''Happy New Year," and then seated 
themselves on the floor. 'Mr. Rice sent to the baker's for 
bread, and gave each one of them a loaf; after staying a short 
time, they bowed in a very courteous manner and left. Dur- 
ing the afternoon several of the territorial officers called ; they 
were gentlemen born and bred, but they had so far forgotten 
both birth and breeding that they fell far below our savage 
guests. Mrs. Rice felt so insulted by their behavior that she 
had what we women call a good cry, when they at last reeled 
out of her home. 

My brother AVilliam became greatly interested in some of 
the young clerks who had fallen under this influence, and 
brought them to our home to recover from the effects of too 
much liquor. He persuaded two of them to resign and return 
to their homes; one of them became a prominent Baptist min- 
ister, and the other a famous editor in Dayton, Ohio. They 
both said they owed their salvation to my brother's efforts in 
their behalf. My brother was also held in such respect by the 
territorial officers that during a week when he was a guest at 
the American House, while busy surveying an addition to St. 
Paul, no liquor was served at the table ; but, to compensate 
themselves for their self-denial, on the Saturday my brother 
left, the officials of the Territory had a jamboree and flooded 
the dining-room as well as themselves with the vile stuff'. 

In the spring of 1850 the Episcopalians began missionary 
and pastoral work in the Territory, and the Associate Mission, 
consisting of three clergymen, Rev. James Lloyd Breck, Rev. 
Timothy AVilcoxson, and Rev. John A. Merrick, arrived in St. 
Paul and located on tlie mission grounds now called Park Place. 
They organized Christ Church in St. Paul, and planned to visit 
Stillwater, St. Anthony, and other places, holding service once 
a Sunday. They walked to these several stations and were 
faithful workers in God's vineyard. The seed sown then has 


produced a truly bountiful harvest for the reapers who are now 
gathering it and sowing again. 

One little incident occurred that summer which is worthy 
of being told. One Sunday we expected the Rev. Mr. AYilcox 
son to hold service in St. Anthony, and my mother prepared 
supper for him in her hospitable way, but he did not come. My 
brothers and I went to church, and found that he had gone 
directly there. The service began, but in the midst of it Mr. 
Wilcoxson fainted; the congregation was dismissed, and later, 
when he was taken to our home, we found out that he had 
walked from St. Paul and begun the service without having 
anything to eat ; nature was outraged and rebelled. "We took 
the best possible care of him, and the next morning, after a 
comfortable breakfast, he left us to return to St. Paul. As a 
sequel to this, five years later when my mother lay dying in 
St. Paul, a\rr. Wilcoxson comforted her with the Church's 
prayers and blessing. 

A personal experience during tliis early residence in St. 
Anthony shows how the unexpected may come to pass. A 
young man from Boston became the guest of my brother, and 
being a devout Episcopalian held many an argument with me 
over our differing religious beliefs, he upholding the "faith 
once delivered to the saints," as represented by the Episcopal 
Church, and I arguing for my mother's form of doctrine, rep- 
resented by the Presbyterian Church. Finally he ended our 
argument by saying, ''You w^ill some day be a good church- 
woman, and to help you become such an one I will send you a 
Book of Common Prayer, and I know you will use it." I said, 
^*You will only be wasting money, as I will never use it ;" but 
he was as good as his word, and I received a beautifully bound 
copy of the Prayer Book. In the year 1853 I married a devout 
churchman, and the prayer book sent was used until it had 
grown shabby, and it has since been carefully preserved as a 
memento of former days. 

In June, 1850, I enjoyed two interesting and unique river 
excursions. One was early in that month, when ^Irs. North 
and I were guests on a little steamboat called the Governor 
Ramsey, on its trial trip up the river; the boat was built above 
the Falls, to ply on the upper Mississippi, and it was small and 



of very light drauglit. "We left St. Anthony one morning, the 
weather being delightful so that we spent all our time on deck 
under an a^vning. Captain Rollins, if I am not mistaken, was 
in charge of the boat ; at evening he tied up to the river bank, 
navigation being so uncertain that the pilot did not dare to 
proceed during the night. AYe reached our destination the next 
day, and, I think, landed at what is now Saint Cloud ; at least, 
it was below Sauk Rapids. 

At this time a treaty had been arranged by the Governor 
between the hostile tribes of Indians, the Sioux and Chippe- 
was, to take place at Fort Snelling ; so awaiting our boat were 
several hundred Chippewas to be transported to the fort. Mr. 
Beaulieu Avas the interpreter; he was a French Canadian who 
had lived many years among the Chippewas, and had an Indian 
wife. The Indians came on board, and we steamed down the 
river on our return trip. Mrs. North and I were much inter- 
ested in watching our Indian passengers, who were well con- 
trolled by their chief; no body of white men could have be- 
haved better. Indians are great admirers of red or curly hair, 
and my hair, though brown, curled naturally and profusely, 
and it was so worn according to the fashion of those days. 
Several of them came to me and lifted my curls in their hands, 
saying in their native tongue, "Pretty, pretty." It did not 
make me feel very comfortable, but I knew that they meant 
no harm, only admiration, and I didn't resent their familiarity. 
The homeward trip was charming; the little steamboat stood 
its trial trip satisfactorily; but it did not prove to be profitable 
afterward, and it was taken to pieces and transferred to the 
Red river. 

Quite a party of St. Anthony people attended the treaty at 
Fort Snelling, on the 12th of June. We went in a farmer's 
wagon and across a prairie where now stands the city of Min- 
neapolis, not a single cabin meeting our eyes in any direction ; 
there were many wild flowers, and the air was fragrant with 
the wild strawberries. We passed Lake Calhoun and Lake 
Harriet, and crossed their outlet above ^linnehaha Falls. Like 
St. Anthony Falls, the natural beauty of these lakes and of the 
picturesque Minnehaha have been partially spoiled by the hand 
of man. 



-It was an interesting scene at the fort; the Chippewas were 
stationed on the ground inside the fort, when the Sioux 
marched up the steep hill and circled around their deadly ene- 
mies. The commandant had the guns trained on them ready 
to use if there should be the least outbreak; but the Indians 
were cowed, knowing the white men had them in their power. 
The Chippewas were a much finer appearing body of men than 
tlie Sioux; and their chief, Hole-in-the-Day, was a dignified, 
grand looking Indian, reminding one of the Indian chiefs Ave 
read about in colonial days. 

Governor Ramsey and the commissioners had everything 
planned, and acted with such good judgment that they accom- 
plished what they wished. On our return home across the 
prairie, we lost our way and were several hours getting back 
on the right trail, so we arrived home late in the evening. 

Fifty-one years later I met these tribes of Indians, or rather 
members of these two tribes, amid very difi:erent surroundings 
and on a very different occasion ; it was at the funeral of our 
..beloved Bishop Whipple, held in the cathedral at Faribault. 
A band of Christian Chippewas and a band of Christian Sioux 
came to show their love for one who had been to them truly 
an apostle; each band had a share in the service, one band 
singing a hymn in their native language during the service in 
the cathedral, and the other band singing outside the cathedral 
at the close of the service. I, who had known them when to 
meet was to murder each other, could not but marvel at the 
power of Christ Avhich could convert deadly enemies into 
brothers. The hymns they sang were much more effective as 
funeral hymns than those rendered by the cathedral choir ; and 
I remember feeling this same way when attending the me- 
morial service for Queen Victoria in Honolulu. The native 
Hawaiians sang at that service, and their music was pathetic 
and solemn, being much better adapted to a mournful occa- 
sion than that of the American choir. 

My second river excursion was enjoyed on the first steam- 
boat that made an exploring trip up the iMinnesota river. On 
the morning of June 28, 1S50, the Anthony AVayne under 
charge of Captain Dan Al)le left St. Paul for a journey up the 



unknown waters of the St. Peter river, now called the Llinne- 
sota. There was a gay crowd on board, composed of our most 
prominent citizens, with quite a number of young men and 
women who later grew to be the bone and sinew of our great 
Northwest. At this time I was the guest of Mrs. Edmund Rice 
of St. Paul, in whose home I met the gentleman who was my 
escort on the excursion; he was Gen. Sylvanus B. Lowry of 
Stearns county, whose principal city, St. Cloud, was then a 
small village. General Lowry was a Kentuckian by birth, the 
son of a Presbyterian minister, and had all the polish of a well- 
born gentleman. We had a band of music on board, and also 
a quantity of fireworks, which were to be fired off the night 
we reached the highest point on the river. I sliall never forget 
the beauty of that ride; the vegetation was perfect, as it al- 
ways is in this climate in June ; the banks were gay with wild 
flowers of gorgeous hues, and acres and acres of wild roses 
covered the islands we passed by. We landed at various 
points, amusing ourselves by gathering flowers and walking 
through grass a foot or more in height. Sunset brought us 
to a mission station, now the city of Shakopee, and the mis- 
sionary in charge was the Rev. Samuel W. Pond. 

The Indians there were Sioux or Dacotahs ; they had never 
seen such a monster as a steamboat, and were so excited that 
Mr. Pond would not let us set off the fire works, and said that 
the Indians probably could not be restrained and might cause 
great trouble. The night was anything but peaceful, however ; 
it was not the Indians who disturbed us, but billions upon bil- 
lions of mosquitoes; they filled the air, and the walls of our 
cabin were black with them; we walked the deck all night 
fighting them oft'. In the morning the captain concluded he 
had reached the highest point to which it was safe to go and 
turned homeward; aside from the plague of mosquitoes, we 
had a jolly time dancing and feasting to our heart's content. 
Again my greatest admirers on this trip were some half -civil- 
ized Indians who often touched my curly hair, saying, in their 
language, ''Pretty, pretty." 

My mother's health not being very good, my brother Wil- 
liam thought it best for her to visit her old home in Kentucky, 


and accordingly arrangements were made for us to spend the 
winter of 1850-51 in the South ; we were to leave St. Paul on 
the last steamboat of the season, about the first of November, 
and we boarded in St. Paul at the Central House a few days 
waiting for the steamer. At the hotel we found ^liss Harriet 
E. Bishop prepared to be a passenger also ; we were much sur- 
prised to find that she had decided to leave, thinking her more 
permanently established than many others. But a great dis- 
appointment had come into her life, and as her story was quite 
romantic and unusual for those days, I shall tell it here. 

In 1818 Governor Slade of Vermont, who was much inter- 
ested in educational matters, sent out two teachers to Minne- 
sota; they were Miss Amanda Horsford (later Mrs. H. L. Moss) 
to Stillwater, and Miss Bishop to St. Paul. One year later he 
sent Miss Backus to St. Anthony. Miss Bishop found St. Paul 
an Indian half-breed village with a very few white people, but 
she opened the first school here in a log hut and did her duty 
faithfully to her pupils. As I have before said, she was the 
first one to greet us on our arrival in ^lay, 1819, and she be- 
came quite intimate in our family and was always a welcome 

Miss Bishop became engaged to Mr. James K. Humphrey, a 
young lawyer of St. Paul, and some years younger than her- 
self, but not her equal intellectually. She was devoted to him, 
and during all one summer had planned to be married in the 
fall; Mr. Humphrey had built a pretty cottage on Irvine Park; 
the trousseau had been completed, and everything was going 
smoothly; but, alas, there was a rock ahead which made ship- 
wreck of all these fond anticipations and plans. ]\[r. Hum- 
phrey's sister, Mrs. Selby, came back from the East, where she 
had been spending the summer, and she forbade the bans; her 
only reason stated was that ^liss Bishop was older than her 
brother; and he then and there proved our opinion of him, 
that he was weak, and broke the engagement. Miss Bishop 
was broken-hearted and decided she could not remain in St. 
Paul ; we all sympathized with her, but thought that she would 
realize after a time that he had not been worthy of her love. 
Nevertheless the result was^that her life was wrecked and she 


seemed to lose her fine mental balance. She married a few 
years after this, and was the author of a historical book enti- 
tled ''Dakota War "Whoop, or Indian Massacres and AVar in 
Minnesota, of 1862-3;" but she had lost her prestige as Miss 
Bishop, and twenty j^ears later she died in this city, almost 
unknown. An island in the river was named Harriet after her, 
and today this island is covered with the Public Baths and 
Playgrounds, so that in a certain sense her name will always 
be connected with the education and enlightenment of youth. 

Upon "our arrival South, it was thought best that I should 
spend a few months in a boarding-school in Quincy, Illinois, 
my former home. The school was organized and run by Cath- 
erine Beeclier, sister of Henry Ward Beecher; the teachers 
were all from Boston and very celebrated women. I had the 
privilege of selecting my studies, and chose music, Latin, 
French, and history. Mrs. Dana, an aunt of Richard Dana, 
author of "Two Years Before the Mast," was the history 
teacher; and her daughter, Miss Dana, taught Latin and 

In June, 1851, my mother and I returned to Minnesota and 
to our home in St. Anthony. The trip by steamboat from 
Quincy to St. Paul was delightful in the beautiful summer 
weather; the present generation cannot realize what the Mis- 
sissippi was and still is. 

The summer of 1851 passed very much as did the summer 
of '49 ; numerous tourists came to view the country, and many 
became permanent residents- One especially interesting event 
of that summer was the visit of the Swedish authoress, Fred- 
rika Bremer; she was the guest of Governor and Mrs. Ramsey, 
and they brought her to St. Anthony Falls to enjoy its beauty. 
They called on my mother, and later my brother William and I 
accompanied them on a visit to Airs. North, who lived on Nicol- 
let island. 

It is very hard to believe that sixty years ago that island 
had only one house on it, and that one built of logs; it was also 
heavily wooded, and in its wild state was very beautiful. 
There was no bridge connecting it with the main land; the 
crossing had to be made on tlie pine logs lying in the mill dam 



above the sawmills. Mrs. North was a fine musician, and I had 
taken music lessons from her, and so I had become quite ac- 
complished in making this dangerous passage every day. But 
naturally Miss Bremer was terrified at the prospect, and Gov- 
ernor Ramsey and my brother had to use their best persuasive 
powers to get her started on the perilous journey. Fortunately 
the logs nearer the mill were more tightly jammed, and the 
noted authoress reached the island safely. Mrs. North enter- 
tained us with some of the finest selections of music, both vocal 
and instrumental, and at the conclusion of our visit we re- 
turned to the main shore over the same log jam. I remember 
one remark of ^liss Bremer on that memorable visit; she was 
asked to sing, but declined, saying, '^I only sing for God in 
the church, and for little children." 

When I now visit the city of Minneapolis and see Nicollet 
island, with its streets and row upon row of houses, street cars 
crossing it, and bridges on either side, I think progress is all 
utilitarian. No grand cataract, no magnificent forest trees, no 
majestic river, are there now; but everything has been bound 
and fettered, to add to the wealth and comfort of man. I am 
glad that I lived in the wild days when nature reigned supreme. 

In the fall of 1851 I went to Rock Island, Illinois, to act as 
bridesmaid to my friend, i\Iiss Slaymaker, and while I Avas away 
my family made a momentous change. My brothers had de- 
cided that the future of St. Anthony would be greatly retarded 
from the fact that the water power was in litigation, and that 
it might be years before the lawsuits would end and the power 
could be used; but they knew that St. Paul, as the head of 
navigation, was bound to be a commercial city, and so they 
decided to remove to this place. Then, too, the strife between 
the ''Twin Cities," as they were fain to be called, was well 

St. Anthony residents contended that their city was the 
head of navigation; and indeed, to prove it, one steamboat was 
induced to ascend the river as far as Cheever's landing, a point 
near where the University now stands. The citizens of St. 
Anthony made a great celebration over the event, and in the 
evening a dance on board the boat was given; but on the re- 


turn of the boat to St. Paul, the captain said that nothing would 
ever induce him to take that risk again. He had not expected 
to reach St. Paul without the loss of the boat, and perhaps of 
life; but we passengers knew nothing of the danger and en- 
joyed it all. As far as I know, that was the first and last time 
a boat reached Cheever's landing. 

On my return to St. Paul from the wedding, I found my 
family living there. My brotlier had bought several lots on 
Irvine Park, and had a much more comfortable house than the 
one we had in St. Anthony. 

The winter of 1851-2 was spent very pleasantly; small 
dancing parties were given, and many sleigh rides were taken 
on the river to Fort Snelling. In the spring of '52 my brother 
Joseph kept the house on Irvine Park, and my brother AYilliam 
bought a house on the northwest corner of Rice Park and 
Fourth street, into which my mother, himself, and I moved. In 
this house I was married, and in it my mother died ; it has long 
since been torn down, and the only thing left to remind me of 
those old days is a maple tree, one of a row that my mother 
had transplanted there ; it still flourishes, but each spring I 
expect it will disappear to give place to modern improvements. 

In this locality was the First ]\Iethodist Church; it was 
built in 1849, and was used as a place of worship by the ]\Ieth- 
odists for many years ; later it was occupied by the New Jeru- 
salem or Swedenborgian congregation; it still stands to re- 
mind us of the day of small things, in contrast to the present 
beautiful ]\Ietliodist church edifice just completed in a fashion- 
able part of the city. I do not think that one member of the 
congregation wlio worshipped in the little brick church on Rice 
Park in 1819 is now living. Truly, man passes away like a 
shadow, but '*the word of God abideth forever." 

In 1852-3 my brothers had a hardware store on Washing- 
ton street, near the corner of Fourth street; they sold it to 
John Nicols, and it is now a large wholesale store, the firm 
name being ''Nicols, Dean & Gregg," two of the proprietors 
being son and son-in-law of the ^Ir. Nicols who purchased it 
from my brothers. Afterward my brothers organized a bank 
that failed in the great panic of 1857, which was so general 


that not one citizen of the Northwest escaped the crash; busi- 
ness houses fell down like card houses. Every one had to start 
anew to build up his fortune, but all being young and full of 
energy we went to work immediately; in a few years w^e had 
forgotten the trials and economies of the panic, which really 
lasted until the outbreak of the Civil AYar in 1861- 

As I think of those years, I cannot remember that the loss 
of money made any of us unhappy ; we all went down together, 
and Ave were all willing to economize and live plainly, enter- 
taining our friends and having a happy time in a simple way. 
Youth, happy youth, always hopeful, looks forw^ard to the 
good time, which most of us realized. 

AYe were living on Rice Park when I met my husband. I 
was taking tea with ]\Iiss Day, a friend of mine who w^as visit- 
ing her brother who lived on the corner of AYabasha and Tenth 
streets, opposite the old Capitol, and in the evening two young 
gentlemen called on us, I\Ir. AYilliam P. Murray and Mr. Alex- 
ander H. Cathcart. I had never met either gentleman before ; 
the evening passed pleasantly, and in a few days, having asked 
my permission, both gentlemen called at our house. The win- 
ter of 1852-3 was a gay one, and my acquaintance with Mr. 
Cathcart progressed so rapidly that I was engaged to him in 
the spring, and we were married the following November on 
the tenth day of the month. ^Ir. Cathcart, born and raised in 
Toronto, Canada, was a member of the Church of England, and 
at his request, we were married by an Episcopal clergyman. 
After our marriage we attended Christ Church, became com- 
municants of the church, and I am still a member, having com- 
pleted my sixtieth year of enjoyment of this great privilege. 

My mother had been failing in health for a year or more, 
and died in January, 1854; her grave was one of the first in 
Oakland Cemetery. She was a member of the First Presby- 
terian Church, on Third street midway between Market and 
St. Peter streets, of which the Rev. Edward D. Neill was pastor. 

My marriage and my mother's death brought great changes 
to our household, and in the spring of '54 we left tlie home on 
Fourth street and for a few months lived on Seventh street be- 
low Broadway. We then bought a house on Robert street, at 


that time a very pleasant location, though now one of the most 
forlorn parts of the city. The little cottage is still standing, 
and it is hard to realize that it was once a comfortable and 
happy home. 

In the fall of 1857 my husband purchased a newly built 
residence on Summit avenue between Rice and St. Peter streets ; 
at that time this location was one of the best in the city. The 
block opposite our home was owned by the Episcopal Church, 
and it was expected that the future bishop's residence and the 
cathedral would be built on those grounds. 

The three clergymen, Dr. Breck, Rev. Mr. "Wilcoxson, and 
Rev. ^Ir. Merrick, occupied a building there ; the grounds were 
beautiful, each clergyman having a flower garden amidst the 
fine native oak trees; this gave us a charming outlook, and we 
felt settled for life. Alas, hov\^ uncertain life is! Now that 
fine neighborhood has deteriorated; the mission property has 
been allowed to go to rack and ruin ; boarding houses have 
crowded in, and the bishop's residence and cathedral are in 

AYhen we moved to the Summit avenue home, no grading 
had been done on either Rice street or St. Peter street. The 
ascent up St. Peter street was very steep, and the road ran 
through a Roman Catholic cemetery, one of the first to be 
located in the city. A little below, we crossed the street in 
front of the old Capitol on Wabasha street on a plank walk 
elevated a few feet, as all the ground below the St. Peter street 
hill Avas then a tamarack swamp ; the trees had been cut down, 
but the swamp was not yet drained. It is very difficult now to 
realize that this condition existed, when I see that part of the 
city so closely built up with large substantial houses; and it 
seems like a dream when my mind, going back to 1857 and the 
following years, recalls the many nights I worried about my 
husband's returning after nightfall across that swamp, and 
lest he should stumble into one of the empty graves in the 
cemetery. Gradually tliis cemetery wns removed, and when 
St. Peter street was graded and the mission grounds leased to 
a company wlio were to build tlie Park PLace Hotel, it became 
necessary to remove all the bodies remaining; it was a gruc- 



some sight to see wagon load after wagon load of them taken 

On the mission grounds there was a spring of water, which 
was supposed to contain a great deal of iron, and the good 
clergymen had it so arranged that people generally could drink 
the water, thinking it very beneficial but, like many other so- 
called health-giving remedies, it proved, on being analyzed, to 
have no medicinal qualities at all, but to be only the seepings 
of the tan;arack swamp. 

The panic did not materially affect Mr. Cathcart's business 
until 1862, when he compromised with his creditors, by giving 
or assigning to them all his property, and continued to carry 
on his dry goods store, the largest one in the city- We removed 
from our homestead on Summit avenue, between Rice and St. 
Peter streets, to another house on Summit avenue near where 
James J. Hill now lives. This house was built by Mr. blaster- 
son, a young lawyer, who went East and brought back his 
bride to this far Western home, but his visions of happiness 
disappeared within two years, as his wife died; the house was 
closed, and it was not again occupied until we moved into it in 
the spring of 1863. 

Mr. Masterson had planted grape vines on his terraces, and 
also pear and peach trees; he was fond of gardening and took 
great care of the little orchard. Knowing that peaches and 
pears were too tender to endure our cold climate very well, he 
dwarfed the trees, training the branches on the ground so that 
they could be well covered during the winter; as a reward for 
this skillful care, the trees and vines were all bearing fruit in 
the fall of '63. He was proud of the results of his labor, as 
well as he might be; these delicate fruits had never before been 
raised in this climate out of doors, and, as far as my knowledge 
extends, they have never been grown successfully up to this 
time, 1913. Grapes of a hardy variety are grown in abundance, 
but Mr. ]\[asterson was able to raise the choice varieties which 
have never been cultivated so far north. 

Wishing to give his friends a rare treat, he invited over a 
hundred of them to partake of the fruit on the lawn surround- 
ing his former home, and urged every one to eat all he or she 


could, afterward distributing what was left among them. Our 
family received a quantity of pears, which being kept in a dark 
place improved with age. I have written about this little at- 
tempt at fruit growing in early days because I am almost the 
only one left to remember this feasting on fruit which was sup- 
posed impossible to be raised in Minnesota ; but Mr. Master- 
son's enthusiasm expired after he had proved his experiment 
to be successful, and he allowed both grape vines and fruit 
trees to die out, so that there was never again such a picnic 
on those grounds. A fine residence has now replaced the house 
built for his bride, and an automobile garage occupies the ter- 
race where his grape vines grew. 

Summit avenue was a lonely place at this time. Between it 
and Selby avenue stood a dense forest of native oaks, and the 
few houses were separated by large, unoccupied grounds. 
Many and many a night, after the Indian massacre of 1862, 
have I lain awake listening for the Indian warwhoop, and 
thinking how easily they could come through the woods and 
kill us all. 

, Our present inhabitants, in their palatial homes that line 
our famous avenue, may think that I am drawing on my imagi- 
nation in giving these pen pictures, but it is all true. 

The foregoing reminiscences have told some of the inci- 
dents of the Territorial days and the early statehood of Min- 
nesota ; and I wish now to emphasize the social life and qual- 
ities of some of my early friends and acquaintances. 

As I have said, the Twin Cities were particularly fortunate 
in the class of young men which they attracted- They were 
mostly college-bred men from fine families, who had the enter- 
prise and enthusiasm to test Horace Greeley's advice, "Go 
West, young man, go West." 

Those who went to St. Anthony have proved what they 
could do by the wonderful city of Minneapolis, which in time 
absorbed the town of St. Anthony. Almost all the pioneer 
founders have passed into the Great .Unknown, • but ''their 
works do follow them." The little village has become a great 
and mighty city, known all over the world in sending the "staff 
of life" to its utmost bounds. 


St. Paul, being the head of navigation, and the state capital, 
attracted the commercially and politically inclined; many of 
the young men who came here were budding lawyers, pros- 
pective merchants, and bankers. They had so much energy 
that they did not sit dowTi and wait for business, — indeed, that 
would have been a weary waiting, — but set to work at the first 
task that offered itself; some who afterwards became famous 
as lawyers and bankers, taught school, did carpenter work, or 
employed their time in other ways earning an honest penny. 
Most of them had become engaged to be married before com- 
ing out here, and as soon as they could make and keep a home 
they brought their brides here, and then began the social life 
of our city. 

As early as the years 1843-4 some of the most prominent 
citizens were living at Fort Snelling and ]\[endota. Henry H. 
Sibley married ]\Iiss Steele in '43, and when Governor Ramsey 
came in iMay, '49, he and his wife were entertained by Mr. and 
Mrs. Sibley in their hospitable home at Mendota. Franklin 
Steele, IMrs. Sibley's brother, was then sutler at the fort, and 
he had a charming wife who became a leader in the social life 
of our city. 

I must not neglect to give due honour to the very earliest 
pioneer women, Mrs. John R. Irvine and Mrs. Jacob Bass. AVe 
forty-niners found them here, and they antedated us by several 
years. Mrs. Irvine came in the year 1843, and endured great 
hardships in the truly pioneer days; she was a remarkably 
handsome woman, and her mental characteristics equalled her 
physical beauty ; through all the trying yars before this North- 
west could be called civilized she kept her womanly qualities, 
and when refined social life displaced the early frontier so- 
ciety, Mrs. Irvine took her place among the best; during the 
many years she was permitted to live in our midst, she was 
prominent in all good works, and died at a good old age, great- 
ly regretted. 

Mrs. Bass came, a very young bride, to the French and half- 
breed village called St. Paul, and assisted her husband in wel- 
coming the new comers whom every steamboat ])rought to the 
newly organized Territory. I remember well the pleasant 



greeting which my mother and I received on reaching the St. 
Paul House, after the dreary landing at what seemed to us the 
end of civilized life. ]\Irs. Bass was then the mother of two 
sons, one aged six years and the other six months. Edgar, the 
elder, and I became friends and spent part of each day picking 
flowers in a deep ravine bach of the hotel, and decorating the 
dining-room table. The diiference of twelve years in our ages 
did not prevent our comradeship, as Edgar was a manly little 
fellow; he became an officer in the IT. S. army, and is now on 
the retired list. i\Irs. Bass helped greatly in the formative 
period of our social life, and when her husband became wealthy 
and built a beautiful home on Woodward avenue, she enter- 
tained in a most hospitable manner; and, by the way, their 
house was the first one in St. Paul to have French plate glass 
windows. She died this past summer, 1913, and we all feel 
that our city has been made the better for her life. 

Ex-Governor ^Marshall, in his address before the old set- 
tlers of Hennepin county, considered the coming of Henry ^I. 
Rice the turning point in favor of St. Paul. Socially it was a 
most fortunate incident, for Mr. Eice brought his bride, a 
charming Southern girl, in the spring of '49, and they began 
housekeeping in a cottage he built on Third street near what 
is now Washington street; this cottage was beautifully fur- 
nished, and it was the beginning of one of our loveliest homes. 
Mr. Rice had the task of removing the "Winnebago Indians 
from their reservation at Fort Atkinson in 1848 ; it was a most 
difficult undertaking, as the Indians were very unwilling to 
move to the cold Northwest. While superintending the re- 
moval of this tri])e, he became interested in St. Paul and bought 
an interest in the village from John R. Irvine; this property 
was surveyed and called Rice and Irvine's Addition, and after- 
ward it became an important part of the city. 

Another addition to the social life of 1849 was the arrival 
in July of Mr. and jMrs. Edmund Rice, with Mr. Rice's sister, 
who later, in 1851, married ]\Ir. AVilliam IloUinshead, a prom- 
inent lawyer from Philadelphia. ^Mr. Rice being a lawyer, a 
law firm was established bearing the name, ''Rice, Hollinshead 
& Becker." 


Another charming family came that same summer, Rev. 
Edward D. Neill and wife ; Mr. Neill purchased a lot on the 
corner of Fourth street and Rice Park, and built a two story 
brick house, which was a most attractive home for many years. 
This was the first brick dwelling house in the city. Mrs. Neill, 
a very attractive lady, became a social power, standing for the 
best religiously and socially. Mr. Neill built a small chapel 
on AYashington street during the summer of '49, and this 
chapel was the progenitor of the First Presbyterian Church 
built on Third street in 1850; unfortunately this chapel was 
burned down in the winter of that same year. 

Mr. J. W. Selby and his family came in '49 also ; they came 
from Ohio, and after looking around Mr. Selby decided to buy 
a farm adjoining the village ; this farm extended from what is 
now College avenue to Dale street, and from Dayton avenue 
to Summit avenue. On hearing of this purchase, Mr. Rice said, 
*'What a fool Selby is to go out into the woods." Mr. Selby 
built a very small cottage on the hill near where the First 
Methodist Church (now abandoned) stands; St. Anthony hill, 
as it was called, was very steep and had a tamarack swamp at 
its foot, crossed by a corduroy bridge. After the arrival of 
Mrs. Selby, with her sister and an attractive young brother, 
this home became the social center for young people, and one 
of the chief winter diversions was coasting down hill in front 
of their house, where Selby avenue now is. After some years 
Mr. Selby built a very handsome residence on Dayton avenue, 
on a lot which ran back to Selby avenue. I can well remember 
the time when 'Mr. Selby 's cows and horses pastured luxu- 
riously on this farm site, and I felt the force of Mr. Rice's com- 
ment; but now those ''woods" are in the most thickly settled 
portion of the city. ^Mr. Selby died before his property be- 
came very valuable, however; his widow sold the homestead 
to Norman Kittson for a large sum, and Mr. Kittson built a 
grand house on the site of it. Since his death the mansion has 
made way for the Roman Catholic Cathedral, which is now in 
process of erection. Mr. and Mrs. >Sell)y were devout Presby- 
terians, ^Ir. Sel])y being an elder in the First Presbyterian 
Churcli and an ardent supporter of the pastor, Rev. E. D. Neill. 



I trust their knowledge is now so developed in the Great Be- 
yond that their souls are not vexed by the cathedral occupying 
their old home site. 

In May, 1849, Dr. Charles AViliiam Wulff Borup and his 
brother-in-law, Mr. Charles H. Oakes, came to St. Paul and 
added much to our social life. Both gentlemen married wives 
of mixed French and Indian blood, who were sisters and had 
been well educated in an eastern school ; they were ladies and 
a great addition to our little circle. Both men built attractive 
homes, much more modern than any other in our embryo 
town ; Dr. Borup 's occupied a city block fronting on Ninth 
street, and his garden and hothouses were the admiration of 
our citizens for many years. Mr. Oakes' residence was on 
Eighth street, and at that time and for several years later 
Eighth street from Jackson to Broadway was the fashionable 
part of the city and boasted many handsome houses. 

W^e are indebted to Dr. Borup for the first musical cultiva- 
tion in St. Paul ; he was very fond of music, had a fine musical 
education, and his family of several daughters inherited liis 
talent and became fine pianists under his training. After his 
home was finished, Dr. Borup gave frequent musicals in which 
local talent assisted, and one of these local musicians became 
the founder and principal supporter of the later musical soci- 
eties of St. Paul. Richards Gordon's name and the work he 
accomplished are well known, but back of him great credit 
should be given to Dr. Borup for the high standard he set as 
the musical impulse of our people. The entertainments given 
by Mrs. Borup and ^Irs. Oakes were of the most refined type, 
and I feel sure that any one attending them could easily have 
imagined she was in an eastern city, instead of a frontier town 
in the extreme Northwest. 

One of the young men who came in '49 was Dr. David Day ; 
he had not selected his bride then, but waited several years 
before he brought from Pittsburg a most charming young 
woman, indeed a very j^oung woman, only eighteen; she was 
the daughter of General Butler of the United States army. Dr. 
Day died some years since, but his widow and lovely daughter 
are still with us, and no social function is complete without 



dear Mrs. Day. I must also mention here Mrs. Day's older sis- 
ter, the widow of Senator McMillan; the senator and his wife 
came to Stillwater in 1854, and to St. Paul in '56. Senator 
MclNIillan's ancestors were Scotch-Irish, descendants of the 
Covenanters, and his religion was a part of his life never laid 
aside, but Sunday and week days the same. His wile fully 
■agreed with him, and their family was raised to truly love 
God and their fellow men ; no personal sacrifice was too great 
to show their loj^alty to God and his divine laws, or to help 
their neighbor. Mrs. McMillan is still with us, and surely her 
children and grand-children "rise up and call her blessed." 

In 1849 Mr. Henry L. ^loss, a young lawyer of Stillwater, 
married Miss Horsford and brought her to St. Paul to live; 
Miss Horsford was one of the teachers sent out by Governor 
Slade, you remember, at the request of Dr. Williamson, one of 
the early missionaries, and she had settled in Stilhvater, an 
older place than St. Paul and larger at that time. Mrs. Moss 
was a remarkably intelligent, w^ell educated w^oman, petite and 
attractive in appearance, and greatly interested in all philan- 
thropic work. Mr. Moss built a home on Exchange street, near 
Irvine Park, where they lived for over fifty years. They gave 
many notable entertainments, of which two should go down 
into history, the one in 1874 when they celebrated their silver 
wedding, and the other in 1899 on the occasion of their- golden 

Among the early merchants were three brothers who came 
to St. Paul in 1849 ; they built a two-story building on Third 
street near what is now Exchange street, and this building is 
still standing and -apparently w411 last another half century. 
These brothers were Abram, Edwin, and Charles Elfelt, sons 
of a Jewish family in Philadelphia ; this family belonged to a 
very high class of Jews, the same from which AYalter Scott 
took his character of Rebecca in Ivanhoe. . It was Washington 
Irving who told Scott about her ; she was a Gratz, and in her 
grandfather's time Jefferson was often a guest at his house. 
A great-granddaughter, married to a cousin of Ex-Governor 
IMarshall, told him that Jefferson wrote the Declaration of 
Independence in her great-grandfather's house. 


The Elfelts were refined, cultivated men; tliey opened a 
fine stock of dry goods in their new building, and for several 
years they had the leading dry goods store in the city. In 
1852 Mr. Abram Elfelt brouglit his bride from Philadelphia, a 
most beautiful woman, who became a social leader; their 
daughter, I\Irs. Bramhall, is now prominent in advancing plans 
to improve our civic life, and especially in conserving our for- 
ests. Mr. Elfelt built a modern house on the west side of 
Irvine Park, and furnished it with furniture brought from 
Philadelphia. Mr. and Mrs. Elfelt were most hospitable, and 
many dancing parties were given in their beautifully ap- 
pointed home. 

The second story of the Elfelts' dry goods store was a 
hall, which was called Mazurka Hall, and it filled a great need 
during several years; almost all our public dancing parties 
were held there, and many public meetings. I often think that 
this building should be purchased by the city, to be preserved 
as an historical relic. It is sad for us pioneers to see building 
after building demolished, which rendered such great service 
in the early days; and many times not even the site is pre- 
served, but all must give way to progress. 

Many have written about the pioneer men, but very little 
has been told of the pioneer women who came from luxurious 
eastern homes to endure the hardships of our border life. How 
nobly they bore them, and what brave men and women they 
reared to take their places and carry on their work of advanc- 
ing Christianity and civilization in this great territory. 

Among the most notable of these women stood Mrs. Ramsey, 
the Governor's wife; she was not only queenly in appearance, 
but had most charming manners. Her Quaker education had 
given her simplicity, which, combined with cordiality, im- 
pressed one Avith the genuineness of her character; no one 
for an instant could think she was acting a part. Her tone of 
voice and manner of talking were so fascinating that I loved 
to listen to her. She was the same charming personality after 
returning from AVasliington, Avhere Governor Ramsey had 
served as Secretary of AVar and of the Treasury; no worldly 
prosperity could change her. The last entertainment she 


gave was a reception, perhaps two years before slie died ; after 
the reception she was criticized for being close, as she had 
neither flowers nor music. All the disagreeable things said 
came to her ears, and she said to me, ''I gave that reception 
without flowers or music on purpose; I could have had both, 
but I wanted to show my friends that a reception could be given 
in a simple way. It was the kind of an entertainment that 
most of our citizens can afford to give, and I wanted to rebuke 
the extravagance of our friends of moderate circumstances." 
Her death was a great loss to our city, where she dominated 
society and set a sensible example to our citizens. 

Mrs. Goodhue, wife of James M. Goodhue, the founder and 
editor of our first newspaper, The Pioneer, was a woman of 
unusual intellectual ability and very great social qualities. 
She not only kept her household in order, but could edit her 
husband's newspaper in an emergency. Her sister, Miss Cor- 
delia Kneeland, lived with her, a young lady whose great wit 
and conversational talents made a success of many of our social 

Indeed, when I think of the fall of 1849 and the winter of 
1850,1 cannot imagine a finer society than existed in the \^llages 
of Mendota, St. Paul, and St. Anthony, and at Fort Snelling, 
small as the numbers were. All attended the social functions 
given in St. Paul, and, with the regimental band from the fort 
for music, the parties could not fail of being a success. Most 
of the entertainments had to be given in a hall or hotel, of 
course, as the few private homes were too small to accommodate 

In July, 1850, Colonel Robertson of Ohio became a citizen 
of St. Paul ; and his wife, a very attractive young matron, be- 
came noted for her hospitality. She was the first person to 
have regular ''at home" days. Her sister, bride of Lafayette 
Emmett (afterward Judge Emmett), was also a most charming 
hostess and both Mrs. Robertson and Mrs. Emmett were for 
many years a social and intellectual force among us. 

In the spring of 1851 General James H. Simpson arrived, 
accompanied by his wife and a young sister-in-law, ^Miss Champ- 
lin. Mrs. Simpson was a fine pianist, and proved an added 


inspiration to our musical society, taking part in the musical 
entertainments given by Dr. Borup. Her brother, Mr, Champ- 
lin, married Dr. Borup 's oldest daughter. Mrs. Simpson was 
not only a cultivated musician, but a very fine conversationalist, 
and had a very cheerful, bright disposition, always seeing the 
humorous side of life. Such a cheerful temperament endeared 
her to her friends, who, however despondent, always felt hap- 
pier after an interview with her. Both the General and his 
wife were devout Christians, members of Christ Church, and 
were a great help in sustaining the parish in its formative 
period; both have passed away years since, but their works 
live after them. 

Miss Champlin married John B. Cook, and for many years 
dispensed a gracious hospitality in the city; both have now 
joined the great majority across the ''dark river." 

In 1852 Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Willes came from Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Mrs. AVilles coming on her wedding trip; they 
bought a home on Irvine Park, adding another to our attractive 
homes. Mrs. AYilles was beautiful and refined, worthy to join 
the group composed of Mrs. Ramsey, Mrs. Sibley, and others of 
our company forming the best society. IMr. Willes had the 
advantage of some of our young men, in that he was well to 
do and could help in civic improvements in many ways. Mrs. 
Willes is still vvith us, and her children and grandchildren are 
leaders in social and intellectual life. 

In May, 1853, Governor Gorman came with his family; 
Mrs. Gorman did the honors of the governor's mansion in a 
most gracious way; she was fond of entertaining, and during 
her husband's term of office, and for several years after, kept 
open house for all, and many were the social gatherings that 
were enjoyed there. The most notable event, perhaps, was tlie 
marriage of her eldest daughter to Harvey Officer, a rising 
young lawyer of St. Paul ; the wedding ceremony and recep- 
tion were held at the home, and nothing was lacking to make 
the occasion a society function equal to a wedding of these 
latter days. 

Mrs. Gorman's sister, wife of Robert A. Smith, many times 
Mayor of St. Paul, ^vns a great assistance to ^frs. Gorman in 



entertaining; she is still living, and although her later years 
have been spent in caring for an invalid husband, she is remem- 
bered as a gracious entertainer, not only at Mrs. Gorman's, 
but later at her own home on Summit avenue. May she be 
with us many days to come ! 

Another most charming woman must not be forgotten, Mrs. 
Prince, wife of the late John S. Prince, one of the most prom- 
inent early bankers; upon her arrival here, in 1854, she took 
her place as a leader in society. Mr. Prince built a most at- 
tractive home in lower town, and from the time it was occu- 
pied until his death no home in the city equalled it in hospi- 
tality; delightful entertainments for both old and young were 
given, and to be welcomed by IMr. and Mrs. Prince was an 
event in one's life. I remember one occasion when a children's 
party was in full swing; ]\Ir. Egbert Thompson came in and 
in a depressed manner said, ''Well, I have missed it all my 
life ; when I was young, children w^ere of no account, and now, 
when I am old, old people are of no account." Mrs. Prince lived 
to a good old age, dying this past summer, 1913; each year 
of her life was a benediction to her children and her friends. 

Yet another of the women who came in 1853 is w4th us, 'Mrs. 
Hunt, widow of ]\rr. Edgar Hunt; she is a deeply religious 
woman, and has been a power for good in the Episcopal 
Church, as well as in the community; her children and grand- 
children have followed in her footsteps, and are active workers 
in church and society for the uplift of all. 

In March, 1854, AYilliam R. Marshall brought his bride from 
Utica, N. Y. ; she was the daughter of George Langford, a 
banker, and was connected with ,the most prominent families 
of Oneida county. ^Iv. and 'Mrs. i\rarshall began housekeeping 
on the corner of Fourth street and Rice Park; Mrs. IMarshall, 
having been reared in the center of culture and refinement, 
brought these qualities into her new home, and for forty years 
she was a most delightful hostess. 

Through lier influence, two of her sisters also became resi- 
dents of St. Paul ; one was the wife of William Spencer, son of 
Joshua Spencer, the most noted lawyer of New York; and one 
was the wife of James W. Taylor, who became prominent as our 


consul at AYinnipeg, being held in such esteem by the English 
that at his death the flag of Windsor Castle was lowered. Both 
these women had a delightful personality, and took a leading 
part in social life for many years ; they were also most efficient 
in helping to care for the sick, in the days before trained nurses, 
or indeed any kind of nurses, were here. In those days kind 
neighbors went and ministered to the helpless ones ; and many 
now living can remember how the anxieties attending the sick 
bed were removed when Mrs. Spencer appeared, and many a 
dying one's last hours were comforted and soothed by her gen- 
tle words and tender ministrations. Children and grandchil- 
dren are living in our midst and ''rise up to call her blessed." 

Mrs. Marshall also influenced tw^o young brothers to join 
her in the fall of 1854, and these brothers became permanent 
citizens. Mr. Nathaniel P. Langford died in October, 1911, 
greatly lamented, having taken an active part in all our civic 
affairs and always for the benefit of the city. The other brother, 
Augustine G. Langford, married Elizabeth Robertson, daughter 
of Col. D. A. Robertson ; he died in Denver many years since, 
but the sons, Nathaniel and "William Langford, are among our 
best business men, and, no doubt, their children w^ill follow in 
their footsteps. 

In 1860 Miss Fanny Spencer visited her brother, AYilliam 
Spencer, and during this visit she met Mr. Amherst H. "Wilder, 
who immediately fell in love with her; they w^ere married in 
1861, and settled permanently in St. Paul. This marriage 
proved a very important event for the city, not only in starting 
a new home and adding to the social life, but eventually in 
founding the ''AYilder Charity,'' which will continue to benefit 
the w^orthy poor among us for all time. ]\Irs. "Wilder was a 
very superior woman ; she had a fine education, and all her 
early life had been spent in tlie midst of iutellectutal and culti- 
vated society; the guests in her father's house were such men 
as Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, and she imbibed from her 
earliest years a love for tilings wliich make for refinement and 
culture. She excelled in conversation, and could maintain her 
side in argument with the most liighly educated men. A sad 
calamity it was to St. Paul when the A\'ilder family, father, 



mother, and daughter, Mrs. Appleby, passed away within a few 
years of each other. 

So, indirectly, the coming of Mrs. ^Marshall brought a num- 
ber of people who have added to our growth both in intellectual 
advancement and wealth. 

In the spring of 1854, ^Ir. and Mrs. Thomas AV. Coleman 
came here from Canada ; they resided in St. Paul several years, 
and afterAvard in Iowa, but returned here in 1877. ^Ir. Coleman 
invested largely in real estate, and also bought stock in one of 
our banks; the family consisted of two daughters, Jenny and 
Emily, and a sister of Mrs. Coleman. Mrs. Coleman and her 
sister, Miss Newington, at once became important members of 
our circle, having moved in the best society in Canada, and w^e 
all know an educated Englishwoman cannot be excelled in re- 
finement and good manners. ^Irs. Coleman played delightfully, 
and many impromptu dances were indebted to her for the 
music which added so much to the enjoyment of the young peo- 
ple. Mr. Coleman purchased the Brown residence, which after- 
wards was sold to the city for a hospital, and their home became 
a place where young people loved to congregate. Miss New- 
ington some years later became the wife of Ex-Governor Gor- 
man, and for many years led in church work and philanthropic 
and social activities. Miss Jenny Coleman, the older daughter, 
married ^Ir. G. W. Armstrong, a young lawyer, and their sons, 
James and John, today rank among our most useful citizens; 
one is a lawyer and one a physician, continuing the good work 
begun by their father and grandfather. iMrs. Armstrong is now 
living, a most gracious lady beloved by all who know her. 

I hope I have done justice to a few of the pioneer women 
who bore the heat and burden of the day ; we were truly blessed 
in the character of these women who laid the foundation of 
our family and social life; their children and grandchildren 
have maintained their principles, so that St. Paul is known as 
one of the most refined cities in the Union. I have mentioned 
only a few of the gracious, charming women who made their 
home among us then; but I have neither strength nor time to 
write of the many who came after 1854, and who kept up the 
high moral and intellectual standard of their predecessors. 


Our method of entertaining in those early days made us all 
like one family, each of our friends, or perhaps only a certain 
number of our friends, contributing to the menu ; this was made 
necessary because we had no public caterers and our domestic 
help was very inexperienced. One of the wonders of that time 
was what famous housekeepers and cooks our ignorant, help- 
less brides became ; after sixty years the mention of their names 
brings to mind the savor of good viands. "When an entertain- 
ment was planned, one would send the salad, another the rolls, 
and another the cake, etc. ; the hostess had very little to do, 
except to see that her house was in order; and she, of course, 
returned those favors when her friends entertained. I was 
amused and reminded of old times, when celebrating the fiftieth 
anniversary of my arrival in St. Paul, by having some of the 
older friends say to me, "Why did you not ask me to make the 
salad?" or ''Why did you not send to me for cake?" and "I 
expected to have to send you some lamps." When I was mar- 
ried, Mrs. Goodhue made the bride's cake, and Mrs. Emmett 
and Mrs. Simpson assisted in making the fruit cake, salad, etc., 
for the supper. Such close intimacy endeared us to each other, 
and the bonds of friendship lasted all through our lives. 

. During those days surprise parties were quite common, or 
at least so-called surprise parties; but the lady of the house 
that was intended to be surprised always had a hint that some- 
thing unusual might occur on such and such an evening. AVe 
generally received a hospitable welcome, and soon the dancing 
began and a delightful evening was spent. 

One party, however, was made more of a surprise to the 
guests than to the host and hostess. In the family of one of our 
prominent citizens there was a young lady visiting ; the young 
people thought it would be all right to take music and refresh- 
ments and surprise the hostess and her guest in the customary 
way. The hint was duly given, and the hostess signified that 
the party would be welcome ; everything went off as sclieduk'd ; 
the guests were welcomed by the liostess, as her luisband was 
out of town; dancing began soon, and all were having a merry 
time, when the host came home quite unexpectedly. He was 


furious at having his home invaded by uninvited guests, al- 
though tliey were the cream of our little circle, and he told 
them in no very civil words that when he wanted guests he 
would invite them. The guests left in double-quick time, and 
none of them ever entered that house again; the hostess, a 
lovely woman, never had a social position, or, rather I should 
say, a position in society. This ended surprise parties among 
our best society people. 

Telling of parties, I must not omit one which proved almost 
a tragedy ; I am not quite sure of the year in which it occurred, 
but think it was the very cold winter of '55. The party was 
given by Mr. and Mrs. D. A. J, Baker at their farm, now Mer- 
riam Park. There was a stretch of prairie to be crossed, reach- 
ing from what is now Mackubin street but then called Mar- 
shall's farm, to what is now Snelling avenue. The invited 
guests started about seven o'clock in sleighs to meet at a ren- 
dezvous and go all together, which arrangement proved very 
fortunate and saved many lives. On reaching the crest of the 
hill, called St. Anthony hill, a sharp wind met them and the 
atmosphere became filled with snow in a short time; it was a 
genuine blizzard. The road was soon obliterated, and the in- 
stinct of the horses remained their only guide. ^Ir. John Cath- 
cart led the line of sleighs, and he said afterward that it was 
much more like a funeral procession than a prospective dancing 
party. One or two of the sleighs wandered out from the line, 
but fortunately reached a house on Governor Ramsey's farm, 
quite far to the nortli of University avenue, or, as it was then 
called, tlie ''Territorial road." They were fortunate in finding 
shelter for the night, as otherAvise they would have been frozen 
to deatli, there being no other house within miles. The party 
led by ^Ir. Cathcart finally reached Mr. Baker's, but how it was 
impossible to tell; several of the party were frostbitten, but 
only one seriously; a >\Ir. AVolf liad his hands frozen and suf- 
fered intensely, but recovered eventually without losing his 
fingers. My brother William started for Mr. Baker's in a 
double sleigh drawn by a fine pair of horses, but had gone only 
a short distance when he turned back, realizing the great dan- 


ger of being lost in a Minnesota blizzard. However, ''All's 
well that ends well," and our party returned home the next 
morning grateful to the Power that guided them safely. 

After 1855 immigration came so rapidly that a great change 
took place in our social life ; the family parties were succeeded 
by social circles formed in the churches, the members feeling 
that they should become acquainted with each other. A few of 
us older residents still kept our social compact, but the early 
custom of all citizens meeting together had to give way to 
smaller and more formal affairs. 

Now, after sixty-four years, few, very few, can remember 
those youthful, happy, hospitable days in the little French and 
Indian village which has grown into our great, cosmopolitan 
City of St. Paul. 



I arrived in Minnesota in July, 1866, having left my old 
home at Quincy, 111., on account of lung trouble contracted dur- 
ing my army service. I had always been interested in politics 
as a Republican. In May, 1864, I was a delegate to the Repub- 
lican State Convention at Springfield, 111., which sent delegates 
to the National Convention to re-nominate Abraham Lincoln as 
President. In that convention I wore my uniform as a cap- 
tain of Illinois volunteers, having just recruited a company for 
my second term of service. This convention also nominated 
Richard J. Oglesby for governor of Illinois and a full state 
ticket. Returning from my army service in the fall of 1864, I 
made speeches in favor of Lincoln's election and cast my first 
presidential vote in November, for the great Emancipator. 

I was thus, on coming to Minnesota, somewhat prepared to 
take an interest in political affairs. This tendency was stim- 
ulated by the fact that I brought with me letters of introduc- 
tion to AVilliam R. ^larshall, then governor, from his old friends 
in Quincy, where he had spent his boyhood years. Governor 
Marshall received me most kindly, and thus within a week after 
my arrival in St. Paul began the acquaintance which lasted 
during his entire life with constantly increasing respect on my 
part for his commanding abilities, sterling integrity, and ami- 
able character. 

I spent the fall and winter of 1866-7 at Anoka, and attended 
there in October my first political meeting in the state, which 
was addressed by General C. C. Andrews, then just returned 
from his prolonged and honorable army service. I was not 
yet a voter, but, had I been, should undoubtedly liave voted for 

•Read at the monthly meeting of the Executive Council, May 13, 1907. 


Ignatius Donnelly at what proved to be his last election as rep- 
resentative in Congress. 

1867. , 

On January 1, 1867, at the invitation of Granville S. Pease, 
then and now its proprietor, I assumed the editorship of the 
Anoka Union, a relation which continued for five years, al- 
though I only remained for a few months a resident of Anoka. 
In this capacity I helped organize the Minnesota State Edi- 
torial Association at St. Paul in February, 1867. There I met 
practically all the newspaper men of the state, only fifty or 
sixty in number at that time, and formed associations, many 
of which have lasted until now. 

In April, 1867, I removed to St. Cloud, Minn., where I re- 
mained one year. Soon after my arrival I became involved, at 
the' village caucus, in a political contest in behalf of my friend, 
Governor ^Marshall. lie was a candidate for re-nomination and 
was opposed by the so-called Donnelly element of the party, 
then specially represented in St. Cloud by L. AV. Collins, after- 
ward justice of the Supreme Court, C. D. Kerr, afterward judge 
of our St. Paul District Court, and W. B. ]^Iitchell, then and 
long afterward editor of the St. Cloud Journal. Governor 
Marshall's interests were represented by J. E. West, T. C. Mc- 
Clure, and others, and my belligerent disposition carried me 
into a wordy debate with Captain Collins, which afforded us 
material for some amusement in after years. Marshall was 
defeated at St. Cloud, but was victorious in the State Conven- 
tion and was easily elected in November. 

The state constitutional amendment granting equal suffrage 
was voted upon at that election, and was an issue in the cam- 
paign. I made some speeches in the northern part of the state, 
especially devoted to that issue, and some others in Stearns 
county in the interest of C. A. Gilman, candidate for state 
senator, pledged to the re-election of Alexander Ramsey, United 
States senator, which would occur during i\Ir. Gilman 's official 
term. Gilman was elected, although Stearns county was 
strongly Democratic, and I thus gladly contributed somewhat 
to the election of Senator Ramsey for his second term. 

During this canvass I heard, for the first time, Cushman 
K. Davis deliver, or attempt to deliver, a political speech. It 



was at the court house in St. Cloud where Captain Davis, as 
he was then known, occupied the platform with Sam Beeman, 
a well known political orator from southern Minnesota. Bee- 
man was a fluent and vigorous speaker, with a tremendous 
voice, and a remarkable gift of "continuance." He spoke for 
more than two hours, greatly interesting the audience, and 
when he closed two-thirds of those present left the hall. This 
was embarrassing for Captain Davis, who bravely started in, 
however, in a modest way, with a shrill voice to rehearse a 
carefully prepared speech. Within five minutes half of the 
people who had remained disappeared. Davis saw that he must 
be brief and tried to jump to the conclusion of his speech, but 
failed to land at the right place. He became covered with con- 
fusion, stammered and repeated himself, but finally struck his 
peroration and wound up what was admittedly a complete 
failure. Contrasting this episode with the wonderful success 
Senator Davis afterward achieved as an orator in many widely 
divergent fields, one must arrive at the conclusion that, in some 
cases at least, orators are made and not born. On my speak- 
ing with him many years afterward, when multiplied successes 
had made it safe to allude to this early failure, Senator Davis 
told me that he had other discouragements nearly as bad in his 
early career. During this same campaign he spoke at Lake 
City, where things passed off smoothly, as he thought, and he 
expected a glowing compliment in the local paper. Getting 
hold of the next issue he was astonished to see that the only 
allusion to his speech was couched in language something like 
this: young man named Davis also spoke. In our opinion 
this handsome young man would be more effective in address- 
ing an audience of one with his arm around it." 


I removed to St. Paul in April, 1868, and established my 
permanent residence which has since remained here. This was 
the year of the celebrated contest for the Republican nomina- 
tion to Congress between Ignatius Donnelly, the then incum- 
bent, on one side, and AV. D. AYashburn, General L. F. Hub- 
bard, and General C. C. Andrews, on the other side. I had 
formed the favorable acquaintance of General Andrews dur- 
ing my year at St. Cloud, and had accumulated a growing po- 


litical distrust of Mr. Donnelly. Consequently I opposed Don- 
nelly's renomination in my editorials in the Anoka Union and 
I went to the district convention as a proxy delegate from Ot- 
tertail county (the .first time that county had been represented 
in any convention) in the interest of General Andrews. Don- 
nelly bolted the convention and was nominated by his friends 
with a pretext of regularity. In the anti-Donnelly convention, 
"Washburn withdrew and General Hubbard was nominated. A 
little later, however, having been put in a false position as to 
a matter of arbitrating the differences by some of his campaign 
managers, General Hubbard resigned the nomination. The con- 
vention was re-assembled and General Andrews became the 
final nominee and made the campaign. The Democrats nomi- 
nated E. M. Wilson of Minneapolis, who was elected in Novem- 
ber, as the opposing Republican candidates divided the over- 
whelming party vote of the district. There were then only two 
Congressional districts in the state, and this district embraced 
everything north of Wabasha county. 

The fight within the party was bitter and unrelenting. I 
made many speeches, winding up the night before election at 
St. Cloud, where I occupied the platform with Governor I\Iar- 
shall, and whence we sent to Mr. Wheelock's St. Paul Press, 
which ardently supported Andrews, the cheering intelligence 
that the prairies of northern ^Minnesota were on fire with en- 
thusiasm for our favorite. The returns a few days later showed 
that he came out third in the race. 


In January, 1869, occurred the second election of Alexander 
Ramsey as United States senator, which was full of surprises, 
criminations, recriminations, stratagems and strategies. I was 
an interested observer, being heartily in favor of our distin- 
guished senator, but not sufficiently on the inside to know as to 
the truth or falsity of many of the serious allegations made in 
connection with the affair. Ramsey's following then, as later, 
while embracing unquestionably a very large section of the 
party, was controlled and manipulated by a select coterie 
of shrewd politicians, embracing Federal office holders and 
wealthy contractors in St. Paul and elsewhere, who had grown 



rich from post traderships and furnishing army supplies, In- 
dian goods, etc. 

"While Ramsey was thus successful in his re-election, the 
methods of his supporters had become somewhat unpopular 
and the nomination of Horace Austin for governor later in the 
year was distinctly an anti-Ramsey movement. Donnelly came 
serenely to the front as a candidate for governor against Aus- 
tin in the Republican convention, and McKusick of Stillwater 
was another candidate, but Austin received a majority of the 
delegates. He had lukewarm support at the polls, however, 
from the dominating element of the party, and was elected by 
an uncomfortably small majority over George L. Otis, the 
Democratic candidate. 


General John T. Averill of St. Paul, a popular and able man, 
whom it was always a delight to honor, was the Republican 
nominee for Congress in 1870, and again Donnelly appeared, 
this time as an independent candidate with Democratic sup- 
port. He announced that he would run solely on the platform 
of Ignatius Donnelly." The Democrats made no nomination, 
and mostly voted for him, but Averill was elected. The St. 
Paul Pioneer, then the state organ of the Democracy, was non- 
committal and gave Donnelly little or no assistance. I hap- 
pened to be present when General H. H. Sibley made a per- 
suasive and almost pathetic effort to induce H. L. Carver, then 
the proprietor of the Pioneer, to support Donnelly in his paper. 
Carver said he would do so whenever the Democrats endorsed 
Donnelly, but as they failed to do this formally he was never 
called upon to fulfill his promise. 

Mark H. Dunnell, who had for several years been State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, was elected to Congress 
as a Republican from the First District this year, and began his 
notable career of fourteen years' conspicuously able and useful 
public service. 

In 1870 I was appointed by Governor Austin a member of 
the State Board of Trustees of Soldiers' Orphans, and held the 
position by successive appointments for ten years or until tlie 
close of the institution. Tliert; was no salary attached to the 


office. Among my colleagues Col. H. G. Hicks and Maj. 0. B. 
Gould were specially prominent. 


The state convention of 1871 re-nominated Governor Austin 
with little or no opposition. Mr. Donnelly came back into the 
fold, making a characteristic speech at the convention, in which 
, he stated that he found the platform of ''Ignatius Donnelly/' 
on which he had run for Congress the year before, was alto- 
gether too narrow. He pledged himself to support the ticket 
this year and be a good Republican forever after. But the 
next year he was to be seen shouting in the front ranks for 
Horace Greeley, Democratic candidate for President, and dur- 
ing the remainder of his long life he was found, as a rule, active 
in the opposition. 

One episode of this convention is significant as the first 
entry of C. K. Davis as a candidate in state conventions. F. 
R. E. Cornell, of Minneapolis, was attorney general and had no 
opposition for re-nomination. At *the noon recess of the con- 
vention Captain A. H. Reed of Glencoe came to me and sug- 
gested that we go to Cush. Davis and ask him to be a candidate 
for attorney general as a representaive of the Union soldier 
element. I willingly consented, though I doubted the success 
of our mission as ]Mr. Davis was then United State district at- 
torney, which I regarded as an equally important and more 
lucrative position. To my astonishment, however, Captain 
Davis, without a moment's hesitation consented to run, showed 
much eagerness for success, and authorized us to get tickets 
printed and muster all his friends to his support. The time 
was too short, during the few hours that intervened before the 
nomination was reached in regular order, to secure enough 
votes to defeat Cornell. But the episode is interesting as in- 
dicating Mr. Davis' laudable ambition to get before the people, 
and as the beginning of a moulding of political events in his 
interest, which during the remainder of his life commanded 
my active support. 


In 1872 General John T. Averill was re-elected to Congress 
from the St. Paul district, and ^Mark H. Dunnell from the First 
district. There was now, for the first time, an election for a 


third Congressman, and H. B. Strait of Shakopee was elected, 
thus inaugurating a total service of fourteen fruitful years in 
the House of Representatives, — losing one intermediate term, 

General Grant was renominated for President, and the St. 
Paul Republicans organized a Grant and Wilson club, embrac- 
ing the entire city, which was a strong and energetic organiza- 
tion, doing very efficient work throughout the campaign. I 
had the honor to be unanimously elected president of this club, 
with Frank Fairchild as secretary, AY. D. Cornish vice-presi- 
dent, and II. R. Brill, now our esteemed senior judge of the 
District Court, treasurer. At the November election, St. Paul 
went Republican on the national ticket for the first time. 

In October I was nominated as a Republican candidate for 
the Legislature in the Fifth ward of St. Paul, embracing the 
territory now covered by the First, Second and Third wards. 
I was elected in November over James Smith, Jr., an old citi- 
zen and prominent lawyer, the Democratic candidate, after a 
spirited contest. ' 


In January, 1873, began my service in the Legislature, which 
then met annually and was limited to a term of sixty days. It 
was, in some respects, the most notable session which the state 
had then seen. It was specially notable for the large number 
of members, who then were, or afterward became, distinguished 
in public life. 

In the Senate were W. II. Yale, lieutenant governor, S. S. 
Beeman, Milo White, AY. G. AYard, L. F. Hubbard, J. L. Alc- 
Donald, D. M. Sabin, Edmund Rice, J. S. Pillsbury, C. H. 
Graves, R. B. Langdon, L. L. Baxter, Henry Poehler, and others 
almost equally distinguished. 

In the House were A. R. Hall, speaker, George P. AYilson, 
T. S. A^an Dyke, S. P. Child, AY. C. AYilliston, E. AY. Durant, 
George Benz, L. Fletcher, C. H. Clarke, A. Barto, F. E. Du Toit, 
E. St. Julian Cox, Stephen Miller, J. Y. Brower, J. AY. Blake, 
and others. 

Of these men, two, Hubbard and Pillsbury, were afterward 
governors, and one, Steplien jMiller, had already been gov- 
ernor; D. AI. Sabin became United States senator; AYhite, Mc- 


Donald, Rice, Poehler, and Fletcher, became Congressmen; 
Baxter, AYilliston, Cox, and McDonald, became district judges ; 
and several others occupied prominent positions in the political 
and business life of the commonwealth. 

One unofficial episode of the session was an intense excite- 
ment created by the refusal of the Merchants Hotel to enter- 
tain the colored orator, Frederick Douglass, who came to St. 
Paul to deliver a lecture. ^'Deacon" W. L. Wilson solved the 
problem by taking ]\Ir. Douglass to his home, but an indignant 
legislator introduced a resolution removing the capital from 
St. Paul on account of this insult to the colored race. The res- 
olution went over under notice of debate and did not after- 
ward materialize. Later in the session, Mr. George Benz and 
myself, the only two Republican members of the House from 
Ramsey county, secured an appropriation of $10,000 to extend 
the old Territorial capitol, then in use by the State, after an 
effort nearly equal to that required in 1893 to begin the con- 
struction of our present capitol, costing nearly $5,000,000. 

A notable official episode of the session was the impeach- 
ment of AYilliam Seeger, state treasurer. I voted against the 
articles of impeachment, and have never had occasion to regret 
my action. They were overwhelmingly carried, but Mr. Seeger 
resigned and the Senate proceedings which subsequently en- 
sued w^ere nugatory. 

The year 1873 witnessed the nomination of Cushman K. 
Davis for governor, an event of intense and lasting interest in 
itself, with many far reaching influences on the politics of the 
state. ]My own relations to this movement were somewhat in- 
timate. It was the beginning of my separation from many of 
those with whom I had worked harmoniously within the party 
for several years. Hon. ^Y. D. AVashburn, of Minneapolis, w^as 
the choice announced for governor by the Republican influ- 
ences which had dominated from the beginning of the state 
government, — the so-called Ramsey dynasty. Ramsey county 
was expected to go for AVashburn ; St. Paul had no candidate; 
Governor Austin was, in some quarters, talked of for a third 
term; and Augustus Armstrong, of Rochester, was put forward 
by that part of southern Minnesota. The St. Paul Dispatch, then 
an avowed Democratic paper, conducted by H. P. Hall, had, in 



a spirit of supposed mischievous interference in Republican 
plans, frequently suggested the name of C. K. Davis for gov- 
ernor, but little attention was paid to it by Republicans in the 
absence of any indication that Davis desired the nomination. 

One Saturday afternoon in Rice Park, H. R. Brill, then pro- 
bate judge and active in politics, asked me if I thought Davis 
could be nominated. I replied that I had no knowledge that 
he desired the nomination. Brill said, "Let's find out, and, if 
lie does, we can carry this county for him." The same day I 
received a letter from S. P. Child of Faribault county, asking 
me if Davis was a candidate. The next Monday I went to 
Davis' law office to find out. At the door I met W. L. Wilson, 
who was going on the same errand. AVe asked the question, 
and, without giving us a direct reply, Davis inquired what we 
thought about it. AYe told him that a good deal depended on 
Governor Austin's attitude. If he were a candidate, it w^ould 
divide the anti-AYashburn strength and there would be little 
hope ; if he were not, we believed the experiment was worth 
trying, especially if we could get some assurances of a few 
leading St. Paul men of their active help. Mr. AYilson and my- 
self agreed to make some inquiries and meet in the afternoon 
at Davis' office to report. Mr. "Wilson saw D. W. Ingersoll, 
General J. B. Sanborn, and some other leading men, who said 
that they would support Davis. I went to the capitol to see 
Governor Austin. He was absent, but his private secretary, A. 
R. McGill, afterward governor, promptly assured me that Aus- 
tin w^as not a candidate, was perfectly willing to retire, and 
that he, ^IcGill, would gladly see Mr. Davis enter the field. I 
then went to former Governor AY. R. Marshall, my mentor and 
friend, and was surprised to find him ready to embark heartily 
in the Davis movement. He had always been, and still was, a 
''Ramsey" man, but he said he would fight Ramsey's battles 
when Ramsey was a candidate ; we would not sacrifice so good 
a man as Davis on the mere suspicion that his promotion might 
sometime in the future injure Ramsey. This was a manly and 
independent position to take, as was eminently characteristic 
of IMarshall ; but few of tlie other leading Ramsey men followed 
his example, — wo had them all to fight. 


Mr. Wilson met me at Davis' law office in the afternoon as 
agreed, and we made our encouraging report. Mr. Davis 
promptly decided to formally announce his candidacy, and tak- 
ing from his desk a letter from Liberty Hall of Glencoe which 
inquired as to his position, he wrote a brief reply stating that 
he would be a candidate and would be grateful for the sup- 
port of his Republican friends. 

In order to secure immediate publicity, it was decided that 
I should take copies of these letters to the St. Paul Press, the 
Republican organ, and ask their insertion. The Press was out- 
spoken for Washburn, but it was hoped that its editor, Mr. J. 
A. Wheelock, would print the correspondence as a matter of 

I wrestled vigorously with i\Ir. Wheelock for two hours that 
evening. He did not refuse to print the letters, but labored 
hard to secure a reconsideration of the decision. He foresaw 
numerous political complications that would result, whether 
the movement was successful or otherwise, and urged me 
strongly to go back to Davis and induce him to change his 
mind, — but I told him the decision was final. Next day the 
letters appeared at the head of the editorial column, but w^ere, 
as was expected, accompanied by vehemently adverse com- 
ment. That interview was the parting of the ways between 
Mr. \Yheelock and myself, the beginning of a political estrange- 
ment that lasted twenty years. 

The Davis men organized the city of St. Paul, and carried 
it at the primaries, winning in four of the five wards, and also 
in the country towns, and sending from the county convention 
a strong delegation for Davis. 

Meantime a vigorous correspondence was carried on 
throughout the state, the time being very short, and the work 
for Washburn having been quite thoroughly done. The men 
largely relied on in the different counties to come down to the 
state convention in Davis' interest were Republican members 
of the last legislature and Republican editors of county news- 
papers. We had no money to pay the traveling expenses of 
delegates, but all these men had railroad passes, and then, as 
afterward in emergencies, proved a valuable resource to draw 


upon when their services were needed. The editors, especially, 
were a practically solid phalanx behind Davis during all his 
political career. 

Personally I visited a few counties, including Goodhue coun- 
ty. There I met General Hubbard, who, as soon as he was as- 
sured that Davis had an earnest following, went to work ener- 
getically in his own and other counties. General Hubbard had 
a vivid recollection of some injustice done him five years be- 
fore by the influences that were now supporting AVashburn ; 
this, added to his sincere personal admiration for Davis, made 
him an enthusiastic and effective supporter. Gen. John B. 
Sanborn, always zealous, unselfish and faithful, was another 
tower of strength in this and future battles. 

AYhen the state convention assembled, it was found that, in 
spite of Governor Austin's announced declination, a good many 
county conventions had instructed their delegates to support 
him. iMany of these delegates were now anxious to vote for 
Austin, unless he formally absolved them. Austin seemed 
afraid that Davis could not beat AVashburn and hesitated to 
positively decline. In fact, he stated that, if nominated, he 
would be obliged to accept. This, in effect, made him a candi- 
date and threw cold water on the Davis enthusiasm. If, on the 
first ballot, Austin should show more votes than Davis, our 
forces would be expected to go to him. At Davis' request I 
went to Governor Austin early in the morning of the day of 
the convention and frankly stated our position. I told him 
that Davis never would have gone into the race had not Sec- 
retary ]\IcGill positively assured me that he, Austin, was not a 
candidate ; that now things had so shaped themselves that Aus- 
tin's candidacy would be bitterly resented by the earnest 
friends of Davis, and that in this state of feeling Washburn 
would win the nomination. I asked Austin to write a letter to 
the convention, explicitly stating that he was not in the usual 
sense of the term a candidate, and had not been; that no dele- 
gates were there at his request, and that he would be satisfied 
to have either of the candidates, aside from himself, receive the 
nomination. He promptly agreed to write the letter and at 
once did so, sending one copy to General Hubbard, represent- 



ing Davis, and another to Levi Butler, representing AVashburn, 
and the letter was read to the convention. This letter accom- 
plished the object of releasing some Austin men to Davis, so 
that on the first ballot Davis and Austin each received 77 votes ; 
and thereafter Davis constantly gained, while Austin steadily 
lost. Years afterward I was told by one of Austin's friends 
that most of them considered he made a great mistake in writ- 
ing that letter, and that they blamed me for suggesting it to 
him. But I have always considered it a manly and proper 
thing for Governor Austin to do, — furthermore, that but for 
this letter Washburn would have been nominated, many Davis 
men preferring him to Austin under the circumstances. 

The convention met July 16, 1873, and in the preliminary 
skirmish the Washburn forces seemed to have a victory over 
the combined opposition in the election of AYilliam H. Yale of 
\Yinona as temporary chairman by a decisive majority, but 
subsequent events failed to justify this promise. The final bal- 
lot gave Davis 155 and AVashburn 152 votes, thus by a narrow 
margin nominating our candidate and changing the entire po- 
litical history of the state. Many interesting and exciting epi- 
sodes occurred during the convention. A disputed ballot for 
Davis w^as found under the lining of General Sanborn's hat, 
used as a ballot box, and was counted, no doubt properly ; if it 
had not been counted, Davis would still have had a majority. 
The excitement over the result was almost painful in its in- 
tensity. Davis appeared on the platform and made, as would 
be expected, a splendid acceptance speech. 

A very influential personage in the AVashburn ranks at this 
time, and in the ranks of the Ramsey element at all times, was 
General R. N. McLaren of St. Paul, United States marshal. He 
was an intelligent, systematic and tireless worker against us, 
and had many admirable qualities and was as generous and 
honorable an opponent as one ever meets in political warfare. 
One of his good qualities was a graceful, manly acceptance of 
defeat. He knew when his side was whipped. General Mc- 
Laren came to me on the floor of the convention as soon as the 
result was known and said: ''You must be chairman of the 
Republican State Committee; you have earned it; Davis' 


friends are entitled to it in making his campaign, and I will 
try to see that you get it." T had no desire for the position 
with its responsibilities, and I told him I would not he ap- 
pointed, as I knew the dominating influences of the convention 
operating through Chairman Yale too well to believe that this 
concession would be made. I was correct in my judgment. C. 
IT. Pettit of ^Minneapolis was made chairman of the committee ; 
it had little interest in Davis or the ticket ; it raised a consid- 
erable campaign fund, but spent very little, turning over about 
three-quarters of it to the committee for the ensuing campaign. 
Davis made speeches throughout the state, and was every- 
where received with enthusiasm. The people were with him, 
but the machine was against him. It was desired that his ma- 
jority should be small. Ara Barton was the Democratic nomi- 
nee, and Davis' majority was something like 6,000, as against 
three times that number for Grant as President the preceding 

One thing which dampened the enthusiasm of the Ramsey 
Republicans who had opposed Davis, was the fact that his en- 
thusiastic young friends, immediately after his nomination, 
raised the cry of ''Davis for Senator in 1875." Davis himself 
looked with favor on this proposition, but was doubtful about 
the expediency of mixing it up with his current gubernatorial 
campaign. Still, as the state senators to be elected with him 
in November would hold over and have a vote in the United 
States senatorial election in 1875, it was necessary to make at 
least some preliminary movements in that direction. As one 
of those movements, Davis requested me to become a candi- 
date for state senator from my district in St. Paul. I was an- 
tagonized by Hon. E. F. Drake, capitalist, railroad president, 
successful in business, able and experienced in politics, who 
was an avowed Ramsey man. The district embraced the Fourth 
and Fifth wards of St. Paul and the county towns. There were 
twenty delegates in the district convention, and when they 
went into secret caucus, I had twelve of them pledged and i\Ir. 
Drake had eight. But Col. John L. Merriam was a delegate 
inside, and when the doors were opened it was announced that 
Drake had received twelve votes to Castle eight, and that 



Drake was nominated. This was a sample of the vicissitudes 
of politics to which we had already become accustomed and of 
which we were all to learn more later on. 


Cushman K. Davis was inaugurated governor early in Jan- 
uary, 1874:. Shortly before his inauguration I was requested 
by Adjutant General Mark D. Flower, who like myself had 
been one of his ardent supporters, to go with him and- ask 
Davis to appoint A. R. McGill as his private secretary, — McGill 
having served four years in that capacity for Governor Austin 
with distinguished ability. Governor-elect Davis promptly told 
us that he had already decided to appoint "Deacon" AVilford 
L. "Wilson to that position. This was an unthought of thing to 
both of us, but I promptly recognized its Avisdom and emphat- 
ically endorsed it. Davis was then under thirty-five years of 
age and had the reputation of being, to draw it gently, a little 
*Svild,^' which reputation was very largely undeserved, but 
which made it especially appropriate that the antechamber of 
his official home should be occupied by a man twenty years 
older than himself, of the highest character for purity of morals 
and dignity of bearing as well as sincere religious faith and 
practice. Mr. Wilson's appointment was at once a guarantee 
of correct politics and dignified administration. 

Senator Hoar of ^Massachusetts, in his eloquent memorial 
address after the death of Senator Davis, used this language : 
*'He met every occasion with a simple and quiet courtesy. There 
was not much of deference in it; there w^as no yielding or sup- 
plication or timidity in it." The aged and dignified ^Massachu- 
setts senator, accustomed for years to deference from every- 
body, showed in this phrase a tinge of disappointment that he 
had never received such from this stalwart young colleague 
out of the west. I never saw Governor Davis show much defer- 
ence to people in all his career, but must make an exception in 
the case of Mr. Wilson. He showed him unquestioned defer- 
ence and respect from the beginning. 

When it was discovered that Davis could not make ]\rcGill 
his private secretary, Governor Austin, in the last days of his 
administration, appointed McGill insurance commissioner, in 



the place of Pennock Pusey who resigned for that purpose. 
Davis was not consulted about this and resented it as an in- 
fringement on his prerogative. He was naturally sensitive and 
somewhat suspicious ; and though he then admired McGill, and 
years afterward learned to trust him implicitly, to lean on him 
unreservedly and to confide his highest interests to his keeping, 
he was dissatisfied with this procedure. As a means of check- 
mating it, if found advisable, Davis went before a notary pub- 
lic and signed an oath of office immediately after the Legislat- 
ure had canvassed the vote, and two days before the public in- 
auguration. He thus became legal governor, and the appoint- 
ment of ]\IcGill, which was promptly sent in by Governor Aus- 
tin, was of no validity. The Senate held up the appointment 
until after the inauguration; but a few days later Davis per- 
sonally requested the senators to confirm it, and from that time 
forward he was one of ^McGill's warmest friends. The fact of 
his taking the oath of office in advance w^as probably never 
known to more than three persons, and is only narrated now 
as an unwritten incident of politics which throws a side light on 
the relations and motives of the parties interested. 

Soon after his inauguration. Governor Davis became an 
avowed candidate for United States senator to succeed Alex- 
ander Ramsey at the election to be held in the winter of 1875. 
W. D. AVashburn and Horace Austin also entered the field as 
candidates, and the autumn of 1874 was largely devoted by 
their friends to securing the nomination of candidates for the 
Legislature in their interest. It was the field against Ramsey, 
and the three gubernatorial rivals in 1873 were now allies. In 
Ramsey county the conflict raged with great bitterness. Hor- 
ace Thompson, president of the First National Bank, secured a 
nomination for the Legislature in the fifth ward, and though 
after his nomination he recognized Davis sentiment in St. Paul 
to the extent of pledging himself to vote for Davis for senator, 
enough Republicans in the fifth ward had become alienated to 
join witli the Democrats and elect F. R. Delano as their repre- 
sentative,— although Flower, McCardy, T. S. White, myself, and 
many other Davis men, vigorously supported i\Ir. Thompson, 
relying on his promise which, no doubt, would have been ful- 
filled and might have been decisive in Davis' favor. 


This year W. S. King of ^Minneapolis was nominated for 
Congressman; he was bitterly opposed by the St. Paul Press, 
under the management of Mr. Wheelock, who lavished his 
choicest morsels of invective in voicing his hostility. The peo- 
ple were warned against ^'The strumpet of corruption which 
strides in naked horror through the land," and were told how 
deeply they would be disgraced if King were allowed to suc- 
ceed. He was nominated, however, and elected, but the pre- 
science of ^Ir. "Wheelock was apparently justified. . The Pacific 
Mail scandal came to the surface and Mr. King spent a consid- 
erable portion of his official term in Canada, evading the serv- 
ice of a subpoena to appear as witness in a Congressional in- 
vestigation, — on the alleged ground, believed by many to be 
absolutely correct, that he was thereby protecting the precious 
reputations of many unsullied senators and congressmen. 


The winter of 1875 witnessed, during the legislative session, 
the memorable senatorial contest which resulted in the defeat 
of Alexander Ramsey and the election of S. J. R. ^Ic^NIillan, 
then Chief Justice by recent appointment of Governor Davis. 
The leading candidates against Ramsey were Davis, AYashburn, 
and Austin. The machine, that is, the Federal office holders 
-and the railroad and capitalist element, carrying what we 
younger men called the "barrel" with them, presented a united 
front in favor of Ramsey. Davis was then leading candidate 
in opposition, and many of his sanguine friends believed he had 
the certainty of ultimate victory. There was no specially valid 
reason, as appears from this distant perspective, why Ramsey 
should have been displaced. He had served two terms in the 
Senate after creditable records as Territorial and State gov- 
ernor. But we were impatient and really thought he was too 
old to longer perform efficient service. The shortness of our 
vision and the irony of fate were vividly presented to my mind 
twenty-five years later, when I saw ex-Senator Ramsey, still 
hale and vigorous at tlie age of eighty, on a front seat at the 
funeral of Senator Davis, worn out and stricken down at the 
age of sixty-two. 

"When the legislature of 1875 assembled, active work began 
and the adherents of the dift'ercnt candidates were rounded up. 



A secret caucus to nominate for United States senator was 
called for a certain evening, and the preceding night a confer- 
ence of the friends of Governor Davis was held in his room at 
the capitol. Twenty-nine or thirty senators and representatives 
were personally present and each solemnly pledged himself to 
support the governor in the caucus. Two or three more were 
vouched for, so that we fully counted on a minimum of thirty- 
two votes. "When the caucus met the next evening, Davis re- 
ceived twenty-one votes on the secret ballot. His real friends 
then saw how they had been deceived and resolved to expose 
the treachery. Senators L. F. Hubbard and Thomas H. Arm- 
strong, who led the Davis forces, demanded a recess for con- 
sultation. They finally secured it and called on the Davis men 
to go to the governor's room. Twenty-nine men responded to 
the call, gathered around the governor and looked each other 
in the face. Senator Hubbard said, ''Who of us are the trait- 
ors? . The only way to find out is to abandon the caucus and 
appeal to the vote in the Legislature, where each man must be 
recorded." The result was that the caucus was adjourned and 
never again reassembled in force. Ramsey's adherents held 
what we called a "rump" caucus and nominated him. But- 
this was not considered binding on those who did not partici- 
pate, and the friends of the other candidates carried the fight 
into the open session of the Legislature. Here Davis received 
his twenty-one votes; he discovered who his true friends were, 
and was enabled to give a pretty good guess as to who were the 
traitors. After many weary days of caucusing and balloting 
and criminating, a compromise was effected by which all the 
other candidates were dropped and Judge ^McMillan, whom 
nobody had thought of at the beginning, least of all himself, 
was elected senator. He was re-elected in 1881, served cred- 
itably but not conspicuously for twelve years, and then in 1887 
Davis came into his own. 

One of the first acts of Senator ^Mc^Iillan, in the spring of 
1875, was to recommend to President Grant the removal of J. A. 
AVlieeloch, editor of the Press, from the position of postmaster 
of St. Paul, to which he hnd recently been reappointed after 
serving four years. Frederick Driscoll, his business associate, 


was assistant postmaster, both salaries, aggregating about 
$7,000 a year, thus going to the support of the Republican 
organ. The President demurred, but Senator ^IcMillan insisted, 
and since by long precedent the local postofPice is considered 
the personal perquisite of a senator, he finally had his way. 
Dr. David Day, his brother-in-law, received the post ofdce which 
he held nearly fourteen years and administered with marked 
efficiency. But the iron entered the soul of the party organ. 
The defeat of Ramsey and the loss of the post office absolved 
the Press from its party fealty; having about that time con- 
solidated with the old Democratic Pioneer, it became an inde- 
pendent newspaper with all that the name implies. It freely 
criticised Republican administrations, state and national, and 
for some time gave little support to party candidates, state or 
local. But Mr. Wheelock was too loyal a Republican, and too 
ardent a controversialist, to remain long in a position of neu- 
trality. Within a year or two, the exaltation of Pillsbury in 
the party measurably consoled him for the occultation of Ram- 
sey. The Pioneer Press donned its war bonnet and plunged 
into the midst of the fray, on the Republican side. 

Governor Davis declined the re-election which he could have 
had for the asking in spite of some hostilities w^ithin the party, 
caused by the so-called "bolt" of his adherents in the Legis- 
lature. As a matter of fact, that movement never injured the 
political status of any who participated in it. Senator Hubbard 
was elected governor a few years later, and all the other friends 
of Davis in the Legislature had honorable political careers dur- 
ing the next decade. None of them w^as willing to give up his 
heritage as a Republican or surrender his prerogatives of local 
leadership. During the few years preceding, some of the al)lest 
Republicans in the state had been driven from the party, after 
more or less serious defeats for nominations, etc., by the dom- 
inant faction, — among them Thomas Wilson, James Smith, Jr., 
Morton S. Wilkinson, Ignatius Donnelly, and William L. Ban- 
ning. But the "Davis men" swallowed their defeat, justified 
their insurrection, and stood by their colors. 

John S. Pillsbury was nominated for governor by the Repub- 
lican State Convention of 1875, his opponents being Dr. J. IL 


Stewart, of St. Paul, and Ex-Governor Horace Austin. Pills- 
bury was elected in November and served six years, through 
three terms, — the only governor of Minnesota up to this time 
who has enjoyed that distinction. 

During Governor's Davis' term he tendered me several offi- 
cial positions which I declined, as I was then practicing law in 
St. Paul and preferred my professional work. Finally, on No- 
vember first, 1875, he offered me the position of adjutant gen- 
eral, which ^lark D. Flower resigned, for the brief remainder 
of his term. As this would not interfere with my plans, the 
duties of the office alluded to then being somewhat nominal 
and the salary correspondingly low, I accepted, and held over 
several months under Governor Pillsbury. I then voluntarily 
retired and Gen. H. P. Van Cleve, one of the recognized heroes 
of the Civil 'Wslt, succeeded me. 


The year 1876 was made memorable by the Hayes and Til- 
den campaign for the presidency. At the convention which 
elected delegates to the Republican National Convention, I was 
made a member at large of the Republican state central com- 
iriittee. "V^Then the committee organized, George A. Brackett of 
Minneapolis was elected chairman and I was elected treasurer. 

Dr. J. H. Stewart of St. Paul was nominated for Congress 
to succeed Col. ^Villiam S. King, whose service had been neither 
creditable to himself nor acceptable to his constituents. The 
Pioneer Press was lukewarm in its support of Dr. Stewart, and 
the Dispatch, the only other daily paper in the city, was 
avowedly a Democratic organ. Finding that H. P. Hall, the 
owner of the Dispatch, was willing to sell it at a reasonable 
price, a movement was inaugurated in the special interest of 
Dr. Stewart to purchase the paper. Many leading Republicans 
promptly subscribed to the stock of the new concern, among 
them Senators AVindom and AIcIMillan, Governor Pillsbury, ex- 
Governor C. K. Davis, Postmaster Day, Russell Blakely, D. M. 
Sabin, General AIcLaren, General Hubbard, and others. Some 
of these subscribers made it a condition that I should take 
editorial charge of the paper, at least until after the Novem- 
ber election, to which 1 consented, "VVe took possession of the 



Dispatch September 13, 1876, and in one day transformed it 
from a belligerent Democratic to an equally aggressive Repub- 
lican sheet, to the great astonishment of many members of both 
parties who were not in the secret. The remaining six weeks 
of the campaign were made as lively as possible, and at the 
election Dr. Stewart was successful, and the State went for 
Hayes by a large majority. 

After election there seemed to be a unanimous desire on 
the part of the Dispatch stockholders that I should continue 
as editor-in-chief of the paper, wiiich position after delibera- 
tion I finally accepted. This terminated my professional work 
as a law^yer and began a career in daily journalism whicli I 
continued, except a short interval, for about nine years. The 
Dispatch under my direction warmly advocated the re-elec- 
tion of Senator ^Yindom, and no formidable candidate ap- 
peared against him. The tremendous excitement succeeding 
the election, as to whether Hayes or Tilden had been chosen, is 
a matter of history and need not be detailed here. Suffice it to 
say that Minnesota had her share of the excitement and par- 
ticipated freely in the criminations and recriminations which 
were indulged in. 


The first important political event of 1877 was the com- 
promise at Washington by which the electoral commission was 
established to pass upon the electoral vote as between Hayes 
and Tilden, which resulted in the victory of Hayes by the nar- 
rowest possible margin, 8 to 7. 

AVhen the Legislature met at St. Paul no opponent to Sen- 
ator Windom appeared, nevertheless he left his important du- 
ties in Washington and came here to look after his interests. 
Even after the Republican caucus had unanimously endorsed 
him and AVindom had ostensibly returned to AVashington, it 
developed that he tarried in AVinona until he had actually been 
elected, thus betraying a nervousness and lack of confidence in 
his friends or in himself which was entirely unjustifiable. 

John S. Pillsbury was re-nominated and re-elected gov- 
ernor; the state central committee of the previous year was 
continued, Air, Braekett remaining chairman and myself treas- 



urer during the years 1876 to 1878. I was furthermore secre- 
tary and treasurer of the state central committee (C. K. Davis, 
chairman) from 1881 to 1883, and chairman of the committee 
from 1884 to 1886. In 1884 our committee conducted the 
Blaine and Logan campaign, giving the ticket the then unprec- 
edented Republican majority of 42,000 in this state. During 
all these campaigns I handled or was cognizant of all moneys 
collected and disbursed by the committees. It is a significant 
fact, in view of some heavy expenditures of campaign funds in 
this state during subsequent years, that the largest sum dis- 
bursed in any of these campaigns was the fund of 1884 which 
amounted to exactly $850. 


At the Congressionl Convention of 1878, W. D. AYashburn 
of Minneapolis defeated Congressman J. H. Stewart for the 
Republican nomination in this district. Ignatius Donnelly suc- 
ceeded in getting the Democratic and ''Granger" nomination. 
Then followed the celebrated "Little Brass Kettle" campaign, 
which created great excitement throughout the district, then 
embracing practically the whole of Minnesota north and west 
of St. Paul. AYashburn was elected by over 3,000 majority, but 
Donnelly contested the election on the alleged technical irreg- 
ularity of a few votes in Minneapolis, relying on a Democratic 
Congress to seat him. Donnelly came very near succeeding in 
this attempt, and the contest which was kept up during tlie 
entire two years of Washburn's term largely neutralized his 

I favored Stewart for the nomination, but ardently sup- 
ported AYashburn for the election both in the Dispatch and on 
the platform. 


Previous to the Republican State Convention for 1879, it 
was announced that Governor Pillsbury would be a candidate 
for nomination a third time. There was no precedent for this 
proposition, and it was strongly opposed by many strong party 
men. Lieutenant Governor J. B. Wakefield and Gen. L. F. 
Ilub])ard were candidates for the nomination, and botli had 
extensive support. 


The Dispatch, under my control, vigorously opposed the 
renomination of Governor Pillsbury, although he and many of 
his supporters were still stockholders in the paper. Consider- 
able bitterness was- engendered during the pre-convention can- 
vass. Pillsbury was nominated by the convention, and al- 
though the Dispatch supported him loyally as the party can- 
didate, and although he was elected by a comfortable majority, 
I personally incurred his lasting enmity. The ill feeling be- 
tween us lasted for twelve years, when it was finally termi- 
nated through the intervention of our mutual friend, Ex-Gov- 
ernor Marshall. 

Pillsbury was nominated by the convention, as stated; but 
the remainder of the opposition ''slate," which our friends 
made up, was victorious in the convention, namely, for lieuten- 
ant governor, C. A. Gilman, secretary of state, F. Yon Baum- 
bach, and treasurer, Charles Kittelson. ^Iv. Gilman here spe- 
cially displayed the qualities of political astuteness and stead- 
fastness, which were often seen later. 

As a result of experiences in this pre-convention contro- 
versy, the Dispatch thenceforward assumed an independent 
attitude within Republican party lines. It adopted for its ovrn 
guidance a platform of civil service reform and the elimina- 
tion of state and federal officeholders from active manipulation 
of party politics. "\Ye thus antedated by more than twenty- 
five years the current Roosevelt policy w^hich now commands 
practically universal approval. In this course I was sustained 
by stockholders owning more than a majority in amount of the 
capital of the paper, although a numerical majority of the 
stockholders, comprising officeholders and adherents of what 
we called the "old machine," were arrayed against me. 


The lines were again drawn early in 1880 between the two 
elements of the party. The Republicans of the state were, ad- 
mittedly, overwhelmingly in favor of nominating James G. 
Blaine for President. The officeholders and the machine were 
in favor of U. S. Grant. As a means of taking tlie state away 
from Blaine, the device of carrying it for Senator AViliiaiu 
Windom of our state as a candidate was adopted. C. K. Davis 



was put forward in the Blaine interest for delegate at large to 
the Republican National Convention. A spirited campaign fol- 
lowed; Ramsey county was carried for Blaine and Davis, but 
the combined influence of the officeholders and of state pride 
resulted in the selection of a "Windom delegation by the state 

The Republican National Convention met in Chicago and 
was one of the most notable in the history of American politics. 
The splendid oratory of Garfield, Conkling, and others, in their 
nominating speeches was in itself sufficient to signalize the as- 
semblage. Its notable achievement was the abolition of the 
unit rule which resulted in the nomination of James A. Gar- 
field. Minnesota's alleged candidate, Senator AVindom, cut a 
sorry figure in the proceedings; he never received a vote out- 
side of our delegation, and the phrase ''^"indom 10" became a 
matter of national ridicule. At Chicago, before the conven- 
tion met. General ^McLaren of St. Paul, one of the enthusiastic 
Windom boomers, said to me: "I am astonished in talking to 
men from other states to find how few of them know anything 
about Senator AVindom." I replied: "General, who are the 
two senators from Nebraska?" "I don't know," he said. 

Neither do I," said I, "and that shows how local the reputa- 
tion of a supposedly great man may be." 

The Democrats nominated Gen. W. S. Hancock for Presi- 
dent, and a campaign ensued which on national issues w^as 
quite tame in Minnesota, since there w^as no question as to how 
the vote of the state would stand. 

In Jime, 1880, with the consent of my associates in the ow^n- 
ership of a majority of the Dispatch stock, I sold my interest 
to Ex-Governor AV. R. ^Marshall and Gen. C. C. Andrews, who 
soon acquired the entire ownership. I thus retired for a short 
period from the active work of journalism. I engaged actively 
during the early autumn in the speaking campaign in the north- 
ern part of the state, for AV. D. AVashburn, the Republican 
nominee for Congress against Gen. H. II. Sibley, the Demo- 
cratic candidate. Later, I went with Gen. J. B. Sanborn into 
the First district, the southern part of the state, where wc made 
a thorough canvass for Mark II. Dunnell, the Republican can- 




didate. There was a triangular fight in this district and a close 
contest; W. G. AVard was an independent Republican candi- 
date, and H. G. Wells was on the Democratic ticket. Bunnell 
was successful and continued his useful career in the House of 


When the Legislature of 1881 assembled, one of its first 
duties was to elect a successor to Senator S. J. R. Mc^Millan. 
Ex-Senator Ramsey, then serving as Secretary of AVar in the 
cabinet of President Hayes, appeared as a candidate against 
McMillan, having the support of the Pioneer Press and many 
of the old political associates. Ex-Governor C. K. Davis also 
entered the lists, but as no preliminary organization in his 
favor had been attempted, he did not make a conspicuous show- 
ing. Senator AIcMillan was re-elected, and Davis' ambition 
remained ungratified for another six-year period. 

When President Garfield was inaugurated March 4th, he 
appointed Senator AVindom Secretary of the Treasury. This 
created a vacancy in the senate which Governor Pillsbuvy filled 
by appointing Gen. A. J. Edgerton of Dodge county as senator. 

In the summer of 1881 an active canvass began for the nom- 
ination for governor. I warmly espoused the cause of Gen. L. 
F. Hubbard, and was entrusted by him with the management 
of his campaign throughout the state. A systematic organiza- 
tion of his friends was effected in nearly every county, and 
there was from the beginning an almost uninterrupted series 
of favorable reports. Hon. A. R. AIcGill, insurance commis- 
sioner, announced his candidacy and accumulated a very cred- 
itable support in certain directions. To the astonishment of 
everybody the Pioneer Press, at a late period, announced the 
candidacy of Governor Pillsbury for a fourth term. A some- 
what exciting canvass followed in several counties. The Pills- 
bury and AlcGill forces combined in Ramsey county, carried 
the county convention hy a small iiuirgin, and secured the 
county deh^gation to the state convention. AVheu the state con- 
vention met, Clark TIioiu[)sou of Houston county also appeared 
as a candidate, but General Hubbard was nominated over all 



by a handsome majority. A new State Central Committee was 
selected, whereof C. K. Davis was made chairman and myself 
secretary and treasurer. 

One of the incidental results of this convention, which I 
always lamented, was the defeat of my friend Greenleaf Clark 
of St. Paul for justice of the Supreme Court, a position to which 
he had been appointed a few months before by the governor to 
fill a vacancy, a position which he was qualified to dignify and 
adorn, and to which his numerous friends desired to see him 
formally elected. But the committal of the Ramsey county 
delegation to the Pillsbury interest in the state convention, 
which interest was in a minority, neutralized their influence, 
and, as matter of practical politics, naturally involved the de- 
feat of Judge Clark. It was a lifelong disappointment to him 
and he always seemed to blame the Hubbard element in the 
party, whereas in reality he only had his St. Paul friends, who 
identified his interests with those of Pillsbury, to thank for his 

At this convention, Gen. James H. Baker was nominated for 
railroad commissioner, under circumstances which vividly il- 
lustrate the fortuities of politics. General Baker had served 
as secretary of state, as colonel of the Tenth Minnesota regi- 
ment in the Civil AVar, and as United States commissioner of 
pensions ; he was a popular and effective campaign orator, with 
a wide state acquaintance. He had come up to the convention 
from his farm in Blue Earth county to support Col. Clark W. 
Thompson for governor, and with no thought of office for him- 
self. The night before the convention I was talking with Gen- 
eral Baker at the hotel and incidentally remarked that Ex- 
Governor Marshall apparently had no opposition for renomi- 
nation as railroad commissioner, an office which he had then 
held for eight years. The general remarked that he supposed 
this position came by appointment from the governor, as had 
formerly been the case. T replied that it was now elective, and 
would come before the convention. 

Next day, General Baker in a remarkably eloquent speech 
presented the name of Colonel Thompson for governor. After 
Hubbard's nomination, Gen. Baker announced himself a can- 



didate for railroad comraissioner. He had many personal 
friends among the delegates ; his ringing speech had favorably 
impressed many others; Governor Marshall, anticipating no 
opposition, had made little or no effort in his own behalf, and 
General Baker was nominated. He was, of course, elected, and 
held this important position five years. 

In the midst of the Hubbard campaign I purchased the St. 
Paul Dispatch from Ex-Governor Marshall, and on September 
17, 1881, resumed control of the paper as its editor and sole 

' In the fall of 1881, the Minnesota Supreme Court rendered 
a decision which opened the way for a settlement of the old, 
repudiated State Railroad bonds, and Governor Pillsbury at 
once called an extra session of the Legislature to act upon the 
question. Although I had come to the state long after this 
largely fraudulent indebtedness had been contracted, I had 
always favored any fair adjustment that would relieve our 
commonwealth of the stain attached to its repudiation. But 
when this extra session convened, I saw so much of the dis- 
graceful methods employed to secure votes for the settlement 
proposed, heard so much of the shameless bargaining and sale 
going on, that I aligned the Dispatch with those who opposed 
the plan; demanded that the people be heard, and that there 
be, at least, enough delay to thwart the plans of those who 
expected and finally did reap rich harvests from the fields 
of corruption opened before them. But Governor Pillsbury 
wanted to signalize the close of his administration by wiping 
out the stigma, and helped to "jam" the measure through. 
Selah Chamberlain, the principal bondholder and popularly be- 
lieved to be a party to the original fraud, secured his unearned 
millions. The outside credit of the state was restored and the 
incident was closed. 

This extra session was, by law, required to elect a United 
States senator to fill ]\Ir. AVindom's unexpired term, vice Gen. 
A. J. Edgerton, liolding the place ad interim by appointment. 
"VVindom had retired from the cabinet after Garfield's death; 
he now wanted to go back to the senate, and General Edger- 
ton declined to contest the position with hini. Some little op- 


position was mustered, under the lead of C. A. Oilman, lieuten- 
ant governor, but AYindom was elected. It was generally con- 
ceded that Senator Edgerton would have been successful had 
he consented to make the race. 


The important political events of 1882 were the nomination 
and election of our increased Republican Congressional dele- 
gation, and preparations for the senatorial election to be held 
in January of the succeeding year. 

Under the new apportionment Minnesota w^as entitled to 
five representatives in Congress instead of three, which num- 
ber had been our allotment for ten years. The exciting con- 
tests were in the first and fifth districts. In the first district 
Mr. Bunnell, the incumbent, was defeated for the nomination 
by Milo 'White. Bunnell attributed his overthrow to Windora, 
a conviction which produced important consequences a little 

In the fifth district one of the liveliest contests in the politi- 
cal history of IMinnesota ensued. C. F. Kindred of Brainerd, a 
wealthy and ambitious young aspirant, entered the field with 
the avowed purpose of spending money freely to secure the 
nomination. There were several other candidates, the most 
formidable being Knute Nelson of Alexandria. The district 
convention assembled at Betroit on the Northern Pacific rail- 
road. As a representative of both the Bispatcli and the State 
Central Committee, I attended this convention and witnessed 
its turbulent proceedings. There were many contesting dele- 
gations, and the indications of a split were numerous from the 
beginning, the only question being as to which side should 
gain the most points in favor of regularity. It was Kindred 
against the field, all the other candidates liaving combined in 
opposition to him. The history of that riotous convention has 
often been written; its scenes of disgraceful confusion cannot 
be exaggerated; it was for a considerable period nothing but a 
howling mob, and bloodshed was narrowly escaped. The Kin- 
dred forces lield the convention hall, while tlieir opponents 
withdrew in a body, proceeded to a tent which had been pitched 
in a vacant lot as a precautionary measure, and performed 


their duties in a standing position but with much harmony and 

The convention in the hall unanimously nominated Kin- 
dred as the alleged Republican for Congress from the fifth 
district, and the convention in the tent unanimously performed 
the same distinguished service for Knute Nelson. Impartial 
observation on the ground thoroughly convinced me that Mr. 
Nelson had a decisive majority of the bona fide delegates 
elected to the convention, and I promptly decided to support 
him in the Dispatch. Governor Davis and many other friends 
favored Kindred. There were abundant financial inducements 
to newspapers which would advocate Kindred, and a campaign 
of great bitterness as well as of liberal financial disbursements 
on the Kindred side ensued. The Democrats nominated a can- 
didate and hoped to elect him, owing to the Republican divi- 
sion. But Mr. Nelson was elected by a considerable plurality 
and thus began a career which has been followed by his elec- 
tion three times to Congress, twice to the governorship, and 
three times as United States senator. 

The issue of general interest throughout the state centered 
in the coming senatorial election. Mr. AYindom only remained 
in the cabinet a few months, and when the Legislature met in 
extra session during the autumn of 1881 he was, as we have 
seen, chosen to fill his own unexpired term, General Edgerton 
having temporarily succeeded him. But a very serious opposi- 
tion to AYindom's re-election for a third term had now devel- 
oped throughout the state. The Dispatch took strong ground 
in opposition, and the Republican press of the state was ar- 
rayed with almost entire unanimity against him. In addition 
to conducting the Dispatch actively along the anti-Windom 
line, it was my duty to superintend an organization in all the 
legislative districts to secure the nomination of state senators 
and representatives committed to our policy. We had no 
avowed candidate, but simply demanded the defeat of AVin- 
dom and an open door for all competent Republicans. Mark 
H. Dunncll, the most tireless political worker I ever met, threw 
liiraself energetically into tlic anti-AVindom contest, giving it 
his undivided attention for several months. As a result of tlie 


efforts thus put forth we were fully convinced, w^lien we 
scanned the names of Republicans elected to the Legislature 
in November, that Mr. Windom would not return to his long 
occupied seat in Washington. 

One of the incidents of this lively contest was my arrest 
for criminal libel, the only instance of a suit civil or criminal 
being brought against me during my strenuous journalistic 
career. An active and zealous Federal official, an inspector of 
the post office department by grace of Mr. AYindom, was 
alleged to be very busy looking after the senator's interests, 
to the neglect of his official duties. I took occasion to criticise 
liis conduct in the paper, applying to the derelict official some 
semi-humorous epithets, without a particle of malicious feel- 
ing, for I had no personal acquaintance with the gentleman. 
Feeling aggrieved, or incited thereto by some of ^Ir. AYindom's 
"Winona friends, the inspector went to that city and swore out 
a warrant for my arrest, charging me with publishing lan- 
guage regarding him which was calculated to humiliate and 
degrade him in the eyes of the public. The Winona county 
sheriff served his warrant on me in St. Paul; I went before 
Judge W, T. Burr of our municipal court, as permitted by 
statute, and gave bonds to the amount of $500 for my appear- 
ance in court at Winona, in case an indictment should be found. 
When the court met, the election had passed, the excitement 
had subsided, and the grand jury saw^ fit to ignore the case; 
hence I had no further trouble therewith. It is interesting to 
note that the post office inspector alluded to is still in the pub- 
lic service after a long and highly creditable career, having 
been entrusted by his official superiors with many important 
functions far beyond the grade to which he has attained. 


The winter of 1883 was signalized by the prolonged and 
acidulated contest in the Legislature over the election of a 
successor to Senator Windom. Those who received the larger 
number of votes in opposition were ex-Congressman M. 11. 
Bunnell, Ex-Governor Davis and Governor Hubbard, thougli 
scattering votes were cast for many others. 

The popular sentiment among Republicans against Win- 
dora was based on the fact that he liad measurably witlidrawn 


himself from interest in and sympathy with state polities, dur- 
ing his long absence in Washington, as well as the fact that he 
was believed to be largely in the hands of the same coterie of 
ofiBceholders, contractors, etc., wiiich had assumed to control 
the party since its organization. This feeling of hostility 
seemed to justify his opponents in resorting to radical meas- 
ures for his defeat. It was consequently decided that they 
would not participate in a Republican senatorial caucus, which 
would probably be under machine influences. 

E^'orts w^ere therefore directed toward securing the concert 
of all anti-AVindom members of the Legislature to abstain from 
the caucus. Numerous consultations were held by the anti- 
Windom leaders, Mr. Bunnell, Generals Sanborn and Averill, 
C. A. Oilman, C. K. Davis, and others, with legislators, and 
finally a conference was called one evening at the law office of 
General Sanborn to which all the anti-AYindom members of the 
Legislature were invited. The attendance was encouragingly 
large, and the reports from reliable absentees indicated that 
the movement to defeat a binding senatorial caucus would be 

After attending that conference I w^ent to the ^lerchants' 
Hotel, wiiere I met Hon. D. M. Sabin of Stillwater, a member 
of the Legislature prominent in the Windom councils, who had 
just come from a meeting of ^Mr. Windom's friends. I called 
Mr. Sabin aside, told him that AVindom was doomed to defeat, 
and said that I hoped influential Republicans of both factions 
would fix their minds on a generally acceptable candidate who 
could be elected and be a credit to the state. Without admit- 
ting my deductions, ^Ir. Sabin inquired whom I had in view. 
I told him that in my opinion Governor Hubbard, although he 
was not in the field and evidently did not desire the office, 
could get more votes in the Legislature than any other man 
now mentioned. Besides his official prestige and his acknowl- 
edged merits, he would have the support of many friends of 
Lieutenant Governor Gilman, who would succeed to the gov- 
ernorship. I also spoke of several other available names as 
alternatives. To each of these suggestions Sabin made 
some mild objection, but did not indicate any preference of his 



own. This interview is significant from the fact that ^Mr. Sabin 
himself was ultimately elected senator as the outcome of the 
movement. It was afterward charged by Windom's friends 
that Sabin had been in the anti-AVindom ''conspiracy" from 
the beginning, and was therefore treacherous to his chief. I 
believe that I was cognizant of every important move through- 
out the state for the defeat of Windom, and I did not know 
of a single place where ]\Ir. Sabin 's influence was thrown in 
our favor. We always classed him as a AYindom man and I 
thoroughly believe today that down to the moment when I 
told him the outcome of our conference, he was faithful to 
Windom and expected to see him elected. 

The senatorial caucus, as we had planned and predicted, 
was a failure. Of 110 Republicans in the Legislature, only 62 
went into the caucus. This was not a majority of the Legis- 
lature and the caucus could not make a nomination that would 
be binding on those Republicans who did not participate. The 
contest was thus thrown into the open Legislature where after 
balloting many days, for numerous candidates, the anti-AVin- 
dom Republicans mostly concentrated their votes on Mr. Sabin, 
who then by preconcerted arrangement received enough Dem- 
ocratic votes to secure his election. 

Mr. Windom, who had come from Washington late in the 
day to look after his interests, which had been personally neg- 
lected through his supreme self-confidence, left St. Paul the 
moment Sabin was elected, without even tlianking the two 
score or more devoted friends who stood by him to the last. 
Mr. Windom thus practically disappeared from ^Minnesota 
politics, only appearing here afterward to feed his revenge in 
trying to defeat the aspirations of some of those who had con- 
tributed to his downfall. 

At the Republican state convention of 1883, Governor L. F. 
Hubbard was re-nominated without opposition. Meantime a 
constitutional amendment providing for biennial elections and 
sessions of the Legislature had been adopted, by means of 
which his second term was extended to three years. Governor 
Hubbard thus served five years in the executive cliair, with a 
success which demonstrated in civil life the same high quali- 


ties that had won for him honor and promotion as an officer 
in the civil war. It is a noteworthy circumstance that at the 
outbreak of the Spanish American war in 1898, thirty-three 
years after the close of his previous military service, he again 
tendered his sword to the Government, was appointed a briga- 
dier general by President McKinley, and commanded a division 
of troops of the new generation of patriotic Americans. 

Early in 1883 I was appointed inspector of illuminating oils 
by Governor Hubbard. The emoluments of the office were not 
so large at that period as they afterward became, but the 
duties were important and I held the position during the re- 
mainder of the official term. 

At about this period there began to appear in state con- 
ventions and in the Legislature a new generation of militant 
Republicans who affiliated, as a rule, with the progressive wing 
of the party, and soon gave evidence of the qualities which, 
in the next decade, were to lift them high in the councils of 
the state and the nation. As examples it will suffice to men- 
tion Moses E. Clapp, J. A, Tawney, John Lind, R. G. Evans, 
Frank A. Day, H. Steenerson, F. C. Stevens, G. S. Ives, Tarns 
Bixby, Frank M. Eddy, F. B. Kellogg, and Joel P. Heatwole. 


In May, 1884, there arose in the state, and especially in 
Ramsey county, a peculiar contest over the delegation to the 
Republican National Convention. Minnesota was, as always, 
for James G. Blaine, and C. K. Davis was universally recog- 
nized as an exponent of ^Mr. Blaine's candidacy in this state. 
Meantime Senator D. JM. Sabin had been made chairman of the 
Republican National Committee, a position of honor and influ- 
ence and a credit to our state. Mr. Sabin expressed a desire to 
be elected one of the delegates at large to the National con- 
vention, and I believed with others that it was due him as a 
proof of the confidence and endorsement of his constituents. 
But Governor Davis joined with Mr. Wheelock, ^Ir. Driscoll, 
"W. R. Merriam, and some other St. Paul Republicans, in a 
movement to carry Ramsey county against Sabin. I, here, for 
a second time, parted company temporarily witli Governor 
Davis. I joined with General Sanborn, General McLaren, W. 


B. Dean, Mark D. Flower and others, in carrying the county 
for Sabin, as against Davis, Merriam, and their following. We 
elected a delegation to the state convention which was in- 
structed to support Sabin for delegate at large, but I person- 
ally reserved the right to vote also for Davis as another dele- 
gate, believing that there was room in this state and on the 
delegation for both these distinguished men. After the county 
convention I had a stormy interview with Governor Davis, who 
felt crushed and humiliated by the outcome. I consoled him 
by quoting Lincoln's telegram to Richard Yates: "Possess 
thou thy soul in patience; stand by, and see the salvation of 
the Lord." 

When the delegates to the Republican state convention 
assembled in St. Paul, it was manifest that the sentiment in 
favor of Blaine was duly represented, and that the long time 
favorite of the outside counties, C. K. Davis, was their choice 
for one of the delegates. In the forenoon before the conven- 
tion met, a Blaine caucus was called at the Merchants' Hotel, 
in which I, alone of the Ramsey county delegation, partici- 
pated. It was here decided to present Z. B. Clarke of Swift 
county as our candidate for chairman of the state convention, 
and C. K. Davis as one of the delegates at large to Chicago. 
W^hen a motion was made to support D. M. Sabin as another 
delegate, Hon. Frank A. Day of ^Martin county, later private 
secretary to Governor Johnson but then an ardent Blaine Re- 
publican, moved to send a committee to Senator Sabin and 
secure his pledge to vote for Blaine. The motion was about 
to be carried, when I vigorously protested against submitting 
our senator to this inquiry. I expressed my belief that he 
would vote for Blaine as the unquestioned choice of his state, 
and argued that whether he did or not we could afford to show 
our confidence in him and our appreciation of the honor which 
had been conferred on Minnesota by his exaltation to the lead- 
ership of the party in the nation. My appeal was successful, 
and Mr. Sabin was endorsed without the exaction of a pledge. 
The event proved that I was wrong in my supposition, IMr. 
Sabin having previously pledged himself to vote for President 
Arthur and feeling obliged to carry out that pledge,—- but it 


fortunately made no difference in the result ; Blaine was nomi- 
nated at Chicago, but was defeated by Grover Cleveland. 

When the state convention assembled, Z. B. Clarke was pro- 
posed for chairman by the Blaine side and Gen. John B. San- 
born by the opposition, ^ly vote was the only one cast for 
Clarke from the three leading counties of the state, Ramsey, 
Hennepin, and Winona. Mr. Clarke was elected chairman by 
a small majority, and I was immediately made secretary of the 
convention without opposition. Mr. Clarke, on assuming the 
chair, made a very brief address which for several years was 
quoted with amused approval throughout the state. He said : 
*'This honor is unexpected, but I promise you to discharge my 
duties as your presiding officer honestly and impartially — in 
the interest of James G. Blaine." He did. 

The further proceedings of the convention were without 
special incident. My plan of sending both Davis and Sabin to 
the National convention was now satisfactory to all parties, 
and two other delegates at large w^ere selected. Davis and 
Sabin sat fraternally in the great Chicago convention; Sabin 
presided over its preliminary organization, and Davis made a 
memorably brilliant address, proposing the nomination of Mr. 

At the conclusion of our state convention I was named as 
the member of the state central committee from the state at 
large, afterward being elected chairman thereof. From my 
affiliation with the majority I was able to secure the selection 
of Mark D. Flower as district member of the state committee 
and W. B. Dean as presidential elector, although both of them, 
as delegates from Ramsey county, had voted against the organ- 
ization. General Flower, being the incumbent of a Federal 
office, soon resigned from the committee; Major John Espy of 
St. Paul was chosen in his place and elected secretary. Major 
Espy and myself conducted the vigorous campaign for Blaine 
which ensued, and which, as before stated, resulted in a ma- 
jority of 43,000 for our candidate with the expenditure of only 

The next important political event of the year 1884 vv'ith 
which I was connected was the contest for Republican nomi- 


nation of Congressman in this district. Hon. Loren Fletcher 
of Minneapolis, long an aspirant, was now in the field with the 
backing of his own county and several others. Albert Scheffer 
of St. Paul was also a candidate ; Ramsey county supported 
him, and I was one of the delegates to the district convention. 
There was a contested delegation from "Washington county, and 
the forces were so nearly equal that this delegation would de- 
cide the result. On the question of the admission of delegates 
from Washington county the convention was so evenly divided 
that one delegate, H. F. Barker of Isanti county, had the cast- 
ing vote. Mr. Barker was opposed to both Fletcher and Schef- 
fer, but expressed a w^illingness to join the Scheffer delegates 
in nominating Hon. J. B. Gilfillan of Minneapolis. As the 
only other alternative seemed to be a split in the convention, 
two candidates, and a Republican defeat in the district, ^Ir. 
Scheffer and his friends consented to the arrangement. ^Ir. 
Barker came into our camp ; Washington county was neutral- 
ized, and Mr. Gilfillan was nominated. Mr. Fletcher was great- 
ly disappointed, but eight years later, when Hennepin county 
became a district of itself, he was elected to the coveted posi- 
tion and served an aggregate of twelve years in AYashington, 
greatly to the benefit of his admiring constituents. 


Under the operation of the Constitutional amendment pro- 
viding for biennial sessions, the year 1885 was the first year in 
the history of the state when no election was held. There was 
consequently a rest from political conflict, the forerunner of 
similar grateful periods of political repose which have since 
been enjoyed on alternate years. 

In the spring of 1885, finding my health seriously threat- 
ened by the laborious duties of editor, proprietor, and business 
manager of the Daily Dispatch, and having a satisfactory offer 
from Mr. George K. Shaw of Minneapolis, I sold the property 
to him and retired from daily newspaper work. One year later 
Mr. Shaw^ sold the paper to his associate, Mr. George Thomp- 
son, who has retained the ownership until tliis time and lias 
built up the magnificent institution to which :\rinnesotans point 
witli pride, the St. Paul Dispatch of today. 


After passing through a period of serious illness resulting 
from overwork, I occupied such leisure time as I could spare 
from the development of suburban property to the formation 
of an organization throughout the state for the election of C. 
K. Davis to the United States senate by the legislature of 1887. 
The sentiment was overwhelmingly in his favor, the old guard 
of Republican editors was everywhere alert and active ; the 
accession of Cleveland to the presidency had broken down the 
oligarchy of officeholders which had been the nucleus of the 
strength of both Windom and McMillan; in a word, the coast 
was clear and it only needed concert of action to insure suc- 


The year 1886 was what is denominated an "off year" in 
politics. The Republican party suffered accordingly. Three of 
the five Congressional districts in the state elected Democratic 
representatives, Thomas AYilson, John L. Macdonald, and Ed- 
mund Rice, — the two Republicans elected being John Lind and 
Knute Nelson. 

At the Republican state convention, Hon. A. R. McGill was 
nominated for governor, the opposing candidates being C. A. 
Oilman and Albert Scheffer. My name was presented to the 
convention for lieutenant governor, and I received over 100 
votes, notwithstanding the fact that the previous nomination 
of Mr. McGill, also a resident of St. Paul, precluded any pos- 
sibility of my success. 

Mr. AYindom appeared in this convention as a delegate from 
Winona county for the avowed purpose of helping his friends 
and punishing his enemies. Notwithstanding the fact of his 
presence, his special protege, Samuel H. Nichols, was defeated 
for clerk of the Supreme Court, an office which he had held for 
eleven years. ^Ir. Windom was subsequently appointed Sec- 
retary of the Treasury by President Harrison, and died in 
office. He was credited to Minnesota notwithstanding the fact 
that he had some years before become a permanent resident of 
New York city. His interference in i\Iinnesota appointments 
wiiile a member of Harrison's cabinet was the source of much 
friction betvv^een himself and Senator Davis, who naturally re- 
sented it. 



The systematic canvass for members of the Legislature 
friendly to the election of C. K. Davis as United States senator 
was continued this year, and after the election in November it 
was easy to predict from the complexion of the returns that 
victory was assured. 


The legislature of 1887 passed a bill creating the Board of 
Trustees of the State Soldiers' Home, and Governor McGill 
appointed me a member thereof. I was elected president of 
the Board when it organized, and served in that position, with- 
out salary or perquisite, for twelve years. The labors of the 
Board, including the responsibility of building and adminis- 
tering the Home, as well as the disbursement of the outside 
relief fund, were very exacting, and an undue share of them 
naturally devolved on the president. But there were pleasant 
incidents and associations connected with the service that to 
some extent recompensed the effort. 

When the legislature assembled in January, 1887, Senator 
McMillan came home from "Washington, announced his can- 
didacy for a third term, and energetically sought support. It 
was soon revealed, however, even to him, that C. K. Davis was 
the predestined Republican nominee. Senator McMillan grace- 
fully withdrew; Davis was nominated at an open Republican 
caucus with substantial unanimity, and was elected by the Leg- 
islature with the enthusiastic support of a united party. 

This result was the fruition of twelve years' effort on the 
part of the annually augmenting fraternity of Minnesota Re- 
publicans with whom I had been closely identified. We had 
now placed our favorite in the arena where we believed his 
splendid natural gifts and his wide range of acquirements 
would lead to a career of conspicuous usefulness to his state 
and his country. 

This ended, in an aureole of success, the first twenty years 
of my experiences of and participation in the political affairs 
of this state, ^ly activities were thenceforward less pro- 
nounced, altliougli I did not cease my interest, nor abstain 
from work. The later field was more circumscribed. I had 
served my turn on state committees, and I no longer controlled 


a daily newspaper. The chronicles of the second twenty years 
will therefore permit a briefer and less detailed treatment. 


At the Republican state convention of 1888, Governor A. 
R. McGill was a candidate for renomination. He was entitled 
to this endorsement, both by uniform party precedent and by 
the excellence of his administration. But AY. R. Merriam, an 
ambitious young banker of St. Paul, could not restrain his im- 
patience for the coveted prize, and appeared as a candidate. 
This led Albert Scheffer, also of St. Paul, to enter the field, and 
a contest of great animation ensued. I favored Governor Mc- 
Gill, and worked earnestly for his success. Scheffer and Mer- 
riam fought desperately for Ramsey county, and Scheffer won. 
With his consent three avowed McGill men, including myself, 
were placed on the Ramsey county delegation to the state con- 
vention. I was made one of the McGill managers, and was 
selected to deliver the nominating speech. Mutual friends had 
arranged that Scheffer should withdraw in favor of McGill, if 
the latter developed the greater strength ; but Scheffer, hoping 
to gain, failed to withdraw in time to effect a winning com- 
bination, and Merriam was nominated. The result caused some 
political and personal bitterness that was never sweetened. 
One humorous episode relieved some of the somber features. 
After the final vote, a friend asked Scheffer how many dele- 
gates he had to buy. ''Ah," said he, "from the rapidity with 
which my vote shrank, I fear I'll be accused of selling dele- 

In the legislature of 1889, Senator D. M. Sabin was a can- 
didate for re-election, with Hon. AY. D. AYashburn as his op- 
ponent. Although on the friendliest terms personally and po- 
litically with Sabin, I had incurred no obligation to him, and 
my deliberate preference was now for Washburn. I therefore 
did all in my power to aid him. Washburn was elected, and 
during the single term to which his service in the Senate was 
limited, he made, as was to be expected from his high char- 
acter and long public experience, an unblemished record. 

The year 1890 was anotlier decidedly "off year" for Minne- 
sota Republicans, due to the reaction against the McKinley 



tariff bill, just enacted and not yet tested. AV. R. Merriam was 
re-elected governor by a plurality of 2,200 over Judge Thomas 
AYilson, the Democratic nominee. But as the Alliance" can- 
didate, S. M. Owen received 58,500 votes, and the Prohibition 
candidate over 8,000, Mr. Merriam lacked nearly 65,000 votes 
of a majority, ^^orse than that, four of the five Republican 
candidates for Congress were defeated, the only successful 
nominee being John Lind in the second district, who turned 
Democrat shortly afterward. A notable event of this year was 
the election of Kittel Halvorson, Farmers Alliance candidate 
for Congress, in the fifth district. A. J. "Whiteman, of Duluth, 
was the Democratic nominee, and S. G. Comstock, the then in- 
cumbent, the Republican. Mr. Whiteman induced Halvorson, a 
farmer in Stearns county, to run on the Alliance ticket, with 
the expectation of reducing the Republican vote, AVhiteman 
paying all Halvorson 's campaign expenses. To the astonish- 
ment of everybody, especially "Whiteman, Halvorson was 
elected. He served one term in Congress; lived, it is said, on 
his "mileage;" saved the $10,000 salary to improve and en- 
large his farm, and retired on his laurels. Whiteman devel- 
oped into a criminal of the deepest dye, and is now an inmate 
of the New York penitentiary. 

In February, 1892, I was appointed postmaster of St. Paul 
by President Harrison, on the recommendation of Senator Da- 
vis, and held office until November 1, 1896, or eight months 
beyond the allotted four years' term, although after the first 
year I served under the second Democratic administration of 
Grover Cleveland. After Cleveland came in, some hostile Dem- 
ocrats sought to secure my removal on the ground of "offensive 
partisanship," but failed. They were told that removals would 
only be made on a defective official record, and as I was per- 
mitted to remain in office eight months after my time expired, 
it is fair to assume that the record was satisfactory. I admin- 
istered the civil service law as to the 200 employees of the post 
office in good faith, and made no attempt to use them for par- 
tisan polities. But I did not surrender my political convic- 
tions, nor cease working for my party in all proper v^'ays. T 
made speeches in every campaign, as usual, and participated in 


Republican conferences and conventions, unmolested. What- 
ever may be said adverse to President Cleveland, he was cer- 
tainly sincere and consistent in his civil service policy. 

In 1893 Senator Davis was a candidate before the legis- 
lature for re-election. The state convention of 1892 had unan- 
imously endorsed him as the party candidate and in most of 
the counties Republican senators and representatives had been 
instructed to support him. The legislature of 1891 had been 
controlled by a combination of Democrats and Populists ; hence 
the efforts of Senator Davis' friends were principally directed 
to securing a Republican majority, trusting to these endorse- 
ments and instructions, undoubtedly backed by public senti- 
ment, to ensure his election. The majority, on joint ballot, was 
about twelve, but when the legislature assembled it developed 
that a secret campaign of debauchery and corruption had been 
inaugurated to defeat Davis, with the hope of electing an un- 
avowed, but well recognized Republican aspirant in his stead. 
No more brazen, defiant, and demoralizing movement was ever 
inaugurated in any state. Votes were shamelessly trafficked in, 
and so recklessly that the price paid in many instances was 
well known, in advance, to the Senator's supporters, who had a 
detective force systematically at work and kept advised of 
every movement. Enough Republican votes were bought and 
actually paid for to prevent a majority for Davis on the first 
joint ballot, but several of the bribed members weakened at 
the last moment and Davis received precisely enough votes to 
elect him, not one to spare. I was cognizant of all the details 
of the contest ; held at one time, for possible use as evidence in 
criminal prosecutions, a considerable sum of the corruption 
fund paid to one of the members ; and I yet retain interesting 
correspondence and memoranda, which, for the credit of the 
state, it were better to consign to oblivion. The miserable con- 
spiracy failed; Senator Davis was re-elected, and most of the 
persons who betrayed him Avere effectually reckoned with by 
their indignant constituents. 

Early in 1896 a very strong sentiment was manifested in 
certain portions of the country in favor of tlie selection of Sen- 
ator C. K. Davis as the Republican candidate for President. 


His eloquent speeches in the Senate on several important ques- 
tions had made him a national reputation, and his ringing tele- 
gram to the Duluth labor leaders in 189J: had evinced the pos- 
session of qualities too rare in public men. Not only did hun- 
dreds of newspapers in many states express favorable opinions 
of his candidacy, but volunteer offers of support were received 
from influential Republicans in various sections. In addition, a 
considerable number of his colleagues in the Senate and House, 
who were powerful political factors in their respective states, 
were ready to assist if there was any hope of success. A num- 
ber of Senator Davis' friends, including myself, formed a cor- 
respondence bureau in St. Paul which brought encouraging 
news from all quarters. But, a little later, the popular senti- 
ment for McKinley became so strong that it was evident no 
other aspirant could make headway against it. Senator Davis 
promptly acquiesced in the proposition to give our state dele- 
gation to ^IcKinley, who had no more effective champion in 
the campaign, or more loyal, trusted counsellor during the try- 
ing crises of his administration. 

At the Republican state convention of 1896, Gov. David ^1. 
Clough, who had succeeded to the seat of Gov. Knute Nelson 
when the latter was chosen United States senator to succeed 
Washburn a year previously, was a candidate for the nomina- 
tion for governor. Hon. Moses E. Clapp of St. Paul was pro- 
posed in opposition to Mr. Clough and commanded my earnest 
support, as a matter of personal and political preference. But 
he came late into the field, and although we made a vigorous 
and measurably successful fight in Ramsey county Governor 
Clough was victorious. 

In the campaign of 1896, although still postmaster of St. 
Paul under a Democratic administration, I spoke many times 
in various counties for the Republican ticket, — as, indeed, I 
have in every national and most of the intermediate contests, 
since 1864. 

In May, 1897, on the special recommendation of Senator 
Davis, approved by Senator Nelson and the entire :\[innesota 
delegation in Congress, I was appointed Auditor for the Post 
Office Department in Washington*. The bureau over which the 




Auditor presides is attached to the Treasury Department, al- 
though it is located in the Post Office Department building, and 
it is exclusively engaged in adjusting and recording the ac- 
counts of that great governmental institution, which employs 
more men and handles more money than all other branches of 
the government combined. The Auditor's office has over 700 
employees; it settles and records, every working day in the 
year, 3,000 accounts of postmasters, contractors and others, in- 
volving about $8,000,000 daily, or two and a half billions of 
dollars a year. The business is rapidly increasing, and the 
strain on the faithful clerks and the experienced chiefs of divi- 
sion, as w^ell as on the head of the office, is tremendous. I held 
the position until January, 1904, six years and eight months, — 
a longer period than any other incumbent since its creation in 

During my stay in "Washington, I kept advised, through the 
newspapers, through correspondence, and through frequent 
visits to the state, of the general currents of Minnesota politics, 
although I necessarily lost touch, to a considerable degree, with 
the constantly changing personnel of the party. 

In 1899, Senator Davis was re-elected without opposition, 
thus securing the then unprecedented honor (since worthily con- 
ferred on Senator Nelson) of a third term in the Senate from 
this state. During the early months of 1898 there had been 
some mutterings of coming hostility to him, which led his 
friends to take some precautionary steps in his behalf. But 
the events of the Spanish- American w^ar, which brought our 
Senator into such conspicuous eminence, which brought into 
exercise on the highest plane of statesmanship his commanding 
abilities and the special attainments he had, for years, been 
cultivating, which made him the leader of the Senate as well 
as the adviser of the President in international questions, and, 
in great emergencies, the actual arbiter of national destiny, — 
all this so augmented the pride of his constituents as to dwarf 
to insignificance and banish from sight every trace of the me- 
ditated antagonism. 

In 1900 President :\IcKinley was renominated, v/ith Theo- 
dore Roosevelt as his running mate; and Bryan, as in 189G, was 



his Democratic opponent. In September I attended the great 
Hamilton Club banquet in Chicago, where Senator Davis ably 
''struck the key-note" of the national campaign, making, as it 
eventuated, his last important address, and pathetically evinc- 
ing, could we have realized it, the fatal exhaustion of his phys- 
ical powers. I came to Minnesota in October and devoted some 
weeks to campaigning. Senator Davis was then seriously ill 
at his home in St. Paul, and on election day, November 6th, 
before returning to Washington, I bade him what proved to be 
a final farewell. November 29th I came back to St. Paul and 
attended his funeral; among the thousands of sorrowing citi- 
zens of Minnesota who paid their tributes of honor as he lay in 
state at the Capitol, T am sure there was no more sincere mourn- 
er than myself. 

This paper has sufficiently verified its statement that the 
central figure of a large portion of the political activity in 
which I have indulged during my forty years residence in Min- 
nesota w^as Cushman K. Davis. I think no man who supported 
him at any time during his career ever felt obliged to apologize 
for that support. If there has been a series of clean political 
combats in the history of any state, it was the Davis side of 
the numerous battles fought by his friends in his interest. 
When it was ail over and I was privileged to speak some words 
of appreciation at the unveiling of his monument at Arlington, 
Va., I could truthfully place on record for his honor and that 
of our magnificent commonwealth this eulogium : 

Honored for thirty years with his unreserved confidence, advised as 
to the minutest details of his political contests, I here affirm with all 
the solemnity these surroundings and this event can lend, that no un- 
worthy suggestion, no dishonorable proposition, no device for improper 
influence, no hint at undue advantage, ever came from him, even in 
the most crucial stress of dangerous and doubtful struggles. In none 
of his campaigns was an office promised or an unclean dollar expended 
by him or for him, although in many of them he was confronted by 
venal methods employed by unscrupulous rivals. Let others dwell on 
the gifts and graces they discern, — this is my acme of encomium for 
the politician and the man. 

In May, 1003, having served six years as Auditor at Wash- 
ington, having found my health seriously impaired by the sum- 
mer climate, and having more lucrative business opportunities 


offered, I tendered my resignation through the Secretary of the 
Treasury to the President. An investigation of the Post Office 
Department being then just inaugurated, I was asked to re- 
main in office and assist therein. The inquiry yielded impor- 
tant results and lasted until October, when on its conclusion I 
again resigned. My resignation was accepted to take effect on 
the appointment of my successor, which was not made for more 
than three months. Finally on January 22, 1904, I turned over 
the bureau to the new appointee, my old friend, Hon. Joseph J. 
MeCardy, of St. Paul. The long tenure, nearly seven years, of 
this the most important position I have held, marks the culmi- 
nation of my experiences in political life. The Auditorship is 
a quasi- judicial position. There are six Auditors, whereof the 
Auditor for the Post Office Department supervises more em- 
ployees and handles more business than the five others united. 
The direct official head of the accounting system, the appellate 
officer for all the Auditors, is the Comptroller of the Treasury. 
During all my service in "Washington, Hon. R. J. Tracewell was 
Comptroller, and he still retains that position. When I retired 
from office, Mr. Tracewell wrote this testimonial, w^hich I am 
possibly justified in quoting as a political valedictory: 

"It was with the most profound regret that I learned several months 
since that you had tendered your resignation to take effect upon the 
appointment and qualification of a successor. 

"If the President had known, as I know, the difficulties with which 
you have been surrounded during your term of office, and the fidelity 
and integrity with which you have performed the many arduous duties 
thereof, I feel confident that it would only have been for a considera- 
tion of your health that he would have consented to your resignation. 
Good Auditors for the Post Office Department are not made, but must 
be born. Even though one could be made, the process would be long, 
and in the making public interests would necessarily suffer more or 

-"I shall always recall with pleasure your intelligent zeal for the 
institution and carrying out of real reforms in your office, and the 
cheerful assistance you have always given me in any matter connected 
therewith. There is no officer in the Government service who is pos- 
sessed of more information as to your true worth to the Government, 
nor one who will realize the loss of its being deprived of your services 
more keenly than myself." 

In 1904 two of my friends and co-workers in the liv(?Iy 
political battles of twenty years before. Judge L. AV. Collins 



and Hon. R. C. Dunn, were rival aspirants for the Republican 
nomination for governor of Minnesota. I preferred Judge Col- 
lins, and supported him at the primaries. But Mr. Dunn re- 
ceived the nomination, and knowing, from of old, his sterling 
integrity and many manly qualities. I earnestly advocated his 
election on the platform and with the pen. It was a cause of 
keen regret to me that Mr. Dunn was defeated, even by so 
worthy a Democrat as Governor Johnson, not only on account 
of his personal disappointment but of the far-reaching disas- 
trous consequences to the Republican party of this state. 

All ray activities of forty years in Minnesota politics have 
been with and for the Republican party. During the greater 
portion of this period, politics has been incidental, virtually a 
recreation, not interfering with my business occupations. I 
have not always agreed in every detail with the avowed poli- 
cies of the party, but upon the whole its principles have seemed 
to me best calculated to promote the honor and prosperity of 
the state and the nation. Usually its candidates have been ac- 
ceptable. The nominees have not in every instance been my 
first choice, but in most instances have commanded my adhe- 

I actively supported Marshall, Davis, Hubbard, McGill Nel- 
son, and Van Sant, for governor, also Averill, Stewart, AVash- 
burn, Dunnell, Strait, Nelson, Wakefield, Stevens, and others, 
for Congress, every time they were candidates for these offices, 
and never had occasion to regret that support. I supported 
Ramsey for one term in the Senate, Windom for two terms in 
the Senate, Sabin for one term in the Senate, and Pillsbury for 
two terms as governor, afterward opposing each of them for 
re-election, not as a rule from any special hostility to them per- 
sonally or politically, but because of a marked preference for 
candidates who then stood in opposition. A few men who have 
been candidates for governor or Congress on the Republican 
ticket during the past forty years, I found myself unable to 
support, either for the nomination or for election ; they were 
usually elected, however, but nothing in their official careers 
ever caused me to regret my opposition. 

On the whole, my political experiences have led me to 
form a higher estimate of the personal integrity of party lead- 


ers than the general public seems to entertain. I believe that 
the average legislator is as honest as the average business man; 
that the business of the state and national governments is, in 
the main, well conducted, and that the men whom the people 
of this state have delighted to honor have been, with few ex- 
ceptions, entirely worthy of their confidence. I have person- 
ally known every territorial and state governor of Minnesota 
except two, every senator and representative in Congress, and 
nearly all the unsuccessful candidates for all these positions. 
I am satisfied that, with few exceptions, the political victories 
achieved have been honestly won, and that, in most cases, the 
alleged corrupt use of money in Minnesota politics has been 
greatly exaggerated. 

In the aggregate, the public men of the formative decades 
of the State have been able, far-sighted, and faithful to their 
trust. The magnificent result of their labors testifies to their 
wisdom and assiduity. If the generations which succeed them 
show equal capacity and devotion, we may be assured that the 
golden promise of the day in which we live will be amply ful- 
filled by the prosperity and happiness of the coming years. 



Members of the Minnesota Historical Society : 

At the request of your Secretary, I present to you a his- 
tory of the parks of Minneapolis, which I hope may have some 
influence in promoting the development of parks and play- 
grounds in other cities of the state. Even the small village 
should have its public park, centrally located, and land should 
be secured before it is occupied and covered with buildings. 
The villages as well as the cities are growing, and the neces- 
sity for a public meeting-place for recreation is more and more 
apparent as the years go by. 

The village of Bluff City, Kansas, where there are but sixty- 
five voters, has become noted for its beautiful park of twelve 
acres and for its neat and well kept houses and lawns. Sev- 
eral publications have given views of the park and noted its 
influence upon the citizens of the village, who organized a band 
which discourses music in the park, and in it, each year, there 
is held a social gathering. Why not make every village in our 
beautiful State of Minnesota as attractive as is this one in 

It has been demonstrated in IMinneapolis and St. Paul that 
no investment of public funds has brought greater returns 
financially than those invested in the parks and playgrounds, 
and none has brought more pleasure and added more to the 
health of the citizens. 

The history of the Minneapolis parks demonstrates the ne- 
cessity of securing park sites before the land is occupied. Cap- 
tain Edward Murphy in 1857 donated the first park to the 
City of ^Minneapolis, but this remained a vacant tract, used 
only as a cow pasture or public common until 1880, when the 

•Read at the monthly meeting of the Executive Council, November 
11. 1912. 



City Council passed an ordinance creating the office of City 
Forester, wlio, under the supervision of the writer, laid out 
walks and planted this park with trees. Since that time it has 
been of inestimable value to a now densely populated section 
of the city. 

Friends of the parks had a long struggle and met with many 
disappointments, before success croTivTied their efforts; and the 
delay in securing land cost the city large sums of money and 
the loss of many valuable sites, which were offered at figures 
that now seem very insignificant. 

At the first public meeting, called in September, 186^!:, to ad- 
vocate the purchase of a tract of land for a park, containing 
twenty acres, which was offered for $6,000, the discussion of 
the question was very warm, and one prominent citizen de- 
clared that there would never be a house south of Tenth street, 
and that beyond Seventh street it was all park. But the park 
advocates were in a majority, and the Town Supervisors were 
instructed to make the purchase. However, the obstructors 
controlled them, politically, the matter went by default, and 
we lost a park where it is now needed. This property is now 
valued at over half a million dollars. 

In March, 1866, the citizens of St. Anthony and Minneapolis 
held an election to decide the question of uniting the two cities, 
and to authorize the purchase of Nicollet Island, containing 
about forty acres, for a public park, which was offered hy the 
owners for the sum of $47,500. The pro.ject was defeated by 
eighty-five votes, and its defeat has been regretted by the citi- 
zens of . iMinneapolis to the present day, and is referred to as 
''our great mistake." The island was covered with a fine 
growth of forest trees, mostly hard maple, and is admirably 
located for a public park. This land is now valued at more 
than a million dollars. September 15, 1865, a committee, which 
had been appointed at a special town meeting to recommend a 
site for a park, reported that a tract of forty acres could be pur- 
chased for tlie sum of $8,500, payable in three and five years, 
with interest at seven per cent, but tliis was not purchased. 

Through the efforts of the advocates of public parks, the 
City Council passed a resolution favoring the establisliment of 
parks; and on the 8th day of July, 1869, a proposition, was 
made by the owner to sell a tract of land containing forty acres 


for the sum of $25,000, payable in the bonds of the city, run- 
ning twenty-five years at eight per cent. This property is now 
covered with fine houses, among them that of the late Hon. 
William D. AYashburn. A part, containing ten acres, has just 
been purchased by the city for a park, for the sum of $250,000, 
making the value of the tract of forty acres for the proposed 
park to be now $1,000,000. 

In 1872 Col. William S. King offered 250 acres of land 
around Lake Harriet for $50,000. He was told by a member of 
the City Council that he had better go back to ^Yashington 
and not try to unload his farm on the city for so large a sum. 
The property is now worth more than $2,000,000. Two lots in 
this tract were sold recently for $15,000. 

In April, 1882, a block of land in Harmon's Addition was 
purchased at a cost of $13,475, the city paying one half and 
the citizens of the neighborhood contributing one half of this 
amount. This is the first park for which the public paid any 
portion of its cost. It is now surrounded with beautiful homes, 
and is the great attraction of the neighborhood. 

In October, 1882, Mrs. :\rary C. Morris, Katherine B. Steele, 
and Mrs. Caroline H. Addison, daughters of the late Franklin 
Steele, purchased a block of land at a cost of $20,000, which 
they presented to the city on condition that it be improved as 
a park, to be called Franklin Steele Square. 

On January 29, 1883, the Board of Trade passed a series of 
resolutions in favor of securing legislation authorizing the cre- 
ation of a Board of Park Commissioners, with authority to pur- 
chase or condemn land for a system of public parks and boule- 
vards. A committee was appointed to draft a bill, which was 
reported at a meeting on February 6; and the Committee on 
Public Parks was requested to confer at once with a committee 
of the City Council and the Chamber of Commerce, and to re- 
quest the aid of these bodies in carrying out this important 

Opinions were expressed that speedy action should be taken, 
and that from $100,000 to $200,000 should be appropriated for 
park purposes ; but the City Council passed strong resolutions 
condemning tlie park scheme. A bill was prepared by the 
Board of Trade and was presented to the Legislature by the 
Hennepin County delegation, who amended it by a provision 


to submit the same to a vote of the people. It then passed both 
houses under a suspension of the rules. 

On IMarch 30 the Knights of Labor adopted a set of resolu- 
tions condemnino^ the movement in favor of parks and calling 
for a public mass meeting to protest against the ratification of 
the Park Act. The hall was crowded, but no one was allowed 
to express an opinion favorable to the passage of the act. 

The election to ratify the Park Act was held on April 3, 
1883, and, notwithstanding the strenuous efforts of the oppo- 
sition, it was carried by a majority of 1,405. The friends of 
the parks, after twenty years of earnest effort, achieved suc- 
cess, and the Board was organized and proceeded to lay out 
and acquire a system of parks and parkways which is now the 
pride of the city. 

"Within two years of the organization of the Board, those 
who were the most strenuous opponents of the measure began 
to appreciate the value of parks; the Knights of Labor, who 
had so bitterly opposed the adoption of the Park Act, sent a 
petition to the Board favoring the acquisition of land for a 
park ; and the large number of children with their parents who 
visited the parks was evidence that they were for the working 
people, as well as for the rich. 

Soon after the organization of the Board, Dr. Jacob S. El- 
liot, one of the pioneers of Minneapolis, presented to the City 
four acres, between Ninth and Tenth streets, which the Board 
named Elliot Park in his honor. 

During the first two years of the existence of the Board it 
acquired, by gift and purchase, ten tracts for parks, those most 
important being Loring Park, 37 acres, and the tract of fifty- 
five acres inclosing Lake Harriet, a beautiful sheet of water 
consisting of 360 acres. This latter valuable acquisition was 
donated by Col. William S. King, Henry B. Beard, and Gen. 
J. V. D. Reeve. Since that time one hundred and fifty acres 
have been added to its land area. 

In July, 1885, all the shore of the Lake of the Isles, except 
a few lots which were condemned, was donated to the city. 
This is now one of our most attractive parks, containing 200 
acres. In the same year the east shore of Lake Calhoun was 
acquired, thus connecting the lake parkways, and now the en- 
tire shore is owned by the city, and a boulevard encircles it. 


This lake and the Lake of the Isles are connected by a short 
canal, through which pleasure boats pass. A canal is also be- 
ing made to unite these lakes with Cedar lake. There are now 
in the park system six lakes, connected by parkways. 

During the year 1886, Kenwood Boulevard, containing 20 
acres, was graded and improved by the owners and donated to 
the city. The most important acquisition to the Park System 
made in 1887 was the tract of 123 acres which includes the 
Minnehaha Falls. This park is now the most popular in the 
system, and it is visited by many thousands during the summer 
months on Sundays and holidays, the visitors frequently num- 
bering over ten thousand. 

The next great addition to the parkways was the Minne- 
haha Parkway, extending from Lake Harriet through the beau- 
tiful valley of ^linnehalia creek to Minnehaha Park. This park- 
way, five miles long and from 200 to 600 feet wide, with sec- 
tions running through the natural forest, contains 177 acres, 
of which over 100 acres was donated by public-spirited citi- 

During the years from 1889 to 1891, inclusive, ten small 
squares and triangles were donated for small parks, and Col. 
William S. King presented to the city the beautiful LjTidale 
Park, containing fifty-one acres, on the east shore of Lake Har- 
riet. The Lakewood Cemetery Association supplemented this 
last named tract with a gift of thirty-five acres of beautifully 
wooded land adjoining. Colonel King also deeded a strip of 
land forty feet wide and a mile in length, for widening the 
boulevard now called ''King's Highway." 

Besides the valuable gifts of land w^hich ^Minneapolis has 
received, the wisdom of her- citizens has been displayed more 
recently in another form, of which the Shelter House in Cam- 
den Park atTords the most complete example. This is the gen- 
erous gift of ^Ir. and Mrs. Charles C. Webber, in memory of 
their son, John C. Webber, deceased, for whom it is named. 
It is a beautiful building of reinforced concrete, in the Mission 
style, and is perfect in its arrangement for the purpose for 
which it was constructed. There is a large room, 27 by 53 feet, 
used as a shelter in summer, which is heated during the skating 
season. It has two large swimming pools, through which a 
brook of pure water flows continuously, lockers for the cloth- 


ing of the bathers, modern toilet rooms, and, in the second 
story, a branch of the ^Minneapolis Library. The pretty 
Shelter" in Loring Park is also a gift to the city. 

Columbia Park, containing 185 acres, was purchased in 
1892, and its cost was assessed on benefited property, which 
was greatly enhanced in value by the location of the park. 

Glenwood Park, the rural park of the system, now con- 
tains nearly 600 acres, which the Board hopes to increase to 
1,000 acres. It contains a beautiful little lake, surrounded by 
hills which are heavily wooded, one of which is the highest 
point in Hennepin county. In this park the native wild flowers 
are carefully kept in growing condition by Miss Eloise Butler, 
who has charge of the wild garden, where nearly ail of the 
native flowers of the State are cared for. This collection is 
much appreciated by those who are interested in plant life, and 
is of great educational value. 

The parkways are important features of the ^Minneapolis 
park systems, the most important being the Minnehaha and the 
River Bank drives. 

"When Minneapolis and St. Paul purchased the east and west 
banks of the Mississippi river from Fort Snelling to the Uni- 
versity, they secured for posterity the most beautiful parkway 
in this country, forming really a great park with the mighty 
river running through it. The area on the west side, from 
Minnehaha to Riverside Park, and including both, is 369 acres, 
of the most picturesque character; on the east side, from the 
University to Fort Snelling, 682 acres. 

The late Joseph A. AYheelock, to whom the City of St. Paul 
and the State of ^Minnesota owe so much for his unselfish work 
for their development and prosperity, wrote in one of his re- 
ports, when President of the Park Board: 

With the acquisition of the river bank from Summit avenue to 
Fort Snelling, the City of St. Paul will possess a driveway about eight 
miles and a half in length, along the summit of the bluff walls on the 
east side of the Mississippi, which eminent landscape architects agree 
in saying will have no equal in America in the picturesque aspects of 
the river scenery which it will c'ommand, and in the beauty of its forest 
environment. Meanwhile, the Minneapolis Park Board are about to 
acquire the corresponding edge and slopes of the bluffs on the western 
side of the river, which it is hoped the military authorities will extend 
or permit to be extended to Fort Snelling bridge, which will form one 


connecting link between the two boulevards, as Marshall avenue bridge 
will form another. With these connections the twin boulevards will 
form a circuit along the summits of the bluff hills on both sides of the 
river, and will duplicate, in one enchanting drive, the charms of each. 
There will be nothing like it, or approaching it in beauty, in any other 
American city. 

The development of these river boulevards along the coterminous 
boundaries of the two cities will bring these parkways and park sys- 
tems into close contact, being a long step forward towards a still wider 
scheme of interconnection. 

These riverside parkways are now completed, and the 
dreams of the advocates for the parks are being realized. 

Minneapolis now has thirty-three miles of parkways, and 
this will be largely increased by a drive of over ten miles in 
length, which will entirely encircle the city, making over forty- 
three miles within the city limits. Dr. AY. W. Folwell, when 
President of the Board, suggested this drive, which will con- 
nect all the parkways and many of the parks of Minneapolis, 
to be called the "Grand Rounds." This will connect with the 
St. Paul parkways, giving to the Twin Cities the longest, most 
diversified, and grandest system of drives in the country. AVith 
all of its branches, including those now completed and others 
which are planned, there will be over seventy-five miles, run- 
ning through valleys, over hills, bordering lakes and rivers, a 
large portion through forests and grand natural scenery. 

The park system of ^Minneapolis now consists of: 

27 parks of over five acres each 2,767.13 acres. 

40 small systems and triangles 228.10 acres. 

8 parkways or bouvelards from 200 to 600 feet 

wide 662.58 acres. 

12 playgrounds, 9 now in use 31.08 acres. 

Total 3,688.89 acres. 

If one looks at the large sum the parks have cost and is not 
familiar with the financial conditions and the amount which 
should be credited to them through the increase in the value 
of the real estate contiguous to them, he is apt to say that the 
City is expending too much money for recreation grounds; but 
the facts are that, with one exception, there is not a park or 
parkway in ^Minneapolis that is not a source of profit through 
the amount collected in taxes on increased valuations. This is 


not only true in Minneapolis, but it is true in other cities. The 
great landscape architect, Frederick Law Olmsted, said: ''That 
a well arranged and attractive park adds greatly to the value 
of real estate, is a well known fact." The foremost business 
men of New York said the purchase of Central Park was the 
city's most profitable real estate speculation. 

Jacob Riis, the philanthropic friend of the poor, said: 

It is a wicked city where the boy is denied a chance to play. . . . 
Build your parks and playgrounds, and the boy gets a chance at once; 
and when he gets it, he will go to work and he will be a good citizen. 
As a result of the three years' era of reform in New York City, in which 
twenty-two millions of dollars had been expended for parks, play- 
grounds, and schoolhouses, the death rate was reduced from 26.33 per 
cent to 18.66 per cent. 

An article in the New England ^Magazine, on the town of 
Brookline, ]\rass., says: 

Regarding municipal development on broad lines as a remunerative 
investment for the town, the Beacon Parkway will be cited. Beacon 
street was widened from 160 to 180 feet in width, the entire cost being 
$615,000. In six years the increase in assessed values of land on each 
side of the Parkway throughout its entire length in Brookline was 
$4,330,400, with no allowance for any increase in personal estate inci- 
dent thereto; thus paying for itself long before its most zealous advo- 
cates supposed it would. 

The experience of ^linneapolis is the same as that of other 
cities. Before improvements were made in Lake of the Isles 
Park, lots were selling for from $15 to $20 per front foot. 
"Within two years from the beginning of those improvements 
the price had risen to $100 and over per front foot. Many 
more instances could be cited to prove that well considered 
plans for large public improvements of this kind are profitable 
investments. But, better than the financial benefits to be de- 
rived from them, they are invaluable for the promotion of the 
health, the morals, and the pleasure of the people. 

The Park Board for more than twenty years has had the 
entire control of the planting and care of the street trees, and 
its forestry committee is planting about two thousand each 
year. This department has done much to make the streets of 


the city attractive, and it is becoming noted as one of the most 
beautiful shaded cities in America. 

If the establishment of parks in the towns and cities of the 
State is encouraged, some speaker, in future years, who has 
the privilege of appearing before the Minnesota Historical So- 
ciety, will be able to relate more fully the practical benefits 
and elevating influences derived from the people's recreation 

Postscript, in accordance with request of the Council. 

The foregoing paper, read by its author in the meeting of 
this Society, met with deservedly generous applause; but, in 
the discussion which followed, the criticism was made that the 
author, with characteristic modesty, had carefully avoided any 
reference to the part he had himself had in the development of 
tlie Minneapolis Park System. The undersigned was therefore 
requested to add a memorandum to accompany this paper, to 
supply in some measure the admitted deficiency. 

The Park System of Minneapolis has not been the work of 
any one man, but has resulted from the unpaid co-operative 
efforts of many, so many that space cannot be afforded for even 
a list. But there is not one of them all who have so co-operated 
who will not desire to have Mr. Charles M. Loring singled out 
and honored as the one most active, zealous, and indefatigable. 
He was a prime mover in all the abortive efforts toward park 
beginning described in his paper. Failure only spurred him to 
renewed activity. Possibly lie deserves the gratitude of the 
city for all these failures as much as for the later successes. 

The fundamental act of the legislature of 1883, condemned 
by the city council and denounced by the Knights of Labor, 
would not have been passed but for his untiring advocacy. 
Wlien the first Park Board was formed under the law, Mr. 
Loring was at once logically placed at its head. He held the 
presidency for many years, and might have retained it indefi- 
nitely, but that he felt obliged to resign when the Board de- 
sired to acquire a piece of land in which he had an interest. 
But no matter whether in the chair or on the floor, and even 
after his ultimate retirement from the board, his interest never 
flagged nor his enthusiasm abated. Indeed the contagion of 



Mr. Loring's enthusiasm has perhaps been the most potent 
force in the whole development. 

Among the services deserving of particular mention is one 
in which he took great pride, and which was of great and last- 
ing advantage. That was the discovery of two men soon after 
the organization of the Park Board. It w^as he wiio secured 
,the services of Horace AV. S. Cleveland, already eminent among 
American landscape artists, for designing our earlier parks and 
parkways. Mr. Cleveland possessed in a high degree the art 
of subordinating art to nature. All his designs were accom- 
modated to the shape and contour of natural surfaces. The 
grove or forest, the lawn or meadow, in his vistas and surprises 
were the dominant elements. All artificial constructions were 
kept out of sight, so far as passible, or blended in the landscape. 

The other man was William M. Berry, who had co-operated 
with Mr. Cleveland in the development of Chicago parks. The 
two made an admirable team. In absolute sympathy with 'Mr. 
Cleveland's ideas, Mr. Berry knew how to work them out faith- 
fully, and with a degree of economy beyond praise. Every 
dollar allowed him showed in results. It was the effective 
simplicity of Mr. Cleveland's designs, carried out by Mr. Berry 
at costs that seem pitifully small in these days, which over- 
came opposition and reconciled citizens to larger outlays for 
park acquirement and maintenance. 

In the working season there were few days, for many years, 
when Mr. Loring was not in the field with one or other of these 
admirable experts. In grateful recognition of his labors the 
Park Board gave the name of Loring Park to the first acquired 
and most conspicuous of the interior parks. Tt would be but 
just that some enduring memorials of Cleveland and Berry, his 
co-workers, should be provided. 

For more than half a century Charles M. Loring has had 
the park system of Minneapolis close to his heart, but not to 
the exclusion of other good causes. Every public interest of 
his city and state has had his sympathy and support; but his 
fellow citizens know him best by his long and faithful labors 
to build up their parks, and they have given him the title they 
desire posterity to perpetuate, "Father of the Park System." 

William Folwell. 



Of the few whose prophetic vision in the early years of the 
history of tliis city swept over our river bluffs and alternating 
hills and valleys and saw there, ready to our fashioning, a com- 
bined park system unequaled in its setting, Joseph A. Wheelock 
was easily first. It is not claimed, here, that he was the first 
in point of time to dream of great things for the future, but 
that, summing up the things he sought to bring about, and 
comparing them with the actual achievement, there is no other 
man who can be placed beside him as a founder of our parks. 

The Pioneer Press, which became great under his hand, was 
always a povrer for the advancement of the interests of the city 
in the domain of parks. Identified as he was, from the very 
eafliest efforts in that direction, with the movement for the 
acquisition of parks, his interest and his work never flagged. 
We are informed by those who knew him most intimately that 
for the last ten years of his life fully half of his time was given 
to work for the parks. Before his active connection with the 
Park Board there was no park system. His imagination saw, 
and his mind devised, the system of parks and boulevards for 
St. Paul as they are today. His energy and perseverance 
brought to a conclusion many of the most important of the sep- 
arate features of the system. 

Mr. Wheelock spent the most of what to other men would 
have been leisure time in going about the city and its environs, 
in company with his most eft'ective and sympathetic co-worker, 
Mr. Nussbaumer, Superintendent of Parks. Day after day and 
month after month, almost without rest so far as holidays were 
concerned, they went over the proposed system, planning an 

•Read at the monthly meeting of the Executive Council. March 10, 



area here, a connecting boulevard there, and perfecting and 
bringing into symmetry as a whole that remarkable series of 
natural intervals and spaces which we now know as our park 

The Old System ; Public Squares. 

The classification of our park areas, with reference to the 
original purpose back of their institution as such areas, falls 
readily into two classes, the old and the new. 

The park areas belonging to the old system were really not 
of a system at all. They were merely a haphazard lot of open 
spaces, which had come to the possession of the city in all sorts 
of ways, and with no common nor ordered purpose on the part 
of the donors, when they were donated, nor of the authorities 
of the city in the cases when the areas were acquired by pur- 
chase or condemnation. These areas had no relation to each 
other, nor to any general plan. 

It is not intended by any means to detract either from the 
merit of the various donors of those old park plots, or from 
their utility and even beauty. Many of them, as will be noted 
later, lend dignity to their surroundings, are quite fit and ade- 
quate as park spaces in their respective localities, and are justly 
, considered as monuments to the men whose generosity pre- 
served them to public use. The point here made simply is that 
the park areas of St. Paul, as a unified system, were never 
dreamed of, certainly never effectively, until the dreams of 
Joseph A. AYheelock, and of those who worked with him and 
after him, came true. 

The greater number of the old areas are most fitly defined 
as public squares, having some utility as connective w^ays be- 
tween neighboring streets, and which in closely built up por- 
tions of the city give distinction to the surrounding archi- 


The first of these squares, in point of relative importance, is 
the Court House Square, on which the present Court House 
stands. This was donated to the County of Ramsey by Vital 
Guerin, in 1850. Later, in 1876, his widow, Adele Guerin, gave 
a quitclaim deed of the property to the county in consideration 


of the sum of one thousand dollars; and in 1892 the County 
deeded a half to the City. The location of this square, which 
was perhaps originally nearly accidental, proved to be a most 
fortunate one, situated, as it is, between Fourth and Fifth 
streets on TVabasha, on one edge of the business district proper, 
yet in a quite central location with respect to all parts of the 


Next in importance of these public squares is Rice Park. 
If it were not for the use made of the Court House Square, this 
park should be placed first in the list. Located, as it is, be- 
tween Fourth and Fifth streets, with St. Peter street on the 
east, it has already become the center of a series of public and 
semi-public edifices of noble design and architecture, which 
buildings would lack a large share of their present effective- 
ness, from an artistic standpoint, in the absence of an open 
space for a proper setting. With the United States Building 
on the northerly side, the new Public Library on the south, 
made possible largely through the munificence of James J. Hill, 
and the Wilder Charity Building on the west, there are few 
similar areas in any city which so well serve the purpose for 
which they were originally devoted as does Rice Park. 

The ground, 1.60 acres, was donated to the city by the own- 
ers and platters of that and the surrounding property, former 
United States Senator Henry M. Rice, and his associate, John 
R. Irvine. The donation was made May 16, 1849. It is inter- 
esting to note that there never was any formal dedication of 
this square to public uses. On the plat of Rice and Irvine's 
Addition, the ground is designated as ''Public Square.'* The 
only approach to a dedication appearing on the plat are the 
words, that the map hereto attached is a correct 

map . . etc. The filing of such a map, however, fol- 
lowed by the taking possession by the public, constitutes a suffi- 
cient transfer of the interest of the donors to the city (which 
continued as a village until five years after the date of the 


This park or square is noticed next in ord«r, not because of 
its relative importance, but on account of the fact that it passed 



to the city at the same time and in the same way as Rice Park, 
just described. It is located at the intersection of Franklin 
and AYalnut streets, in the AYest Seventh street district. By 
itself, this park of 3.58 acres is a dignified and sightly square, 
but the development of the city has left it with no distinctive 
surroundings. It is of value as a breathing space and a neigh- 
borhood park, but it cannot be given any higher rating as an 
institution of public utility or beauty. It is a part of the land 
platted with Rice Park in Rice and Irvine's Addition. The 
area here, also, is simply indicated on the plat as ''Public 
Square." The names of these two parks were bestowed in rec- 
ognition of the generosity of the donors respectively. 


This square of 2,03 acres, lying between Fifth and Sixth 
and Sibley and "Wacouta streets, should be ranked third among 
this class of spaces in the city. It affords some slight utility 
as a connective way for pedestrians, but is chiefly useful as 
affording one of those open spaces which add so much to the 
sightliness of a city, especially in a congested district such as 
is the one in St. Paul wiiere it is located, and which add greatly 
to the artistic merit of the surrounding architecture, as already 
pointed out. 

This square was acquired by the city at the time of the plat 
of Whitney and Smith's Addition, in which it lies. The owners 
of the plat were Cornelius I. Whitney and Robert Smith. They 
were both non-residents. The name of the latter was assigned 
to this square, which on the plat appears merely as a space 
marked ''10," as a block number in a series of blocks. The ded- 
ication recites that the owners of the property "hereby convey 
the public square to the public," etc. 

The ground was originally a high hill of drift gravel and 
boulders, some sixty feet above the surrounding land, and has 
been graded down to its present level in the general improve- 
ment of the district. The recorded plat bears date of July 24, 


This is a beautifully adorned square of .79 of an acre, lying 
at Summit and Nelson avenues. Half of it was donated to the 


city by Bartlett Presley, and the other half was purchased at 
a cost of ten thousand dollars. It has been ornamented at a 
cost of $2,104.57; and it is the site of the City Monument to 
the Soldiers of the Civil War. The plot was acquired in March, 
1883. Although of small area, the outlook it affords over the 
business section of the city, and its adornment with a growth 
of large forest trees, make it one of the most important small 
parks in the city. 


Central Park, which contains 2.35 acres, occupies so com- 
manding a position, with reference to possible future ap- 
proaches to the State Capitol, that it possesses an importance 
which increases as time goes on. It lies just north of the junc- 
tion of Minnesota street with Summit avenue. 

The acquisition of this park presents one of the earliest in- 
stances of the citizens of St. Paul making an effort to improve 
the appearance of the city by increasing its open spaces. Mr. 
Frederick H, Warwick, a lithographic artist, drew a map of a 
proposed park designed to take in the ground which now con- 
stitutes Central Park. George H. Hazzard, now Superintend- 
ent of the State Park at Taylor's Falls, interested himself with 
John C. Quinby, Major John Espy, and others, in agitating the 
matter of acquiring the park and in procuring options on the 
property. Theodore L, Schurmeier, "William Lindeke, AY. R. 
Merriam, Uri L. Lamprey, William Dawson, and other well 
known men, were owners in the desired tract. Mr. Dawson 
purchased the interests of ]\Ir. Merriam and Mr. Lamprey, and 
with others made a donation to the city of a good portion of 
the ground. The remainder of the tract was purchased by the 
city. The date of acquisition was November 15, 188-1. 


This square was acquired by the city by purchase in the 
years 1884-86, at an initial cost of $18,088.80 ; and it has been 
improved at a cost of $1,513.80. The area is 1.01 acres. This 
ground has for many years served the purposes of a neighbor- 
hood park at Grove, Locust, Ninth and Willius streets, where 
it is situated. It seems likely that this square will pass into 
history by the encroachment from the surrounding territory of 


business which cannot well accommodate itself to broken areas 
and spaces. 

The: New System of Parks. 

It is perhaps not quite accurate historically to class our 
three principal landscape parks as belonging to the new sys- 
tem. What that system comprehends is set out more fully 
under the next following subdivision of "Parkways and Boule- 
vards.'' But it seems most appropriate to class them with the 
new, rather than with the old, for while the beginnings of Como 
Park, particularly, run back into the early history of the city, 
yet its development and that of the other two mentioned have 
been perfected under the new spirit which has brought our 
parks as a whole to their present standard. 


No history of the parks of St. Paul would be well balanced 
which did not give large space to Como Park. This conclusion 
is established by several considerations. Its history runs back 
well toward the beginning of the city, as above pointed out. 
Its area, 319.34 acres of land, 107.75 of water, having thus a 
total of 427.09 acres, gives an expanse devoted to landscape 
gardening quite commensurate with the present development 
and wealth of St. Paul. Its individual beauty, regardless of 
comparisons with other like parks, is too manifest for discus- 
sion. Finally, its location affords a sort of nucleus from which 
run out several parkways, uniting this most important park 
with the entire system. 

The history of this park begins with an act of the Legisla- 
ture of Minnesota approved February 29, 1872, by which the 
Judge of the District Court in Ramsey County was required to 
appoint five commissioners, whose duty it should be to con- 
tract for and purchase not less than five hundred, nor more 
than six hundred and fifty, acres of land within a convenient 
distance of the city of St. Paul, but "beyond the present limits 
thereof," for a public park. A bond issue was provided, to an 
amount not exceeding $100,000, for the purchase of the tract 
to be selected by the commissioners. In 1873 the act was 
amended in some particulars, and pursuant to the act Judge 


Westcott AYilkin appointed, as commissioners, General H. H. 
Sibley, Joseph A. AVheelock, Samuel Calhoun, William Pitt 
Murray, and J. C. Burbank. 

The City Council took the necessary steps for the issuance 
of the bonds, the lands of the first portion acquired were se- 
lected at Lake Como and put under contract, and the details 
of perfecting the transfers from the various owners were put 
under way. Meanwhile opposition sprang up in several quar- 
ters, and it finally spread till it appeared to involve nearly all 
the best citizenship of St. Paul. The first active opposition 
appears to have taken shape in the City Council. 

In the St. Paul Dispatch for July 2, 1873, on page 2, ap- 
pears the following report of the proceedings of the Common 
Council of St. Paul : 

A communication was received from the parties owning the real 
estate purchased for the public park, notifying the council that they 
were ready to perfect title to the land as soon as the city should exe- 
cute the necessary bonds for the purpose Alderman 

Fisher moved the reconsideration of the resolution by which the Coun- 
cil had directed the purchase of the property at Lake Como for park 
purposes. In support of the resolution he read a long speech, and 
concluded with an appeal to the Council not to make laws in favor of 
the rich who could "ride in chaises," and against the poor who could 
not afford to indulge in such articles. 

Alderman Louis Krieger made some remarks in support of 
the resolution, in which he referred to those who had ''parks 
on the brain," to "oppression of the poor," etc. The motion 
to reconsider was lost. 

The speech of Alderman J. AV. Fisher in support of his 
resolution appears in the St. Paul Dispatch for July 3, 1873, 
and refers to the acreage of the park as 257 acres, and to the 
bond issue as being $392,000. 

In the Dispatch for February 18, 1874, appears the record 
of the proceedings of the Common Council at which Alderman 
Krieger introduced a resolution in the following language : 

Whereas, The City Council of the city of St. Paul did purchase a 
public park at and near Lake Como, and whereas the voice of the peo- 
ple is apparently opposed to the city holding said land for such pur- 

That the public debt of the city has thereby been increased beyond 


the interests of the tax-payers, and at a time when they are least able 
to bear it. 

That no publicly expressed voice of the people demanded said 
purchase; that the public interest demands that said lands be sold and 
the proceeds placed in the city treasury to pay the principal and in- 
terest of said department incurred thereby, if the same can be done 
by authority of law. Therefore 

Resolved, That the subject of the power of the city to sell a part 
or the whole of said park lands be referred to the City Attorney for 
his legal opinion, as to the legal right of the city to sell lands or some 
part thereof, and [that he] send the same to the Council at the earliest 
day practicable. 

The subject became a matter of general public concern and 
was taken up by the old Chamber of Commerce, a body older 
than, and quite distinct from, the present Commercial Club of 
St. Paul. Prior to formal action, the following petition was 
circulated and signed, and, with the names attached, was pub- 
lished in the Dispatch, which at that date had become the 
Evening Dispatch," in the issue of April 4, 1874. The peti- 
tion is as follows : 

The Como Park. A Petition for its Sale. 
To the President and Common Council, City of St. Paul, Gentlemen : 
The indebtedness of St. Paul is increasing at an alarming extent, 
and we the undersigned taxpayers would ask of your honorable body 
to sell the park property, provided it can be sold at cost, and reduce 
our liabilities. What we most need is sewerage, elevators, free bridge 
and good roads. We ask you as taxpayers that you so regulate the 
burden of taxation for the purpose of promoting the future prosperity 
of St. Paul, and not for the advancement of private interests of wild 
real estate speculators. 

The petition bears the names of one hundred and forty- 
eight signers, — names, be it said, even today, of the highest 
honor in St. Paul. At least twenty-five of the names are those 
of men who are universally known and respected today. For 
obvious reasons the publication of the list of these names is 
forborne. These men represented the best blood of St. Paul at 
that time. But the citizens were oppressed by business re- 
verses brought on by the "panic of 73," referred to in the 
Chamber of Commerce meeting stated more in detail below. 
The city was then small, with a population of only about 30,000. 


The park project was a very ambitious one for a new city, 
whose citizens were struggling with the financial depression 
that was then world-wide. 

Further, the final action of the Chamber of Commerce on 
this matter appears to indicate that the sober second thought 
of the men of St. Paul was sound, and that the petition was 
born of fears to which they had only temporarily yielded. Two 
days after the publication of the petition there was published 
in the Dispatch for April 6, an account of the consideration of 
the petition at a meeting of the Chamber of Commerce. The 
account states that ^Villiam L. Banning spoke in support of 
the petition, and in the course of his remarks reiterated some 
prior statements made by him that the park when completed 
would have cost three million dollars. Pennock Pusey spoke 
in favor of retaining the park, and in the course of his remarks 

It was thought, and I think wisely thought, that we should profit 
by the errors and omissions of other cities, and take timely steps to 
secure one of the many sightly and characteristic spots for which our 
landscape is noted, before the complications arising from the erection 
of expensive private improvements should render the undertaking diffi- 
cult and costly I submit that the failure of Jay Cooke 

& Co. and the resulting monetary scare, matters of temporary con- 
cern, things of today, from the effects of which we are already rapidly 
recovering, are scarcely a sufficient cause for the abandonment of all 
provision for an expanding future. 

It is of interest to note, in passing, that Mr. Pusey in his 
address charges ^Ir. Banning with saying that no parks would 
be needed until after the passage of fifty years, when St. Paul 
should have attained a population of two hundred thousand. 
We shall not complete this fifty year period till 1924. 

The matter was laid over for a week, and in the issue of 
the Dispatch for April 13, 1874, it is chronicled that the peti- 
tion was indefinitely postponed, with but one dissenting vote. 
The name of the dissenting member is not given, but we may 
easily guess it. 

At the time of the presentation and consideration of these 
trouble-borrowing resolutions, there was in progress a con- 
clusive demonstration of the wisdom, from a business stand- 


point alone, of the purchase of the park lands, and as well the 
fairness of the purchase price, commercially considered. This 
appears in an editorial in the Dispatch in the issue for April 7, 
1874. It is there stated that the real estate firm of Col. D. A. 
Robertson & Son proposed to purchase Como Park, except a 
hundred acres to be retained by the city, the purchase to be 
effected by guaranteeing the payment of the bonds which were 
issued to secure the park lands, so that the 100 acres would cost 
the city nothing. The editorial goes on to state that this prop- 
osition will go far toward convincing the most skeptical that 
the purchase of Como Park was a judicious investment. 

The work of shaping the wooded area and utilizing the ex- 
panse of water included in the original purchase, and in later 
acquisitions for Como Park, has fallen to the Superintendent of 
Parks, Frederick Nussbaumer, who has held his present position 
continuously since his appointment in 1892, It is but scant jus- 
tice to say that the work could not have been put in better 
hands. Mr. Nussbaumer has combined native taste and a ca- 
pacity to grow with his work, with executive ability of the sort 
which has enabled the Park Board over many years, and with 
the successive changes in its personnel, to leave in his hands to 
a large degree tlie purely business part of the administration 
of this and the other parks of the city. Whatever of individual 
service the future may bring to the city of St. Paul, Como ^vill 
remain as a testimonial to the native genius and energy of 
Superintendent Nussbaumer. 

It has unfortunately become true that Lake Como, the na- 
tive setting around which the park has been built, is with diffi- 
culty maintained at a satisfactory level of the water. Power- 
ful pumps were installed several years ago, and during the past 
winter of 1912-13 have been worked continuously day and 
night. The superintendent reports that even with this constant 
supply the level at which the water stood in October, 1912, has 
been but little more than maintained. It is thought that the 
location of sewers in the vicinity has operated to drain off and 
thus divert from the lake a considerable amount of surface 
water which originally found its way thither; and also that 
the work of improving the lake has disturbed its natural bed 


of impervious soil to such an extent that a partial drainage 
from the lake itself has been set up by that means. It is the 
intention of the superintendent to seek a remedy for the latter 
condition, which, if his theory be correct, is susceptible of being 

In the improvement of the park, the shores of Lake Como 
have been dredged out to make a more uniform and deeper 
stage of water near the shores, the lagoon northwest of the 
lake has been improved by dredging, and a waterway has been 
opened from it into the lake proper. Besides containing in 
large numbers the native plants and flowers of the state, the 
park now supports, through the ingenuity of Mr. Nussbaumer, 
not less than twenty species which were formerly exotic to the 

It is interesting to compare the prophecies made at the time 
when the first land for Como Park was acquired, with what has 
actually come to pass. The total cost of Como Park to date for 
land is $141,880.61, and for improvements $465,545.19; in total 
$607,425.80. This is nearly $2,400,000 less than the three mil- 
lions which Mr. Banning in 1874 prophesied it would cost. 

' Another light that failed was Alderman Fisher. The rich 
do go to Como ''in their chaises," propelled now by gasoline; 
but it is a safe hazard, judging from what one may observe at 
Como every summer, that there are at least fifty poor people 
and those of the middle class financially who patronize Como, 
to one who goes there in an automobile or carriage. 


This park in its main extent is of comparatively recent ac- 
quisition, and, leaving the water out of consideration, is second 
to Como in size, containing 239.14 acres of land. There are 
222.04 acres of water, making a total area of 461.18 acres, thus 
somewhat exceeding Como in total area. The land was all ac- 
quired by the city by condemnation proceedings, dating from 
the year 1894 onward. The latest acquisition was May 19, 1906. 
The park takes its name from Lake Phalen which forms a part 
of it, and which, with the neighboring hillocks and valleys to 
the south and west, well timbered with native oak, forms so 


attractive an expanse of natural landscape that its acquisition 
as a park for the city was almost a foregone conclusion. 

Lake Phalen and its outflowing creek were named for Ed- 
ward Phelan (whose name was variously spelled), one of whose 
successive land claims, in the earliest years of St. Paul, was on 
this creek. He sold the claim to AVilliam Dugas, who in 184:4- 
45 built a sawmill on the creek and intended also to make it 
partly a grist mill, this being the first mill in St. Paul. 

Though Phalen Park is somewhat remote at the present 
time, yet in view of its inherent fitness as a landscape park 
and its location on the line of the ])0ulevards destined to en- 
circle St. Paul as more fully set out further on, it is of inesti- 
mable value to the city. 


For this park St. Paul is indebted to the persistence and 
energy of Joseph A. AVheelock. Efforts for its acquisition had 
been under way for some time before the accomplishment of 
the project. The land was obtained under condemnation pro- 
ceedings, but in most cases the prices fixed for the respective 
pieces of land taken were the result of compromise, after al- 
most endless negotiations between Mr. AYheelock and the vari- 
ous owners. The tract was acquired at different times from 
the year 1893 onward. The area at present is 46.33 acres. The 
land cost $126,426.71, and the improvements $44,101.92: total, 

The price seems somewhat large for the amount of land 
which was secured, but in gauging the value of the tract it 
must be borne in mind that in its main feature, that is, the 
outlook both up and down the long sweep of the Mississippi 
river, from the point where the Minnesota enters it, at Fort 
Snelling, past this city, and far away to the south, Mounds 
Park is entirely beyond comparison. It is doubtful if there is 
anywhere in any city so impressive a combination of views, 
where nearly the whole of the business section of a great city, 
so imposing an expanse of river, with a vast sweep of country 
lying beyond, can all be taken in at a single viewpoint. That 
particular spot was known and appreciated by our red broth- 


ers long before any white man came elbowing his way in. Doc- 
tor Neill, in his History of ^linnesota, sets out the account by 
Jonathan Carver of the observation by the latter of the burial 
place of the Indians, which is now so prominent a feature in 
the park, and from which the park takes its name. Carver's 
account, which dates from what he saw in the year 1766, is as 
follows : 

At a little distance from this dreary cavern [now known as Car- 
ver's cave and which he had just been describing] is the burying-place 
of several bands of the Naudowessie [Sioux] Indians. Though these 
people have no fixed residence, living in tents, and abiding but a few 
months on one spot, yet they always bring the bones of their dead to 
this place. 


While there was some opposition of a rather negative sort 
to the taking over by the city of Harriet Island, yet no voice 
has ever been raised to claim that this unique bit of nature 
donated to the city by the generosity of Dr. Justus Ohage, was 
destined for the use of the rich. No act of greater beneficence 
has ever been performed toward the city or its people than 
that of Dr. Ohage in acquiring and donating the island in the 
channel of the Mississippi known as Harriet Island. That name 
has long been borne by the bit of land in the river opposite the 
upper portion of the business section of the city, and it was 
bestowed in honor of Miss Harriet E. Bishop, who came to St. 
Paul as a teacher in the year 1847. The land was originally 
but an enlarged sand bar in the river. Nature had, however, 
clothed it with an abundant growth of trees, and while Dr. 
Ohage was Health Commissioner of St. Paul he conceived the 
project of acquiring and improving the island and turning it 
into a park and public baths for the use of the people of the 
city generally. He accordingly acquired the property and do- 
nated it to the city by deed dated ^Irj 26. 1900, recorded in 
the office of the Register of Deeds in Book 442, page 439. The 
area of the island is 28.13 acres, much of which is made ground. 
The original surface was a series of undulating bars^ composed 
of sand and silt, which have been brought to something like a 
uniform level, the outer edges of the island being raised by 
hydraulic dredging from the channel, and these newly-built 
areas being sown to grass. 


The native trees have served for most of the adorning nec- 
essary in that direction. Nearly all the trees of the island 
were overturned by the tornado of August 20, 1904, but were 
quickly restored to their original position where not too badly 
broken, and there is now so little trace of what then seemed 
like an irreparable calamity, that the fact that such an event 
had occurred would not now be suspected by any visitor to 
the island. 

The bath houses have been constructed on the northerly 
side of the island, with ample dressing rooms for boys and men, 
and a separate room for women. These, Avith the outdoor 
games instituted on the island and the small zoo maintained 
there, are sufficient attractions to keep the island fairly 
thronged with visitors, especially in the evenings and on holi- 
days, throughout the summer months. It seems most appro- 
priate to mention in this connection the approach to Harriet 
Island, which belongs to the park system of the city and leads 
from the southerly end of the Wabasha street bridge to the 
bridge connecting Harriet Island with the mainland. This ap- 
proach was acquired by purchase at a cost of $3,500 for the 
land and $918.03 for improvements; total, $4,418.03. 


This park is of smaller area than the older landscape parks, 
but is located in a rapidly growing quarter of the city, and on 
this account it will no doubt be of increasing importance from 
year to year. It is at Victoria and St. Clair streets, and is of 
recent acquisition. It was taken by condemnation proceedings 
under date of March 18, 1909. The cost of the land was 
$22,420.37, of improvements $9,135.47 ; total, $31,555.84. The 
area is 15.50 acres. 

Parkways and Boulevards. 
In dealing with the parkways and boulevards of the city it 
seems fit to pause and take account of those grand features of 
natural topography on which our new park system is based; 
for, as intimated in the foregoing subdivisions of this paper, 
the present system is not the result of haphazard, but has been 
carefully thought out and elaborated, from a plan presented 


by nature itself. The following out of this naturally graven 
path has led to a development which has been of parkways and 
boulevards, rather than of landscape parks. A glance at the 
map of the natural physical features of St. Paul and its envi- 
rons shows that the Mississippi river sweeps about the city in 
a semi-circle, running from the city limits of ^linnea polls on 
the west to the point where the river turns southeastward at 
Indian Mounds Park. Passing over the map with the eye from 
Indian Mounds Park northward and then westward, it is ob- 
served that Lake Phalen and Lake Como lie in the northerly 
half of the great circle of which the river makes the southerly 
portion. This, then, was the great natural parkway w^hich pre- 
sented itself to the vision of Joseph A. T^heelock. At the time 
he took up his work, because the depth and precipitous slope 
of the river gorge did not permit any ordinary utilization of 
the land, the desired areas lay to a great extent unspoiled and 
ready for fitting into a comprehensive and unified system. 

This is what is known to tliose concerned in the develop- 
ment of the parks as the ''Outer Circle.^' Far too much of it 
has been marred by the hand of man. Much of it remains to 
be acquired. But so w^ell awakened have the citizens of St. 
Paul become to the power of parks and parkways to draw to 
their vicinity commercial values, and, it is to be hoped, so ap- 
preciative have they become to the purely artistic value of 
these open spaces and ways, that there is little fear that any 
support which is necessary in the future for the carrying out 
of those portions of the plan yet in embryo will be withheld. 


The key to this grand parkway, and individually a most 
impressive portion of it is the Mississippi River Boulevard. 
This consists, topographically, of the crest and slope of the 
eastern side of the Mississippi gorge from the Minneapolis city 
limits, just north of the Town and Country Club, to "West Sev- 
enth street at the Fort Snelling bridge. The length of this 
boulevard is 3.51 miles. 

The acquisition of this expanse of ground has effected the 
preservation, it is to be hoped for all time, of a long stretch 


of our great river in the same condition that it appeared to 
Father Hennepin and Jonathan Carver on their first explora- 
tions of the valley. From the north end of the boulevard to a 
point near the Government high dam, at the Soldiers' Home, 
the entire gorge, as well as the woodland upon the level bench 
above it, are i)ractically in a state of primitive nature. The 
dense woods, in which are represented nearly all our native 
hardwood trees, with a fringe of red cedars along the bluff and 
a sprinkling of the white pine, here west of its main geographic 
range, stand for the most part unspoiled by the ax. 

Although the improvement has drawn to the adjacent 
platted land large values, the territory up to the present is 
practically unoccupied. North of Marshall avenue the im- 
provements of the Town and Country Club front for a consid- 
erable distance on the boulevard. South of Marshall avenue 
and near to it, a few fine residences have been built fronting 
on the boulevard, and the grounds of the St. Paul Seminary 
run down to the boulevard just south of Shadow Falls Park. 
Aside from these improvements, the ground along the boule- 
vard is practically unoccupied to a point far south of the Gov- 
ernment high dam. 

The driveway proper has been completely improved through- 
out its length. All necessary bridges, culverts, and drains, 
have been put in, and the way surfaced with crushed rock with 
a crude oil dressing, and it is probably the best patronized 
automobile drive in the city. 

The lands for this improvement were acquired at different 
times, by condemnation and purchase, beginning December 16, 
1901, and the last acquisition was dated September IS, 1907. 
The total area is 130.51: acres, and in this connection it should 
be noted that not all, but a portion only, of the slopes of the 
gorge have been acquired by the city. The cost of the land 
was $33,818.91, of improvements $93,111.61 ; total, $127,233.58. 


Separated from the Mississippi River Boulevard by a stretch 
of territory to be covered by a projected parkway not yet per- 
fected, is "Wheelock Parkway, which extends from Como Park 



to Phalen Park, and which is one of the boldest and best con- 
ceived projects in our entire system. It is here characterized 
as bold, for the reason that it has been pushed through a ter- 
ritory from which no immediately local support for such a 
project could be expected, and because it could never have been 
conceived save as a part of the entire plan of encircling the city 
with a continuous parkway. With its length of 4.27 miles, its 
setting among the rolling highlands in the north portion of the 
city, and its terminal points resting on our two most important 
landscape parks, it is an entirely fit and worthy memorial to 
the founder of our park system, whose name it bears. The land 
for this parkway was acquired by condemnation under date of 
December 10, 1909. The cost of the land was $15,128.88, and 
improvements, $44,482.90; total, $59,611.78. 


Lexington Parkway is one of the best known in the city 
because of its location in a neighborhood where building im- 
provements are already becoming somewhat congested, and 
where local values are high from the superior character of the 
building improvements. This avenue, with its length of 2.48 
miles, running from Summit avenue north to McKenty street, 
close to Lake Como, and with its impressive width augmented 
by an ample building line, lends a pronounced distinction to 
the district through which it runs, and confers values on the 
surrounding properties, both artistic and commercial, which 
can hardly be overestimated. 

The land for the park was acquired by condemnation, after 
some failures and a long struggle which reached the courts. 
The cost of the land, taken under two separate improvements, 
was $102,248.02, improvements $32,717.22 ; total, $134,965.24. 


This parkway is the long avenue connecting Como Park 
with the down-town district at Rice street, having its south- 
easterly terminal at the point last named. The land necessary 
for the widening of the streets on the line of this avenue was 
acquired by condemnation, under different improvements dat- 



ing from September 14, 1899, to June 14, 1906. The cost of the 
land was $40,963.83, and of the improvements, $7,733.64 ; total, 
$48,697.47. The area of land taken is 7.37 acres. 


This boulevard is a portion of the parkway which is de- 
signed ultimately to link the ^lississippi River Boulevard with 
the park at Como. It extends from the ^lississippi river to St. 
Anthony avenue. The land taken was condemned under date 
of November 1, 1909. The cost of the land was $15,415.00 ; its 
area, 5 acres. 


These two improvements may be considered together, as 
they are separately acquired parts of one parkway, which has 
not, however, been completed up to this time. It is impossible 
to get a proper conception of this parkway without taking into 
consideration what is proposed to be done, as well as what has 
already been accomplished. The park authorities have long 
contemplated securing the crown of the Mississippi river bluff 
on the west or south side, from a point on the river near or at 
Mendota and thence eastward, taking in the entire slope and 
crown of the blutf to a point on South AYabasha street. A 
large share of this proposed parkway lies in Dakota county, 
and so is outside the immediate jurisdiction of the city. There 
exists, however, legislative authority for the acquisition of the 
necessary property for at least parkways, outside the city 
limits, which may be done as soon as there are funds available 
for the purpose, being authorized by Chapter 485 of the Laws 
of Minnesota for the year 1909. 

This great expanse of river scenery is for the most part 
still in a natural state, and it alfords an imposing view west- 
ward up the main valley of the Mississippi, and thence farther 
west up the Minnesota river. It is a combined urban and coun- 
try view, second only to that at Indian ^lounds Park. 

Cherokee Heights was the portion of the improvement first 
acquired. This tract comprises the open ground lying westerly 
from Ohio street along Cherokee avenue, and takes in a consid- 



erable portion of the bluff slope. The High Bridge is the south- 
westerly terminus of this first section of the parkway under 
consideration. This section was acquired partly by gift from 
A. T. Rosen, now a member of the Park Board, and partly by 
purchase from other private owners. The date of acquisition 
was from 1903 to 1906. The land cost $10,818.30, and the im- 
provements, $3,263.61 ; total, $14,081.91. This includes, how- 
ever, the market valuation of the portion donated by ]\Ir. Rosen. 
The area is 9.37 acres. 

The West Side Boulevard is the extension southwest, from 
Smith avenue to Baker street, of the parkway beginning as 
noted on Ohio street. This property was in form condemned, 
but was in fact the gift of James J. Hill, who furnished the 
entire amount of money necessary to acquire the property, 
$13,000. The condemnation proceedings date June 10, 1906; 
and the area taken is 9.90 acres. 

The ground takes in a considerable portion of the slope of 
the bluff and a strip of native woodland on level ground at the 
top of the bluff', which fortunate chance has spared from occu- 
pation by building improvements. The view from the top of 
the bluff near the southwestern or upstream end of this later 
addition to the West Side Parkway is a most commanding one, 
affording a vista both up and down the river, and spreading 
before the eye almost the entire business section of the city. 


This is a connective parkway, extending from Snelling ave- 
nue easterly to Hamline avenue. It was acquired by condem- 
nation under date of June 17, 1901, at a cost of $2,833.88 for 
the land, and the improvements have cost $9,155.11 ; total, 
$12,289.29. The area is 5.91 acres. 


Several years ago, under appropriate legislation, there was 
created in St. Paul a body known as the Playgrounds Commit- 
tee. This committee has in hand the work of selecting and 
looking after the development and care of small breathing 
spaces at various points in the city, which are designed prin- 
cipally as places where the children of the particular neighbor- 


hood may gather and engage in games and sports. The grounds 
acquired are under the jurisdiction of the Park Board, and are 
by law classed as parks. 

Strkets under the Care of the Park Board. 

There is a class of streets which are not properly designated 
as parkways, but which are ornamented and cared for under 
the direction of the Park Board. Most conspicuous of these is 
Summit avenue, which has the features of a parkway, and 
whicli is quite the most important connective boulevard run- 
ning east and west through the city. In its width and orna- 
mentation, it takes the character of a parkway at Lexington 
avenue. From this point it is 100 feet in width west to the 
Mississippi river, a distance of 2.63 miles. 

There are other streets which are receiving the same sort of 
care from the Park Board as Summit avenue, but they are of 
less importance and a recital of them here would scarcely serve 
any purpose of this paper. 

Parks and Parkways in Prospect. 

A history of the parks and parkways in St. Paul would be 
incomplete which does not include, at least in narrative form, 
a statement of what is designed to be done in the future. A 
comparison of what is contemplated in the finished system as 
outlined above, with what has actually been finished by the 
acquisition of the necessary lands, shows that there are still 
large gaps to be filled in, spaces to be covered by future pur- 
chases or condemnation, and many details to be worked out! 
which will tax not only the industry of the future Commis- 
sioner of Parks, Playgrounds, and Public Buildings, but will as 
well be a draft on the resources of the taxpayers. The finan- 
cial problem will for some time remain a serious one, but one 
which the people have repeatedly of late shown their willing- 
ness to face. Tlie present Park Board is carrying forward, 
with such means as it is able to command, the work laid out 
in the time of Joseph A. "Wheel ock. 

The city is fortunate in the fact that there is upon the 
board at this time a man who is able to bring to its various 



problems a matured judgment in business affairs, large expe- 
rience in executive work of the first order, and energy and 
capacity for new enterprises, which appear unabated in spite 
of the toll that the years have taken of him. This member is 
Alpheus B. Stickney. He has personally taken up, and is press- 
ing forward with a zeal which is an indispensable prerequisite 
of success, the extension of the present finished work to that 
completed system which shall- realize the hopes of the planners 
of the new system. 

Mr. Stickney has taken up at this time the special project 
of connecting the River Boulevard with Indian Mounds Park, 
by a portion of the ''Inner Circle," the main details of which 
are as follows. 

The top of the river bluff all along the Mississippi River 
Boulevard consists of a practically level plateau, which lies 
substantially in the level of Fort Snelling. Eastward of tlie 
boulevard the land rises gradually into a second terrace, the 
crest of which is a gentle eminence opposite the Soldiers' Home, 
but w^hich rises higher and higher as it passes to the south and 
east, until at a point near AVest Seventh street it consists of a 
high bluff, covered with an oak forest, and presenting a grand 
view west, south, and east, over the greater part of the river 
valley in the city limits. 

It is proposed by Mr. Stickney to run a boulevard from a 
point on the River Boulevard near the Soldiers' Home, easterly 
up to and around the brow of the highland just described, to 
the wooded bluff' on Seventh street. There it is proposed to 
expand the parkway into a landscape park, to take in the tim- 
bered area. Thence the parkway will proceed by way of Lin- 
wood Park, Summit Avenue, and the State Capitol grounds 
and Capitol Heights, next crossing the railroad tracks by a 
viaduct, and continuing by Dayton's Bluff to Indian Mounds 

Mr. Stickney has also been active in the proposition to ex- 
tend the parkway on the AYest Side from its present south- 
westerly limit to i\[endota and Fort Snelling, and to take in, 
as landscape parks, the lowlands and islands between the fort 
and Harriet Island. This proposed parkway extension in- 


eludes the acquisition of lands along the river front from near 
Fort Snelling easterly to a point within the business district 
of the city. 

There is a proposed extension of the ^\"est Side Boulevard 
easterly around the crest of the bluff along what is known as 
Prospect Terrace, and the construction of a new way along 
what will be made land in the river valley, if the harbor pro- 
ject ever comes into actual being. This new way is to connect 
with the general system at Indian Mounds. 

Another project which only awaits adequate financing is an 
extension of Phalen Park to the south, and its connection with 
Indian ]\Ioiinds Park by a parkway. This project is known as 
the Johnson Parkway, and is one which will certainly be ef- 
fected in the near future. 

It is proposed to connect Como Park at the northerly end 
with the Minneapolis system, by an appropriate way running 
west from Como to the city limits. 

Another proposed parkway leads easterly and southerly 
from ]\Iounds Park across Burlington Heights and into Wash- 
ington county. 

The foregoing enumeration is not exhaustive of the subject 
of the proposed extension of our park system, but mentions 
those portions which are necessary to develop the new system 
into a well balanced whole. 

The cost of the park system of St. Paul to the date of Jan- 
uary 1, 1912, has consisted in acquisitions of land, .$780,541.80, 
and improvements, .t8S7,50J:.lS ; in total, $1,668,045.98. Tlie 
lands acquired amount to 1,006.04 acres; and the water areas, 
mostly of Lakes Como and Phalen, comprise 331.89 acres. 

Diite of this Portrait, uboiit 1870; of nnotber in Voluinf IX, about 1900. 

The Vigilante, the Explorer, the Expounder and First 
Superintendent of the Yellowstone Park.* 

by olin d. wheeler. 

AYe are wont to flatter ourselves that we live under a re- 
publican form of government, one where the sovereignty is 
vested in the people. Every form of government, including our 
own, has, of course, its excellencies and its deficiencies. Among 
the latter, in a democracy, is the apparent and, all too fre- 
quently the real, lack of appreciation and of honor shown to 
those who have accomplished notable things and achieved dis- 
tinction in one way or another. 

AYere we living under a monarchy or an oligarchy, where 
absolute authority is centered in one or a few individuals, 
Nathaniel P. Langford and that coterie of now well known 
explorers of the Yellowstone region in 1870 would long years 
ago have been knighted or otherwise signally honored for their 
services to the nation, and indeed to the world. 

It so happens, however, that the few monuments which the 
great Republic officially erects, or the resolutions of thanks to 
individuals for meritorious actions performed which its repre- 
sentative Congress votes, have been very largely in honor of 
those alone who have distinguished themselves in warfare. 

Although ''peace hath her victories no less renowned than 
war,'' the records of her achievements are found buried, all too 
often, in simple and sometimes prosaic reports of limited cir- 
eulation,with now and then the story finding its way into our 
literature. There are few memorials, or monuments of bronze 
or marble, that commemorate the services of men like Lewis 
and Clark, Astor, Hunt, Fremont, Ashley, Bonneville, Powell, 
Carson, Bridger, and others, services rendered to the country 
in various channels, yet all of them more or less important, and 
performed in modest, simple, and unpretentious manner. 

♦Read at the monthly meeting- of the Executive Council, April 8. 1912. 


That the "Washburn-Doane exploration of 1870 into the now 
celebrated Yellowstone Park region was productive of most 
important results, nationally, in its particular line, and that 
the men composing it were deserving of far more honor than 
ever was officially or publicly accorded them, is, I believe, an 
acknowledged fact among all those most familiar with its his- 

While some of the party were government officials, the ex- 
ploration was undertaken by each civilian member of it purely 
in his private and individual capacity. A quasi-official cast was 
given to it, however, by the facts that a small escort of United 
States cavalry under command of Lieut. Gustavus C. Doane 
was provided by the government, upon request, and that Lieu- 
tenant Doane made an official report of the exploration to the 
War Department. This report, together with Mr. Langford's 
published diary, constitute descriptive literature of the explor- 
ation and region that has never since been surpassed, and in- 
deed has been seldom, perhaps never, equalled. 

Fate is a stern and inexorable mistress. She doeth whatso- 
ever she will, and we may but rarely modify or change her de- 
crees. Call it what one pleases, fate, destiny, or Providence, 
little did any one imagine that on that 16th day of June, 1862, 
when the Fisk Overland Expedition left St. Paul for the Sal- 
mon river mines in the heart of the Rockies, with Nathaniel P. 
Langford as one of its officers and members, a trail was being 
followed by him that led ultimately to a new and great de- 
parture in national conservation and general recreation. 

"We were then in the midst of our great Civil War, and the 
heavy westward emigration that followed that period of strife 
was yet to come. The western frontier, now almost an irides- 
cent dream, was, even if an imaginary and intangible line, yet 
a very real one, and it then lay, virtually, along the valley of 
the Missouri river. 

What a wonderful, changeable thing that old frontier was ! 
Like the ever shifting sands of its own deserts or the tremulous 
and deceitful mirage of its vast plains, it too was ever shifting, 
ever moving. And after the Civil War, when the hegira from 
the east began, how rapidly it changed position and marked the 



gradual extinction of barbarism, the steady advance of civiliza- 
tion, as westward the course of empire takes its way." 

And now it has utterly and forever vanished. The waste 
places are filled, the deserts are replaced by grain and alfalfa 
fields and orchards ; irrigation is an evangel of progress and 
prosperity; the Indians and buffalo in their untamed wildness 
have disappeared; the story of the ''Pony Express" reads like 
fiction ; and the Daniel Boones and Kit Carsons, the Jim Bridg- 
ers and Bozemans, the Joe Meeks and Charlie Reynoldses have 
gone, — because there is no longer a place for them. 

In the elimination of that old frontier and the transforma- 
tion which has been effected, our late friend. Councilor, and 
President, although he knew it not, was cast by Fate, or by 
Providence, to bear a most noteworthy and honorable part. I 
can almost imagine that as he toiled over the long weary miles 
across the sweeping plains and through the mountains on that 
slow, winding trek in '62, the prairie flowers and grasses nodded 
and whispered to themselves in great excitement and the tall 
pines made dignified discourse as he passed, anent the great 
discovery by which he with others was in a few short years to 
startle the country and the world. 

It was late in the fall when, after traveling 1,600 miles in 
eighteen weeks, he reached Grasshopper creek, the Willard's 
creek of Lewis and Clark, and established himself there for the 
winter as comfortably as was possible, 400 miles from a post 
oflfice or settlement. They named the place Bannack, not Ban- 
nock, after the Bannack tribe of Indians. Placer gold had been 
discovered there, gold seekers flocked in, and the town became 
the first capital of Montana, when the latter was organized as a 
territory in 1864. Several million dollars were added to the 
channels of western commerce from the Bannack placers in a 
few short years, and modern dredges are still wresting sub- 
stantial values from the old time workings. 

Mr. Langford here bore his share of hardships and severe 
labor during a very trying winter. And onward, for a series 
of about fourteen years, as an eminent citizen of ]\rontana and 
much of the time a government ofricial, he bore a conspicuous 
part in the shaping of the destinies of the new and youthful 


commonwealth ordained by nature to become, possibly, the 
greatest in the sisterhood of Northwestern states. 

While it is as a great explorer and the successful expounder 
of a new idea in national policy that Mr. Langford is best 
known publicly, he bore an equally important and meritorious 
part in another matter of vital consequence to the peace, wel- 
fare, and credit of the new territory. I refer, of course, to the 
Vigilante method of law administration and enforcement. 

It is difficult for an outsider to realize the cosmopolitan 
character of that early-day population. Along with honest, 
well meaning, hard-working men, intent upon making a good 
livelihood and perchance a fortune, there came, perhaps liter- 
ally, from the ends of the earth, many of a distinctly opposite 
character. Adventurers of all sorts, thieves, thugs, fugitives 
from justice, outlaws, human riffraff from all over the AVest, 
poured into Bannack, Alder Gulch, and the other ^lontana min- 
ing camps, as rapidly as they were established, intent upon 
luxuriously rioting in sin and violence where courts and con- 
stabulary were lacking. ^lany of these road agents, as they 
were called, secretly banded together and had their spies, places 
of rendezvous, etc., scattered throughout the region. It finally 
became a serious question whether any man suspected of hav- 
ing gold dust, money, or valuables of any kind, could possibly 
journey safely from one place to another, be the distance long 
or short; and to incur the ill will of one of these men, from 
whatever cause, meant death. It is known that 102 persons 
were killed by these bandits, and there were undoubtedly many 

To thwart the power of the road agents, the Vigilantes were 
finally compelled to organize secretly. As all law with us comes 
from the people, so it did here. It was a last and serious effort, 
a forlorn hope, to enforce actually the spirit and letter of the 
law, where the usual legal adjuncts were lacking. It was really 
the essence of law, devoid of its technical forms and processes. 

A quotation from a biographical sketch of Hon. Hezekiah L. 
Hosmer, the first Chief Justice of the Territory of Montana, 
published in Volume III of the ^Montana Historical Society Con- 
tributions, is pertinent at this point : 

The attraction had brought those who came to work, and those 



who came to profit by the labor of others. Had the convicts liberated 
on the approach of Napoleon, on the condition that they burn Moscow, 
been thrown en masse into the new settlements east of the mountains, 
it could not have been worse than it was with the crowd that entered 
and undertook to control Bannack and Virginia City in the years 1862 
and 1863. 

Self liberty and self preservation made men who regarded laws as 
necessary attendants upon happiness, heroes in those troublous times. 
And with a community nearly equally divided between law abiding 
men and roughs, determination finally brought the desperado to the 
gallows and made life at least worth the living. 

By the Vigilantes, order was restored, and all, from the highway- 
man to the petty pilferer from the sluice boxes or miners' cabins, knew 
by the spring of 1864 that if they valued their lives, honesty was not 
only a virtue, but a necessity. In this way the effect of a well studied 
criminal law was reached in the early winter of 1864. 

The men subjected to the judgments of the Vigilantes were 
promptly but impartially tried, as they were previously by the 
miners' courts, without, however, the trifling and petty delays 
of the law so often now as even then experienced, and the de- 
crees were promptly executed. 

Judge Hosmer readied Virginia City in the fall of 1864. He 
was from northern Ohio, a lawyer and journalist of ability and 
reputation. Literature was his pastime and delight, and he 
was a man who seems to have been well equipped in every way 
for the time, place, and peculiar exigencies of the situation. I 
quote again from the biography referred to : 

Upon the opening of the court a Grand Jury was impanelled, to 
which Judge Hosmer gave a charge prepared upon the then existing 
state of society. He, among other matters, reviewed the history of the 
two preceding years, the establishment of order by the aid of the 
Vigilance Committee, approved its action as a necessity, but counseled, 
as the courts were established, that summary proceedings should give 
way to the law. The charge was met with approval by the bar, and 
by request it was published. 

As soon as lawful officials and courts thus made their ap- 
pearance, in 1864, and the regular legal machinery was set in 
motion, the Vigihantes voluntarily ceased to exist, and this fact 
is the best argument for the righteousness of tlie movement. 

The principal centers at which the organization was active 
were Bannack and Virginia City, although there- were branch 
organizations at Last Chance and Confederate gulches. Under 


the domination of the Vigilantes the desperadoes were hung or 
banished, crime was actually and swiftly punished, life and 
property were rendered safe, and society was rescued from a 
state of anarchy. Some of the best citizens of the territory 
were Vigilantes. Among them were Col. AYilbur F. Sanders, a 
leader among leaders and afterward United States Senator from 
Montana; Samuel T. Hauser, subsequently Governor of Mont- 
ana; Judge Walter B. Dance; N. P. Langford, and others of 
equal prominence and standing. Deeds of bravery, equally if 
not more daring than those seen on the battlefield, were per- 
formed by some of these men. Both the moral and physical 
courage that were displayed by Beachy, Sanders, Howie, Feath- 
erstone, X. Beidler, and others, are enrolled upon the scroll of 
history and will never be forgotten by the old Montana pioneers 
or their successors. The State would honor itself as well as 
them by sometime erecting a suitable monument to these men. 

Mr. Langford himself, happily, in the Introduction to his 
''Vigilante Days and Ways," a most valuable chronicle of the 
time of which it treats, has presented a statement of facts and 
of arguments justifying the Vigilante methods, that is impar- 
tial, honest, cogent, forceful, and convincing to an open and 
discriminating mind. Honor and praise, instead of adverse 
criticism, are due those men, and no apologies are necessary for 
what they did and dared. I quote from the Introduction al- 
luded to : 

The truth of the adage that "Crime carries with it its own punish- 
ment" has never received a more powerful vindication than at the 
tribunals erected by the people of the North-West mines for their own 
protection. No sadder commentary could have stained our civilization 
than to permit the numerous and bloody crimes committed in the early 
history of this portion of our country to go unwhipped of justice. And 
the fact that they were promptly and thoroughly dealt with stands 
among the earliest and noblest characteristics of a people which de- 
rived their ideas of right and of self-protection from that spirit of the 
law that flows spontaneously from our free institutions. The people 
bore with crime until punishment became a duty and neglect a crime. 
Then, at infinite hazard of failure, they entered upon the work of pur- 
gation with a strong hand, and in the briefest possible time established 
the supremacy of law. The robbers and murderers of the mining re- 
gions, so long defiant of the claims of peace and safety, were made to 
hold the gibbet in greater terror there than in any other portion of 
our country. 

Nathan*! EL pitt LANGFORt:>. 


Up to this time, fear of punishment had exercised no restraining 
influence on the conduct of men who had organized murder and rob- 
bery into a steady pursuit. They hesitated at no atrocity necessary to 
accomplish their guilty designs. Murder with them was resorted to 
as the most available means of concealing robbery, and the two crimes 
were generally coincident. The country, filled with canyons, gulches, 
and mountain passes, was especially adapted to their purposes, and 
the unpeopled distances between mining camps afforded ample oppor- 
tunity for carrying them into execution. Pack trains and companies, 
stage coaches and express messengers, were as much exposed as the 
solitary traveller, and often selected as objects of attack. Miners, who 
had spent months of hard labor in the placers in the accumulation of a 
few hundreds of dollars, were never heard of after they left the mines 
to return to their distant homes. Men were daily and nightly robbed 
and murdered in the camps. There was no limit to this system of 
organized brigandage. 

When not engaged in robbery, this criminal population followed 
other disreputable pursuits. Gambling and licentiousness were the 
most conspicuous features of every mining camp, and both were but 
other species of robbery. Worthless women taken from the stews of 
cities plied their vocation in open day, and their bagnios were the lures 
where many men were entrapped for robbery and slaughter. Dance- 
houses sprung up as if by enchantment, and every one who sought an 
evening's recreation in them was in some way relieved of the money 
he took there. Many good men who dared to give expression to the 
feelings of horror and disgust which these exhibitions inspired, were 
shot down by some member of the gang on the first opportunity. For 
a long time these acts were unnoticed, for the reason that the friends 
of law and order supposed the power of evil to be in the ascendant. 
Encouraged by this impunity the ruflian power increased in audacity, 
and gave utterance to threats against all that portion of the community 
which did not belong to its organization. An issue involving the de- 
struction of the good or bad element actually existed at the time that 
the people entered upon the work of punishment. 

I offer these remarks, not in vindication of all the acts of the 
vigilantes, but of so many of them as were necessary to establish the 
safety and protection of the people. The reader will find among the 
later acts of some of the individuals claiming to have exercised the 
authority of the viligantes some executions of which he cannot ap- 
prove. For these persons I can offer no apology. Many of these were 
worse men than those they executed. Some were hasty and inconsid- 
erate, and while firm in the belief they were doing right, actually com- 
mitted grievous offences. Unhappily for the vigilantes, the acts of 
these men have been recalled to justify an opinion abroad, prejudicial 
to the vigilante organization. Nothing could be more unjust. The 
early vigilantes were the best and most intelligent men in the mining 
regions. They saw and felt that, in the absence of all law, they must 


become a "law unto themselves," or submit to the bloody code of the 
banditti by which they were surrounded, and which was increasing in 
numbers more rapidly than themselves. Every man among them real- 
ized from the first the great delicacy and care necessary in the man- 
agement of a society which assumed the right to condemn to death a 
fellowman. And they now refer to the history of all those men who 
suffered death by their decree as affording ample justification for the 
severity of their acts. What else could they do? How else were their 
own lives and property, and the lives and property of the great body 
of peaceable miners in the placers to be preserved? What other pro- 
tection was there for a country entirely destitute of law? 

Let those who would condemn these men try to realize how they 
would act under similar circumstances, and they will soon find every- 
thing to approve and nothing to condemn in the transactions of the 
early vigilantes 

. . . And when the vigilantes of Montana entered upon their 
work, they did not know how soon they might have to encounter a 
force numerically greater than their own. 

In my view the moral of this history is a good one. The brave and 
faithful conduct of the vigilantes furnishes an example of American 
character, from a point of view entirely new. We know what our 
countrymen were capable of doing when exposed to Indian massacre. 
We have read history after history recording the sufferings of early 
pioneers in the East, South, and West, but what they would do when 
surrounded by robbers and assassins, who were in all civil aspects like 
themselves, it has remained for the first settlers of the North Western 
mines to tell. And that they did their work well, and showed in every 
act a love for law, order, and for the moral and social virtues in which 
they had been educated, and a regard for our free institutions, no one 
can doubt who rightly appreciates the motives which actuated them. 

. . . The terror which popular justice inspired in the criminal 
population has never been forgotten. To this day crime has been less 
frequent in occurrence in Montana than in any other of the new ter- 
ritories, and no banded criminals have made that territory an abiding 

The outline of conditions here presented, and the character 
of the men enrolled among the Vigilantes, afford ample excuse 
and justification for the existence of the organzation. That 
these men exhibited a high order of moral courage and bravery, 
and performed a distinct and valuable service to the com- 
munity, I never heard any one in ^Montana, familiar with those 
trying days, question. Doctrinaires and theorists, safely en- 
sconced in habitations far from the scenes of action, may object 
to the course pursued and cavil at the reasoning tliat justified 
it. But to the straightforward, practical man, whose common 



sense gives him to see the situation in true perspective and as it 
actually existed, the means adopted to restore law and order 
to their high and lofty pedestal among a sore stricken people, 
and to enforce respect for, and obedience to, their edicts, will 
appeal to him as entirely righteous and proper. It was indeed 
a condition, and a grievous one, not a theory, that confronted 
those heroic souls; and it was met in the only possible and ef- 
fective way, by stern, unrelenting, yet impartial, action. Sooth- 
ing syrup methods of coercion were worse than useless. All 
honor to Sanders, Langford, Howie, and their associates, for 
the example set those who came after them. 

"While a resident of ^Montana, Mr. Langford served the gov- 
ernment in several official positions, notably those of Collector 
of Internal Revenue and National Bank Examiner. In pursu- 
ance of his official and other duties, he traveled over a great 
part of the Northwest, and made the acquaintance of many in- 
dividuals in all walks of life, and of all varieties of character 
common to western life of that period. 

Among those whom he thus came to know and with whom 
he had business relations, was one noted in the annals of the 
West. I refer to James, or, as he was commonly known, ''Jim" 
Bridger, the trapper and mountaineer, a guide of national rep- 
utation. Bridger was a unique product of a unique time, a dia- 
mond in the rough. Uncouth, illiterate to the extent of being 
unable even to write his name, he w^as, notwithstanding, one of 
the most remarkable men of our western history, within cer- 
tain limits. A man of great endurance, he had explored wide 
areas, was the discoverer of Great Salt Lake, w^as familiar witli 
what is now Yellowstone Park, and had served the government 
time and again as guide and hunter. He was a natural (a born) 
topographer and explorer of most exceptional ability, and had 
an imagination that, crude as he was, would do credit to a 
^lunchauseu. This he used upon occasion with telling effect 
and to the discomfiture of many an unwary individual. 

Through Bridger and his marvelous tales and also from 
other sources, Mr. Langford with others became interested in 
the geyers, hot springs, and the beautiful lakes that were said 
to exist on the head waters of the Yellowstone river. For sev- 
eral successive years he and his friends planned to explore the 


region, but the danger from Indians each time forced the aban- 
donment of the enterprise. 

In 1869 one of the party, Hon. David E. Folsom, refused to 
be longer frightened from their purpose. With two compan- 
ions, C. W. Cook and William Peterson, the latter employed on 
Folsom 's ranch, he that year visited the region and returned in 
safety. So fearful was he that his tale would be disbelieved, 
that he was extremely reticent and diffident in telling about 
what he found there. He did, however, write an account of 
their experience that was published in the Western Monthly of 
Chicago ; and to his intimate friends, including Mr. Langford, 
he imparted a full knowledge of that marvelous locality. This 
but whetted the appetites of the others and determined them at 
all hazards to attempt the long deferred exploration of the re- 

The party proper, as finally organized at Helena, consisted 
of nine civilians, with two white packers and two colored cooks 
as assistants. The principals in this resultful and historic ex- 
pedition deserve more than passing notice, and I add here Mr. 
Langford 's characterization of them: 

I question if there was ever a body of men organized for an ex- 
ploring expedition, more intelligent or more keenly alive to the risks 
to be encountered. 

Gen. Henry D. Washburn was the surveyor general of Montana 
and had been brevetted a major general for services in the Civil War, 
and had served two terms in the Congress of the United States. Judge 
Cornelius Hedges was a distinguished and highly esteemed member of" 
the Montana bar. Samuel T. Hauser was a civil engineer, and was 
president of the First National Bank of Helena. He was afterwards 
appointed governor of Montana by Grover Cleveland. Warren C. Gil- 
lette and Benjamin Stickney were pioneer merchants in Montana. 
Walter Trumbull was assistant assessor of internal revenue, and a son 
of United States Senator Lyman Trumbull of Illinois. Truman C. 
Everts was assessor of internal revenue for Montana, and Nathaniel P. 
Langford had been for nearly five years the United States collector of 
internal revenue for Montana, and had been appointed governor of 
Montana by Andrew Johnson, but, owing to the imbroglio of the Senate 
with Johnson, his appointment was not confirmed. 

At the very last moment, James Stuart, one of the prime 
movers in the exploration, v\'as drawn for jury service in the 
federal court and prevented from going. Stuart was a man of 



unusual force and decision of character, a splendid mountaineer 
and explorer, versed in all the trickery of the Indian, and he 
had been counted upon as the leader of the party. His failure 
to go with them was a distinct loss and a keen disappointment 
to all. 

General Washburn was chosen as leader and the party left 
Helena on August 17, 1870. 

At Fort Ellis, near Bozeman, through a previous arrange- 
ment made by AYashburn and Langford with General Hancock 
in command of the military department, a small cavalry escort 
of one sergeant and four privates was procured. This escort 
was, as previously stated, under command of Lieut. G. C. Doane, 
a man of supreme attainments for his task. Because of that fact 
and the ability and fidelity with which he performed his mis- 
sion, his name has become so indelibly linked with the expedi- 
tion that it is now very generally known as the AVashburn- 
Doane Party or Expedition, 

When the party finally broke clear from civilization and 
boldly launched forth into an almost unknown wilderness, it 
consisted, in its entirety, of nineteen persons. Of this large 
number four alone kept journals of what was destined to be- 
come a historic exploration. These were General Washburn, 
Lieutenant Doane, Judge Hedges, and Mr. Langford. 

The diary of General Washburn was very concise, dealing 
but meagerly with the details of the trip. That of Lieutenant 
Doane was very full and complete and was published by the 
government. It deservedly ranks as a classic in descriptive lit- 
erature, and will endure as long as the park itself does. Judge 
Hedges' journal was much longer and more detailed than was 
that of AVashburn, but it was not as exhaustive as that of Doane. 
It was written for the private use of Judge Hedges alone, and 
not with the least expectation of its publication; but it was, 
fortunately, finally printed in 1904 in Volume V of ''Contribu- 
tions to the Historical Society of Alontana." The diary of ^Iv. 
Langford was by far the most complete record history of the 
exploration, from every point of view, and like Doane 's report 
it was a masterpiece of descriptive narrative. It was published 
by 'Mr. Langford in the year 1905, in a book of 122 pages, witli 
many portraits and other illustrations, and with an introduc- 




tion of 32 pages. This book, entitled ''Diary of the Washburn 
Expedition to the Yellowstone and Firehole Rivers in the Year 
1870," should form a part of the library of every man who has 
any interest in the physical grandeur of his country. 

If to any single member of the party could be accorded the 
name of diarist or historian of the exploration, the honor would 
unquestionably fall to our late friend and associate. The three 
journals of Langford, Doane, and Hedges, form an imperish- 
able trinity of descriptive literature and history of the explor- 
ation and establishment of the first National Park by the gen- 
eral government. 

Of the ten principal members of the party, seven are now 
dead, tliose now surviving being Ex-Governor Hauser, Mr. Gil- 
lette, and ^Ir. Stickney. General ^Yashburn was the first, and 
Mr. Langford the last one to pass away. Mr. Hauser and 'Mr. 
Gillette still reside in ^lontana ; Mr. Stickney is living in 

I have conversed innumerable times w^ith ^Mr. Langford, and 
I also interviewed Judge Hedges several times, regarding this 
exploration. These conversations forcibly impressed me with 
the modesty and fairness of both these men regarding the part 
each member of the party played in the conduct of the expedi- 
tion. There was not the slightest attempt at self laudation on 
the one hand, nor of dispraise of any other member on the other 
hand. I long since came to the conclusion that in its personnel 
this exploring party was highly favored by Providence. The 
individuals composing it were congenial, high minded gentle- 
men, who worked together harmoniously and without one seri- 
ous, violent outbreak or altercation, so far as I have ever ascer- 
tained, although at times all were sorely tried. Lender the cir- 
cumstances, as I know from similar personal experience, this is 
a most creditable record, which, I think, may fairly be called 

After leaving Bozeman and Fort Ellis, the trail traveled led 
the party across the Belt range of mountains, about ten or 
twelve miles south of where Captain Clark, of the Lewis and 
Clark expedition, crossed them in 1806. The pass that Clark 
used is the one by which the Northern Pacific railway now 
crosses the range, known as Bozeman pass, in honor of John ^l. 



Bozeman, an early Montana pioneer and a contemporary of 
Bridger. After crossing the divide, the trail followed do^^^l 
Trail creek into the valley of the Yellowstone. They continued 
up the west side of the beautiful valley of that stream to where 
Gardiner, the official entrance to the park, now is situated at 
the mouth of Gardiner river, where they made one of their 
camps. Thence they followed an Indian trail parallel to the 
Yellowstone river to the Grand Canyon and, Yellowstone lake. 
Before reaching the lake, they crossed to the east side of the 
Yellowstone at the ford near Mud Volcano, the same ford which 
Chief Joseph used when escaping from General Howard in 1878. 
They circled the east and south sides of Yellowstone lake, and 
then struck across the continental divide to tlie Firehole branch 
of the Madison river, which they followed through the Upper 
and Lower Geyser Basins back to the Montana settlements. The 
Madison river trail is also the one by which Chief Joseph and 
General Howard entered the confines of the park during their 
memorable retreat and pursuit. 

That the fears of the party regarding the danger from rov- 
ing bands of Indians were not unfounded, was proved at tlie 
very outset of the journey. Immediately upon descending into 
the valley of the Yellowstone, Crow Indians were discovered in 
considerable number. The lodge-pole trail of the Crows was 
followed for several days, and their smoke signals were seen on 
the hills. Great vigilance was, naturally, exercised both day 
and night, but no actual encounter occurred. The size of the 
party undoubtedly proved its safety. At Tower Fall the In- 
dians crossed to the east side of the Yellowstone river, and 
although guards continued to be stationed at night no more 
Indians were seen. 

Upon leaving Helena the expedition had laid in a supply of 
provisions for thirty days. It was thirty-eight days after leav-- 
ing that city before Mr. Langford, the first one of the party to 
re-enter it, again saw it. "While still detained around Yellov*-- 
stone lake, their staple provisions, sugar, coffee, flour, etc., ran 
perilously low, and they were put upon short rations. Before 
reaching the geyser basins, they were able to provide them- 
selves quite plentifully with venison, grouse, and antelope. 
Trout were abundant at all times, so much so that while en- 



camped at the lake, as a measure of precaution they caught and 
dried several hundred pounds to supplement their impoverished 

In a company where practically all were equals, were men 
of enduring qualities, and who bore themselves in true, manly 
fashion, invidious distinctions are not easily possible nor de- 
sirable. It may be said, hoAvever, that a reading of the .jour- 
nals will show that Mr. Langford was easily one of the leading 
figures in the exploration. Strong, physically and mentally, 
capable of advising wisely and enduring great labor and hard- 
ship, naturally industrious and not given to shirking his share 
of responsibility, of a temper that could withstand severe 
strains upon its equanimity, he was admirably fitted for lead- 
ership in an enterprise such as this. AVhile General AVashburn 
was the titular leader and as such filled the position in a man- 
ner beyond criticism, there was a rare and beautiful goodfel- 
lowship existing and several others, including particularly ^Ir. 
Langford, virtually shared the honors of leadership with Gen- 
eral Washburn. 

It must be remembered that this region was, in all serious- 
ness, a terra incognita to every one of these explorers, and they 
were following a very blind wilderness trail. The objective 
point of the expedition was Yellowstone lake, a large body of 
water known to be at a very high altitude somewhere among 
the labyrinths of the mountains. Upon arriving at what is now 
Tower Fall, nothing had been seen of such a body of water 
from any of the elevations ascended, and some of the party 
were becoming much concerned as to their own whereabouts. 
While encamped at the fall, General Washburn one day as- 
cended a high, sloping mountain to the south, and from its 
wind-swept, rounded summit, to which a finely engineered car- 
riage road now winds, he descried the beautiful lake, the ob- 
ject of their quest, reposing in its mountain basin "twenty 
miles away." This was a most cheering discovery, and, despite 
a recently formed resokition not to affix the name of any mem- 
ber of the party to any object of interest discovered, so re- 
joiced were they all at the tidings of General AYashburn, that 
the peak was spontaneously and unanimously named Mt. AVash- 
burn, and as such it is known today. 

Nathaniel pitt langford. 


General ATasliburn (and also others of the party in fact) 
was more or less broken by the hardships suffered on this trip, 
and he died on January 26, 1871, following the return of the 
explorers to civilization. As showing the beautiful harmony 
that prevailed in the party and the esteem in which General 
"Washburn was held by them, I quote from a memorial address 
by Mr. Hedges in Helena on January 29, 1871 : 

On the west bank of the Yellowstone .... a mighty senti- 
nel, overlooking that region of wonders, rises in its serene and solitary 
grandeur, — Mount Washburn, — pointing the way his enfranchised spirit 
was soon to soar. He was the first to climb its bare, bald summit, and 
thence reported to us the welcome news that he saw the beautiful lake 
that had been the proposed object of our journey. By unanimous 
voice, unsolicited by him, we gave the mountain a name that through 
coming years shall bear onward the memory of our gallant, generous 
leader. How little we then thought that he would be the first to live 
only in memory. 

At the Grand Canyon the explorers camped on Cascade 
creek near Crystal fall, both so aptly named by Mr. Hedges. 
They were most profoundly impressed, as thousands have been 
since, by the majesty, beauty, and grandeur of their surround- 

As indicating the impressions made upon ^Ir. Langford, in- 
dividually, and to show the dignity, power, and literary style 
of his narrative, I give two or three excerpts from his journal 
descriptive of the Grand Canyon and the falls. Under date of 
August 31, he wrote : 

This has been a "red-letter" day with me, and one which I shall 
not soon forget, for my mind is clogged and my memory confused by 
what I have today seen. General Washburn and Mr. Hedges are sit- 
ting near me, writing, and we have an understanding that we will 
compare our notes when finished. We are all overwhelmed with as- 
tonishment and wonder at what we have seen, and we feel that we 
have been near the very presence of the Almighty, General Vv^ashburn 
has just quoted from the psalm: 

"When I behold the work of Thy hands, what is man that Thou art 
mindful of him?" 

My own mind is so confused that I hardly know where to com- 
mence in making a clear record of what is at this moment floating past 
my mental vision, I cannot confine myself to a bare description of the 
falls of the Yellowstone alone, for these two great cataracts are but 
one feature in a scene composed of so many of the elements of grand- 


eur and sublimity, that I almost despair of giving to those who on our 
return home will listen to a recital of cur adventures, the faintest con- 
ception of it. The immense canyon or gorge of rocks through wnich 
the river descends, perhaps more than the falls, is calculated to fill 
the observer with feelings of mingled awe and terror. . . . • The 
stillness is horrible, and the solemn grandeur of the scene surpasses 
conception. You feel the absence of sound — the oppression of abso- 
lute silence. Down, down, down, you see the river attenuated to a 
thread. If you could only hear that gurgling river, lashing with puny 
strength the massive walls that imprison it and hold it in their dismal 
shadow, if you could but see a living thing in the depth beneath you, 
if a bird would but fly past you, if the wind would move any object in 
that awful chasm, to break for a moment the solemn silence which 
reigns there, it would relieve that tension of the nerves which the 
scene has excited, and with a grateful heart you would thank God that 
he had permitted you to gaze unharmed upon this majestic display of 
his handiwork. But as it is, the spirit of man sympathizes with the 
deep gloom of the scene, and the brain reels as you gaze into this pro- 
found and solemn solitude. 

. . . . As I took in this scene, I realized my own littleness, my 
helplessness, my dread exposure to destruction, my inability to cope 
with or even comprehend the mighty architecture of nature. More 
than all this I felt as never before my entire dependence upon that 
Almighty Power who had wrought these wonders. 

Of the two glorious cataracts at the head of the canyon he 
wrote, in part : 

The two grand falls of the Yellowstone form a fitting completion 
to this stupendous climax of wonders. They impart life, power, light 
and majesty to an assemblage of elements, which without them would 
be the most gloomy and horrible solitude in nature. Their eternal 
anthem, echoing from canyon, mountain, rock and woodland, thrills 
you with delight, and you gaze with rapture at the iris-crowned cur- 
tains of fleecy foam as they plunge into gulfs enveloped in mist and 
spray. The stillness which held your senses spell-bound, as you peered 
into the dismal depths of the canyon below, is now broken by the up- 
roar of waters; the terror it inspired is superseded by admiration and 
astonishment, and the scene, late so painful from its silence and gloom, 
is now animate with joy and revelry. 

The first camp at Yellowstone lake was on the north shore 
about two miles east of the outlet. Here we find ^Ir. Langford 
successfully assuming a new role, one tliat exhibited not only 
his versatility, but proved liis value in emergencies. During 
the entire exploration tluis far, Lieutenant Doane had suffered 
agonies from an obstinate felon. Ilis sufferings had become so 

Nathaniel pitt langford. 


acute and even excruciating that relief must, in some way, be 
afforded, and we will let Dr. Langford tell the story of what 
followed : 

Last evening Lieutenant Doane's sufferings were so intense that 
General Washburn and I insisted that he submit to an operation, and 
have the felon opened, and he consented provided I would administer 
chloroform. Preparations were accordingly made after supper. A box 
containng army cartridges was improvised as an operating table, and 
I engaged Mr, Bean, one of our packers, and Mr. Hedges as assistant 
surgeons. Hedges was to take his position at Doane's elbow, and was 
to watch my motion as I thrust in the knife blade, and hold the elbow 
and fore-arm firmly to prevent any involuntary drawing back of the 
arm by Lieutenant Doane, at the critical moment. "^Tien Doane was 
told that we were ready, he asked, "Where is the chloroform?" I 
replied that I had never administered it, and that after thinking the 
matter over I was afraid to assume the responsibility of giving it. He 
swallowed his disappointment, and turned his thumb over on the car- 
tridge box, with the nail down. Hedges and Bean were on hand to 
steady the arm, and before one could say "Jack Robinson," I had in- 
serted the point of my penknife, thrusting it down to the bone, and 
had ripped it out to the end of the thumb. Doane gave one shriek as 
the released corruption flew out in all directions upon surgeon and as- 
sistants, and then with a broad smile on his face he exclaimed, "That 
was elegant!" We then applied a poultice of bread and water, which 
we renewed a half hour later, and Doane at about eight o'clock last 
night dropped off into a seemingly peaceful sleep, which has been con- 
tinuous up to the time of this writing, two o'clock p. m. 

Lieutenant Doane had been nine days and nights without 
sleep, and he now slept continuously for thirty-six hours. 

"While encamped on the eastern shore of the lake, Lieuten- 
ant Doane and Mr. Langford climbed, with great exertion and 
difficulty, a high mountain close at hand and bordering the 
lake, in order to gain some idea of the country and to lay out 
a route for the future. They were four hours in reaching the 
summit, and while there Mr. Langford made a rough but very 
correct outline map of the lake. This was the first map ever 
drawn that gave anything like a correct representation of the 
peculiar shape and shore line of this body of water. It Avas 
used by General AVashburn, as Surveyor General, as the copy, 
or model, for a map for the Interior Department at Washing- 
ton, in whose archives, presumably, it still reposes. 


As an appropriate recognition of the services of Mr. Lang- 
ford and Lieutenant Doane in making this laborious ascent and 
the map, General AVasliburn, with the hearty concurrence of 
his associates, named, the peak they climbed, Mt. Langford, and 
the mountain just north of it, Mt. Doane. The one they as- 
cended was, ^Ir. Langford states, "the most westerly peak" of 
the range, and it commanded a very extensive view. Doane 
pronounced it "the highest peak of the east range," that is, of 
the range on the eastern side of the lake. 

In 1871 Dr. F. V. Playden and his government survey vis- 
ited the region, impelled thereto by the AVashburn-Doane ex- 
ploration of 1870, and his parties explored and mapped it. 
With an apparent total disregard for the facts, as stated, that 
seems utterly unjustifia])le, he ignored the name Mt. Langford 
as applied to this peak, and gave it to a mountain far removed 
from this locality. Later, for some reason, apparently at least 
publicly unknown, but possibly hy Ilayden, the name was again 
changed to a peak near the original Mt. Langford. to which 
mountain Hayden, presumably, gave the name Stevenson, after 
James Stevenson, a member of his own party, who may or may 
not have climbed it. The propriety and significance of apply- 
ing the name Langford to the peak that Doane and Langford 
ascended, and from which they sketched the first map of the 
locality that, rough as it was, bore any semblance to accuracy, 
calls for no argument. As the matter now stands, the name 
carries little or no significance. Apparently, Dr. Hayden in- 
excusably ignored tiie prior and just rights of a previous 
brother explorer, endeavoring later, possibly, to make amends 
for it by bringing the name back to that locality. 

I suggest that, as these three peaks, Stevenson, Langford, 
and Doane, as now namod, are very near together, it would not 
be difficult even now wholly to rectify this injustice and prop- 
erly and sensibly to readjust tliese names. A determined effort 
by the ^linnesota Historical Society, in conjunction with the 
Montana Historical vSociety and perliaps other appropriate or- 
ganizations, could probably accomplish this object. And what 
a graceful and appropriate action and tribute it would be if 
these societies, to which Mr. Langford was so closely related, 
could accomplish this result ! 



While, one day, the expedition was making its way with 
greatest difficulty through the tangled mass of brush and fallen 
timber that encumbered the route, Mr. Langford's keen sense 
of the ludicrous saved a rather serious situation and changed 
the entire aspect of affairs. 

Those of us who have endeavored to work a pack train 
through almost impassable obstacles of this sort, know how it 
tries men's souls. On this particular occasion patience as well 
as physical strength had become exhausted, the tempers of all 
were strained to the breaking point, and an ugly spirit pre- 
dominated. At the opportune time, or as I ought now to say, 
I suppose, the psychological moment, ^Ir. Langford, in a highly 
affected and mock heroic style, recited these beautiful lines 
from Byron, found in Childe Harold's Pilgrimage: 

"There is a pleasure in the pathless woods; 
There is a rapture on the lonely shore; 
There is society, where none intrudes, 
By the deep sea, and music in its roar: 
I love not man the less, but Nature more." 

The effect of this pompous style of declamation, amid such 
doleful and lugubrious surroundings, was instantaneous and 
may easily be imagined. All burst into unrestrained laughter, 
the tension was quickly relaxed, the atmosphere was cleared, 
and anger and sullenness gave way to good feeling and con- 

All mountaineers and explorers know well that there is 
nothing in the world that so tries a man's patience and de- 
velops, on the one hand, the mean, selfish, ignoble attributes, 
or, on the other hand, the noble and unselfish qualities in a 
man, — in a word, nothing that so quickly and unfailingly brings 
to the surface the real nature of an individual — as do the trials 
and difficulties inseparable from just such a journey as the one 
in which the AVashburn-Doane party were engaged. Their 
progress around Yellowstone lake was peculiarly aggravating 
and nerve-trying. An excerpt from ^Ir. Langford's diary at 
this time not only emphasizes this fact, but reveals most ad- 
mirably the sterling character, the rugged honesty, the sound 
pliilosophy, the innate sweetness and nobility of spirit of the 
nian himself. He records: 


I growled at Hauser and scolded him a little in camp tonight be- 
cause of some exasperating action of his. I here record the fact with- 
out going into details. I think that I must try to be more patient. But 
I am feeling somewhat the fatigue of our journey. However, there is 
something to be said on the other hand, and that is that there is no 
one of the party better able to bear its labors and anxieties than I, and 
therefore I should be the last man to lose my patience. 

I know of nothing that can try one's patience more than a trip of 
any considerable length by wagon train or pack train through an un- 
inhabited region, and the most amiable of our race cannot pass this 
ordeal entirely unscathed. Persons who are not blessed with uncom- 
mon equanimity never get through such a journey without frequent 
explosions of temper, and seldom without violence. Even education, 
gentle training and the sharpest of mental discipline, do not always so 
effectually subdue the passions that they may not be aroused into un- 
wonted fury during a long journey through a country filled with ob- 
structions. Philosophy has never found a fitter subject for its exercise 
than that afforded by the journey we are now making, which obliges 
the members of our party to strive to relieve each other's burdens. 

In order that an erroneous impression of Governor Hauser 
may not be conveyed by this quotation, I submit one more writ- 
ten at about the same time, referring to an intensely practical 
joke played on him by ]\Ir. Langford and Judge Hedges during 
a night on which they stood guard. 

Mr. Hauser had expected to have a dainty breakfast, 

but he is himself too fond of a practical joke to express any disap- 
pointment, and no one in the party is more unconcerned at the out- 
come than he. He is a philosopher, and, as I know from eight years' 
association with him, does not worry over the evils which he can 
remedy, nor those which he cannot remedy. There can be found no 
better man than he for such a trip as we are making. 

Another excerpt will convey a vivid impression of what 
those of us who have enjoyed the luxury of travel with pack 
trains, have experienced on trails grievously obstructed by 
down timber. This experience was also among the mountains 
bordering Yellowstone lake. 

We broke camp this morning with the pack train at 10 o'clock, 
traveling in a westerly course for about two miles, when we gradually 
veered around to a nearly easterly direction, through fallen timber 
almost impassable in the estimation of pilgrims, and indeed pretty 
severe on our pack horses, for there was no trail, and, while our sad- 
dle horses with their riders could manage to force their way through 


between the trees, the packs on the pack animals would frequently 
strike the trees, holding the animals fast or compelling them to seek 
some other passage. Frequently, we were obliged to re-arrange the 
packs and narrow them, so as to admit of their passage between the 
standing trees. At one point the pack animals became separated, and 
with the riding animals of a portion of the party were confronted with 
a prostrate trunk of a huge tree, about four feet in diameter, around 
which it was impossible to pass because of the obstructions of fallen 
timber. Yet- pass it we must; and the animals, one after another, 
were brought up to the log, their breasts touching it, w^hen Williamson 
and I, the two strongest men of the party, on either side of an animal, 
stooped down, and, placing each a shoulder back of a fore leg of a 
horse, rose to an erect position, while others of the party placed his 
fore feet over the log, which he was thus enabled to scale. In this 
way we lifted fifteen or twenty of our animals over the log. 

Friday, September 9, 1870, was a day and date seared upon 
the minds and memories of every member of the expedition. It 
was the same day on which occurred the ''horse lifting" inci- 
dent just recorded. 

After a day of soul-trying and exhausting experiences in the 
fallen timber lodged on the hillsides, they camped that after- 
noon on the western, the Pacific, slope of the Continental Di- 
vide. The tremendous obstacles to their progress may be 
judged from the fact that their camp, on a small affluent stream 
of the Snake river, was but three miles from their last camp, 
and the circuitous distance traveled was but six miles. 

These words, from 'Mr. Langford's journal, '']\Ir. Everts has 
not yet come into camp, and we fear that he is lost," prefigure 
an experience in that gentleman's life that contained all the 
elements of an awful tragedy. That, at the last moment, it was 
saved from becoming a complete and lamentable tragedy, is it 
too much to say, was owing to the ever watchful and loving 
care of a Divine Providence that so often guides our footsteps? 
Some may question this, many will firmly believe it to be the 
only possible solution. 

Mr. Everts was, indeed, lost! In the absence of any real, 
defined trail in the tangled timber, he with the others was con- 
tinually winding hither and thither seeking a route that would 
lead tiiem onward. In some manner while thus engaged he be- 
came confused and separated from his comrades, and his ab- 
sence was not noted until camp was made. 


Mr. Everts was not seen again for thirty-seven days, when 
he was found by two mountaineers on the summit of a moun- 
tain in tlie neighborhood of Yancey's, west of that point and 
north of ]\It. Washburn. These mountain men were sent in 
search of Everts by the Wasliburn-Doane explorers after their 
return to civilization. Everts, when found, was entirely ex- 
hausted and partially deranged through starvation, exposure, 
and suffering. On the very first day of his absence, his horse, 
left standing and unfastened, with all the man's arms and camp 
equipments attached, became frightened and ran away and was 
never afterward seen. Everts was near-sighted, had not even 
a knife for use or defense, and only a field-glass to assist him in 
escaping. He at first managed to reach Heart lake, one of the 
sources of Snake river. Here he remained for twelve days, 
sleeping close by the hot springs to keep from freezing. His 
food was thistle roots, boiled in the springs. One night he was 
forced into a tree by a mountain lion and kept there all night. 
Finally he bethought himself of the lenses of his field-glasses, 
and thus was enabled to kindle fires. He wandered all along 
the western side of the lake and down the Yellowstone river to 
where he was providentially found. He gave the story of his 
terrible experience in the old Scribner's ^lagazine, since be- 
come the Century ^lagazine, and a thrilling tale it makes. 

In a country filled with a network of streams, abundantly 
supplied with animal life for food, gorged with timber for fuel, 
the man nearly froze, and starved, and almost perished from 
thirst. Twice he was five days without food, and once three 
days without water. It was late in the season, and the storms 
swept down on him and chilled him to the bone ; the snows kept 
him prisoner in camp, or when on his painful marches blocked 
his progress. He became weaker and weaker. For several 
days toward the end of his wanderings, a large mountain lion 
followed his trail to feast on him when he should at last drop 
exhausted. AVhen it finally seemed as if hope must be given 
up, and life also, he was providentially found, and was care- 
fully nursed back to health. His escape borders on the mirac- 
ulous. The large plateau, known as ]\It. Everts, just east of 
Mammoth Hot Springs, was named for Everts on the mistaken 
assumption that he was found on its summit. 



The journal for September 11 relates a not infrequent but 
always startling experience : 

We were roused this morning about 2 o'clock by the shrill howl 
of a mountain lion, and again while we were at breakfast we heard 
another yell. As we stood around our camp-fire tonight, our ears were 
saluted with a shriek so terribly human, that for a moment we be- 
lieved it to be a call from Mr. Everts, and we hallooed in response, 
and several of our party started in the direction whence the sounds 
came, and would have instituted a search for our comrade but for an 
admonitory growl of a mountain lion. 

One who has ever heard the peculiar, childlike cry of one 
of these beasts, will never forget it, nor the terrifying effect it 
instinctively produces. Fortunately for those who in these 
days now and then break away from the established routes of 
travel in the park and penetrate the remoter and untravelcd 
wilds by horseback and pack train, there are few of these ani- 
mals now found there. The government has strenuously hunted 
them down to prevent their preying on the elk, antelopes, and 
deer, which are steadily increasing. 

From September 11 to 16 the party remained at their camp 
on the southwest arm of the lake. The utmost anxiety pre- 
vailed regarding i\Ir. Everts. By twos, following the old script- 
ural injunction, they went forth day by day in all directions, 
searching for the unfortunate wanderer, but not the slightest 
trace of him or his horse was ever found by them. 

The solicitude regarding Everts, and one reason for it, are 
thus voiced : 

I had a good nap this afternoon and I feel greatly 

refreshed. My first thought on awakening was ^ for poor Everts. I 
wonder where he can be throughout all this fierce storm and deep 
snow? Perhaps the snow did not reach him, for I noticed tonight that 
the ground was quite bare on the opposite side of this arm of the lake, 

while the snow is eight or ten inches deep here at our camp 

Each night that we have been camped here we have heard the shrill 
cries of the mountain lions, and under a momentary illusion I have each 
time been half convinced that it was a human being in distress. Be- 
cause of the mountain lions we are keeping close watch upon our 
horses. They are very fond of horse flesh, and oftentimes will follow a 
horseman a long distance, more to make a meal upon the flesh of the 
horse than for the purpose of attacking the rider, 


One, at least, of these explorers was not so beset by the 
manifold cares and anxieties, the labors and fatigues that en- 
compassed them, as not to foresee in his mind's eye with re- 
markably clear and unclouded vision, the real purport and ulti- 
mate importance of the exploration to which they had so un- 
reservedly given themselves. This is evidenced by this excerpt 
from the diary of September 14, written at their next to the 
last camp on the lake, the one from which they conducted the 
search for Everts. It also draws a picture of soTae features of 
their camp life that is interesting. 

We have remained in camp all day, as it is next to impossible to 
move. The snow is nearly two feet deep, and is very wet and heavy, 
and our horses are pawing in it for forage. Our large army tent is 
doing us good service, and, as there is an abundance of dry wood close 
by our camp, we are extremely comfortable. I am the only one of the 
party who has a pair of water-proof boots, and I was up and out of the 
tent this morning before daylight cutting into cordwood a pine log, 
and before noon I had more than a half cord at the tent door. Wash- 
burn and Hauser offered to do some of this work if I would loan them 
my water-proof boots; but, as they are of a full size for me, and would 
probably drop off of their feet, I told them that I would get the wood. 

Lieutenant Doane today requested me to loan him this diary from 
which to write up his records, as the condition of his thumb has inter- 
fered with his use of a pen or pencil. I have accordingly loaned it to 
him, and Private Moore has been busy the greater part of the day 
copying portions of it. 

For myself, I am very glad to have a day of rest, for I have felt 
much wearied for several days. I think that I am certainly within 
bounds when I say that I have put in sixteen hours a day of pretty 
hard work, attending to camp duties, and writing each day till late at 
night, and I realize that this journal of travel is becoming ponderous. 
Yet there is daily crowded upon my vision so much of novelty and 
wonder, which should be brought to the notice of the world, and which, 
so far as my individual effort is concerned, will be lost to it if I do not 
record the incidents of each day's travel, that I am determined to 
make my journal as full as possible, and to purposely omit no details- 
It is a lifetime opportunity for publishing to all who may be interested, 
a complete record of the discoveries of an expedition which in coming 
time will rank among the first and most important of American ex- 

That IMr. Langford was able at this time to pen the pre- 
ceding statement concerning the importance of the exploration 
and its discoveries, exhibited a prescience and an accuracy in 



judging results, that are very surprising. It must be borne in 
mind that the party did not at any time see or know of Mam- 
moth Hot Springs and its beautiful terraces, the Golden Gate, 
the canyon and fall of the ^liddle Gardiner river, Obsidian 
Cliff, Norris Geyser Basin, Gibbon fall and canyon, and other 
remarkable objects, which now so delight thousands annually. 
Neither had they at this time seen a single geyser, that par- 
ticular class of phenomena that renders the region so unique 
and distinguishes it, more than any other, from other wonder 
spots of the globe. Nevertheless the instinct was unerring and 
the prognostication a true one. 

The last camp in the Yellowstone Lake region was made at 
the AYest Arm or Thumb, as it is also termed, where the lunch 
station on the lake is now located. It was on open ground, and 
the relief at emerging from the gloom and intricacies of the for- 
est was inexpressible. Mr. Langford, from the depths of that 
tenacious memory that we all knew so well, recited to Hauser 
and YTashburn the following lines from ''The Task,'' by Cow- 
per, as ''at once expressive of our experience in the journey 
around the lake and of our present relief." 

"As one who long in thickets and in brakes 
Entangled, winds now this way and now that, 
His devious course uncertain, seeking home; 
Or having long in miry ways been foiled 
And sore discomfited, from slough to slough 
Plunging, and half despairing of escape; 
If chance at length he finds a greensward smooth 
And faithful to the foot, his spirits rise. 
He chirrups brisk his ear-erecting steed. 
And winds his way with pleasure and with ease." 

On September 17 they resumed their forward journey. So 
keen w^as their continued anxiety regarding Everts, however, 
that Mr. Gillette with two of the private soldiers was left be- 
hind the main party, and, w^ith ten days' rations, these resumed 
the search for that unfortunate man. They were to return 
home by whatsoever route they chose. 

Striking out again into the unknown with Mr. Ilauser, a 
civil engineer of much experience, as topographer in chief, 
the main body crossed the Continental Divide, which at this 
point doubles back upon itself, twice, as the tourist of today 



does, camping that night on a small tributary creek of the 
Firehole river, and once more on the Atlantic slope. It was a 
camp of very tired men, who for the most part were greatly 
depressed. Upon crossing the Continental Divide the first 
time, they saw a large lake lying to the south. This occasioned 
a great deal of discussion, not alone as to what body of water 
it could be, but as to their whereabouts. AVith the exception 
of Hauser and Langford, all seemed sure that the lake was the 
source of the Firehole river. These two insisted that it was 
the source of the Snake river, and that the Firehole yet lay 
ahead of them, beyond the second crossing of the Divide, in 
which conjecture they were correct. 

The lake was Shoshone lake, and from Shoshone Point the 
tourists of today catch a glimpse of it and overlook, beneath 
them, the heavily timbered low country across which the AYash- 
burn party struggled forward to the final crossing of the Con- 
tinental Divide. 

And here let me digress for a brief moment. One of the 
conspicuous sights from Shoshone Point is the long distance 
view obtained, some fifty miles to the south, of the Three Te- 
tons, or the Pilot Knobs, the name by which they were formerly 
known. These peaks are stern, rugged, and old-time land- 
marks. The principal and highest one, the Grand Teton, was 
first ascended to its extreme height, in 1872, by Nathaniel P. 
Langford and James Stevenson, the latter being of the Hayden 

Scribner's ^lagazine for June, 1873, published an account 
of this ascent, written by Mr. Langford. Not until 1898 was 
the summit of this peak again reached. 

On September 18, the anxieties of the explorers as to their 
location were quickly set at rest, for within three miles after 
breaking camp they reached the Firehole river not far above 
Kepler cascade, and soon thereafter found themselves in the 
wonderful Upper Geyser Basin, the very heart of geyser land. 

To say that they were delighted, astonished, mystified, 
awed, by what they saw here and in going to and through the 
Midway and Lower Geyser Basins, a distance of about twelve 
miles, is merely to state what all know could not have been 
otherwise. Mr. Langford 's journal at this point exhibits an 

Nathaniel pitt LaNgford. 


almost boyish exuberance and enthusiasm at the magnitude 
and strange nature of the phenomena discovered by them. One 
excerpt will suffice : 

Near by is situated the "Giantess," the largest of all the geysers 
we saw in eruption. Ascending a gentle slope for a distance of sixty 
yards we came to a sink or well of an irregular oval shape, fifteen by 
twenty feet across, into which we could see to the depth of fifty feet 
or more, but could discover no water, though we could distinctly hear 
it gurgling and boiling at a fearful rate afar down this vertical cavern. 
Suddenly it commenced spluttering and rising with incredible rapidity, 
causing a general stampede among our company, who all moved around 
to the windward side of the geyser. When the water had risen within 
about twenty-five feet of the surface, it became stationary, and we re- 
turned to look down upon the foaming water, which occasionally 
emitted hot jets nearly to the mouth of the orifice. As if tired of this 
sport the water began to ascend at the rate of five feet in a second, 
and when near the top it was expelled with terrific momentum in a 
column the full size of the immense aperture to a height of sixty feet. 
The column remained at this height for the space of about a minute, 
when from the apex of this vast aqueous mass five lesser jets or round 
columns of water varying in size from six to fifteen inches in diameter 
shot up into the atmosphere to the amazing height of two hundred and 
fifty feet. This was without exception the most magnificent phenomenon 
I ever beheld. We were standing on the side of the geyser exposed to 
the sun, whose sparkling rays filled the ponderous column with what 
appeared to be the clippings of a thousand rainbows. These prismatic 
illusions disappeared, only to be succeeded by myriads of others which 
continually fluttered and sparkled through the spray during the twenty 
minutes the eruption lasted. These lesser jets, thrown so much higher 
than the main column and shooting through it, doubtless proceed from 
auxiliary pipes leading into the principal orifice near the bottom, 
where the explosive force is greater. The minute globules into which 
the spent column was diffused when falling sparkled like a shower of 
diamonds, and around every shadow produced by the column of steam 
hiding the sun was the halo so often represented in paintings as en- 
circling the head of the Savior. We unhesitatingly agreed that this 
was the greatest wonder of our trip. 

The party were more than fortunate in what tliey here saw. 
The mysterious, mystical spirits of the geyser world, seemingly 
forewarned in some secret manner, appear to have made spe- 
cial efforts to arrange an elaborate program of welcome and 
exhibition for them. In a stay of but twenty-two hours they 
saw twelve geysers in action, six of them among the very finest 
in the basin, including Old Faithful, Bee Hive, the Giant, and 



Castle. If any party ever deserved such a miiltuin in parvo 
reception and display, it was this one. 

On the night of September 19, the explorers camped at the 
junction of the Firehole and Gibbon rivers. The bivouac at 
that spot has made it historic, for there the idea of establish- 
ing a National Park bloomed and blossomed forth in full flower 
and became a practical one. General H. M. Chittenden, re- 
tired, when Engineer in Charge of road construction, etc., in 
the park, very properly placed a large tablet at this point to 
commemorate that truth. To a high hill or salient at this point 
has also been given the name National Park Mountain. 

The facts in regard to the origin of this idea and its final 
realization in the establishment of Yellowstone Park are not 
only of interest but of value historically. The story forms an 
important part of the one I am endeavoring to relate, for no 
man loomed more prominently in it than N. P. Langford. As 
one of its original promoters let Mr. Langford be also, at least 
in part, its historian. In his journal for September 20, he wrote : 

Last night, and also this morning in camp, the entire party had a 
rather unusual discussion. The proposition was made by some mem- 
ber that we utilize the result of our exploration by taking up quarter 
sections of land at the most prominent points of interest, and a gen- 
eral discussion followed. One member of our party suggested that if 
there could be secured by pre-emption a good title to two or three 
quarter sections of land opposite the Lower Fall of the Yellowstone 
and extending down the river along the canyon, they would eventually 
become a source of great profit to the owners. Another member of 
the party thought that it would be more desirable to take up a quarter 
section of land at the Upper Geyser Basin, for the reason that that 
locality could be more easily reached by tourists and pleasure seekers. 
A third suggestion was that each member of the party pre-empt a 
claim, and in order that no one should have an advantage over the 
other, the whole should be thrown into a common pool for the benefit 
of the entire party. [Here Mr. Langford and the others appear to have 
formulated the original idea of a "trust" or "holding company," so 
popular in these latter days.] 

Mr. Hedges then said he did not approve of any of these plans — 
that there ought to be no private ownership of any portion of that 
region, but that the whole of it ought to be set apart as a great Na- 
tional Park, and that each one of us ought to make an effort to have 
this accomplished. His suggestion met with an instantaneous and fa- 
vorable response from all — except one — of the members of our party, 
and each hour since the matter was first broached, our enthusiasm has 

Nathaniel pitt langford. 


Increased. It has been the main theme of our conversation today as 
we journeyed. I lay awake half of last night thinking about it; — and 
if my wakefulness deprived my bed-fellow (Hedges) of any sleep, he 
has only himself and his disturbing National Park proposition to an- 
swer for it. 

Our purpose to create a park can only be accomplished by untiring 
work and concerted action in a warfare against the incredulity and 
unbelief of our National legislators when our proposal shall be pre- 
sented for their approval. Nevertheless, I believe we can win the 

I do not know of any portion of our country where a national park 
can be established, furnishing to visitors more wonderful attractions 
than here. These wonders are so different from anything we have 
ever seen — they are so various, so extensive — that the feeling in my 
mind from the moment they began to appear until we left them has 
been one of intense surprise and of incredulity. Every day spent in 
surveying them has revealed to me some new beauty, and now that I 
have left them, I begin to feel a skepticism which clothes them in a 
memory clouded by doubt. 

Again, in furtlicr elucidation of what transpired, he wrote : 

The question is frequently asked, "Who originated the plan of set- 
ting apart this region as a National Park?" I answer that Judge Cor- 
nelius Hedges of Helena wrote the first articles ever published by the 
press, urging the dedication of this region as a park. The Helena 
Herald of Nov. 9, 1S70, contains a letter of Mr. Hedges, in which he 
advocated the scheme, and in my lectures delivered in Washington 
and New York in January, 1871, I directed attention to Mr. Hedges' 
suggestion, and urged the passage by Congress of an act setting apart 
that region as a public park. All this was several months prior to the 
first exploration by the U. S, Geological Survey, in charge of Dr. Hay- 
den. The suggestion that the region should be made into a National 
Park was first broached to the members of our party on September 19, 
1S70, by Mr. Hedges, while we were in camp at the confluence of the 
Firehole and Gibbon rivers, as is related in this diary. After the re- 
turn home of our party, I was informed by General Washburn that on 
the eve of the departure of our expedition from Helena, David E. Fol- 
som had suggested to him the desirability of creating a park at the 
grand canyon and falls of the Yellowstone. This fact was unknown to 
Mr. Hedges, — and the boundary lines of the proposed park were ex- 
tended by him so as to be commensurate with the wider range of our 

General Washburn's statement shows beyond question that 
the man who first gave expression to the idea in any tangible, 
practical form, was David E. Folsom, already mentioned as hav- 


ing visited the region in 1869. Judge Hedges knew nothing of 
this at the time he advanced the suggestion and it was, of 
course, also original with him, and his proposition embodied a 
conception much broader than that of Mr. Folsom. 

Fortunate it was that the members of the party so promptly, 
unselfishly, and warmly accepted the suggestion of Mr. Hedges 
and at once planned to give it practical effect. 

In November, 1870, Mr. Langford went east to lecture upon 
the marvelous discoveries of the Washburn party. On the even- 
ing of January 19, 1871, he delivered his lecture in AVashing- 
ton, D. C, and on the evening of January 21 at Cooper Insti- 
tute, New York City. At his Washington lecture Speaker 
James G. Blaine presided, and Dr. F. V. Hayden was one of the 
audience. In each of these lectures Langford advocated the 
setting aside of the region as a national park. 

In the Encyclopedia Britannica, under the heading Yel- 
lowstone National Park,'' Mr. Henry Gannett, the well known 
geographer, states that the discoveries made by the Washburn 
party ''induced Dr. F. Y. Hayden, then in charge of a Govern- 
ment survey, to turn his explorations in this [i. e. the Yellow- 
stone region] direction." 

Dr. Hayden did, in 1871, as already stated, and again in 
1872, thoroughly explore and map the park country. Mr. Gan- 
nett was one of his topographers in this work. 

In 1872 the act establishing the park was passed. This act 
was included in Hayden 's report of his expedition of 1871 
printed in 1872, but neither in this nor in the report of the suc- 
ceeding year does there seem to be any intimation regarding 
who first suggested this idea. For the year 1878, Dr. Hayden 
made another and more elaborate report, prefaced by a letter 
to the Secretary of the Interior, written in 1883, in which are 
found these words: "So far as is now known, the idea of set- 
ting apart a large tract about the sources of the Yellowstone 
River as a national park, originated with the writer." 

I do not believe that Dr. Hayden willfully intended to make 
a misstatement in this connection, but I do believe that a faulty 
memory caused him to misstate the actual fact. Dr. Lyman B. 
Sperry, the well known public lecturer and educator, informed 
me years ago, that Dr. Hayden told him that during the field 



season of 1871, when the idea of making a park of the Yellow- 
stone region was advocated among his own men, following of 
course Langford's suggestion in his lectures, he did not believe 
it practicable nor wise. 

General H. ^1. Chittenden, in his fine and very conscientious 
work, "The Yellowstone National Park," published in 1895, 
treats this matter thus : 

The bill, being thus before Congress, was put through mainly by 
the efforts of three men, Dr. F, V, Hayden, N. P. Langford, and Dele- 
gate William H. Clagett. Dr. Hayden occupied a commanding position 
in this work, as representative of the government in the explorations 
of 1871. He was thoroughly familiar with the subject, and was equipped 
with an exhaustive collection of photographs and specimens gathered 
the previous summer. These were placed on exhibition, and were 
probably seen by all members of Congress. They did a work which no 
other agency could do, and doubtless convinced every one who saw 
them that the region where such wonders existed should be carefully 
preserved to the people forever. Dr. Hayden gave to the cause the 
energy of a genuine enthusiasm, and his work that winter will always 
hold a prominent place in the history of the Park. 

Mr. Langford, as already stated, had publicly advocated the meas- 
ure in the previous winter. He had rendered service of the utmost 
importance, through his publications in Scribner's Magazine in the 
preceding May and. June. Four hundred copies of these magazines 
were brought and placed upon the desks of members of Congress on 
the days when the measure was to be brought to vote. During the 
entire winter, Mr. Langford devoted much of his time to the promo- 
tion of this work. 

The Hon. William H. Clagett, as delegate from the Territory most 
directly interested in the passage of the bill, took an active personal 
part in its advocacy from beginning to end. 

I have the greatest admiration and esteem for General Chit- 
tenden as a personal friend, a man, and a historian. But I can- 
not but feel that he has, with the best motives and intentions in 
the world, scarcely awarded the honors in this affair in an 
equitable manner. He has given to Hayden, who did not, orig- 
inally, have any faith in the idea, entirely too much credit, and 
to Langford and Clagett altogether too little. Langford was 
the John the Baptist of the National Park idea, crying aloud 
both in the wilderness and out of it, in advocacy of the Park, 
before Hayden ever saw the region. As previously stated, the 
lirst suggestion of it that came to Hayden was from Langford 's 



own lips from the lecture platform. Langford and Clagett. as 
wall appear later, had the movement for segregation well under 
way before Hayden became connected with it, or, possibly, even 
knew of it. 

In the report of the Secretary of the Interior for 1910, 
Volume I, page 54, are found these words: 

John Muir is authority for the statement that Professor Hayden, 
above all others, is entitled to the credit of securing the dedication of 
the Yellowstone as a national park, for he led the first scientific ex- 
ploring party into it, described it, and urged upon Congress its pres- 

It is a matter for regret that John i\Iuir ever expressed such 
an opinion. Mr. Muir may, possibly, base his belief upon what 
General Chittenden has said, and further, perhaps, upon what 
the U. S. Geological Survey has stated, for the latter also seems 
disposed to uphold Hayden as the one all important factor in 
the establishment of the Park. 

'We have in the archives of our own Historical Society a 
letter which gives the facts in regard to this matter. 

On July 9, 1894, Ex-Governor AYilliam R. Marshall, then 
Secretary of the Society, wrote to William H. Clagett, the for- 
' mer Territorial Delegate in Congress from Montana, asking 
him: *'^Yho are entitled to the principal credit for the pas- 
sage of the act of Congress establishing the Yellowstone Na- 
tional Park?" 

Mr. Clagett, who introduced the bill in Congress, should 
certainly have known wlio the men were and in what degree 
each was entitled to credit, and he replied as follows : 

Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, July 14th, 1894. 

Wm. R. Marshall, 

Secretary, Minnesota Historical Society, Saint Paul, Minn., 
Dear Sir: Your favor of July 9th is just received. I am glad that 
you have called my attention to the question, "Who are entitled to the 
principal ciedit for the passage of the act of Congress establishing the 
Yellowstone National Park?" The history of that measure, as far as 
known to me, is as follows, to-wit: In the fall of 1870, soon after the 
return of the Washburn-Langford party, two printers at Deer Lodge 
City, Montana, went into the Firehole basin and cut a large number 
of poles, intended to come back the next summer and fence in the tract 
of land containing the principal geysers, and hold possession for spec- 
ulative purposes, as the Hutchins family so long held the Yosemite 



valley. One of these men was named Harry Norton. He subsequently 
wrote a book on the park. The other one was named Brown. He now 
lives in Spokane, Wash., and both of them in the summer of 1871 
worked in the New Northwest office at Deer Lodge. When I learned 
from them in the late fall of 1870 or spring of 1871 what they intended 
to do, I remonstrated with them and stated that from the description 
given by them and by members of Mr. Langford's party, the whole 
region should be made into a National Park and no private proprietor- 
ship be allowed. 

I was elected Delegate to Congress from Montana in August, 1871, 
and after the election, Nathaniel P. Langford, Cornelius Hedges and 
myself had a consultation in Helena, and agreed that every effort 
should be made to establish the Park as soon as possible, and before 
any person had got a serious foothold — Mr. McCartney, at the Mam- 
moth Hot Springs, being the only one who at that time had any im- 
provements made. In December, 1871, Mr. Langford came to Wash- 
ington and remained there for some time, and we two counseled to- 
gether about the Park project. I drew the bill to establish the Park, 
and never knew Professor Hayden in connection with that bill, except 
that I requested Mr. Langford to get from him a description of the 
boundaries of the proposed Park. There was some delay in getting 
the description, and my recollection is that Langford brought me the 
description after consultation with Professor Hayden. I then filled 
the blank in the bill with the description, and the bill passed both 
Houses of Congress just as it was drawn and without any change or 
amendment whatsoever. 

After the bill was drawn, Langford stated to me that Senator 
Pomeroy of Kansas was very anxious to have the honor of introducing 
the bill in the Senate; and as he (Pomeroy) was the chairman of the 
Senate committee on Public Lands, in order to facilitate its passage, I 
had a clean copy made of the bill and on the first call day in the 
House, introduced the original there, and then went over to the Senate 
Chamber and handed the copy to Senator Pomeroy, who immediately 
introduced it in the Senate. The bill passed the Senate first and came 
to the House, and passed the House without amendment, at a time 
when I happened to be at the other end of the Capitol, and hence I 
was not present when it actually passed the House. 

Since the passage of this bill there have been so many men who 
have claimed the exclusive credit for its passage, that I have lived for 
twenty years, suffering from a chronic feeling of disgust whenever the 
subject was mentioned. So far as my personal knowledge goes, the 
first idea of making it a public park occurred to myself; but from in- 
formation received from Langford and others, it has always been my 
opinion that Hedges, Langford, and myself formed the same idea about 
the same time, and we all three acted together in Montana, and after- 
wards Langford and I acted with Professor Hayden in Washington, in 
the winter of 1871-2. 


The fact is that the matter was well under way before Professor 
Hayden was ever heard of in connection with that measure. When he 
returned to Washington in 1871, he brought with him a large number 
of specimens from different parts of the Park, which were on exhibi- 
tion in one of the rooms of the Capitol or in the Smithsonian Institute 
(one or the other), while Congress was in session, and he rendered 
valuable services in exhibiting these specimens and explaining the 
geological and other features of the proposed Park, and between him, 
Langford and myself, I believe there was not a single member of Con- 
gress in either House who was not fully posted by one or the other of 
us in personal interviews; so much so, that the bill practically passed 
both Houses without objection. 

It has always been a pleasure to me to give to Professor Hayden 
and to Senator Pomeroy, and Mr. Dawes of Mass., all of the credit 
which they deserve in connection with the passage of that measure, 
but the truth of the matter is that the origin of the movement which 
created the Park was with Hedges, Langford and myself; and after 
Congress met, Langford and I probably did two-thirds, if not three- 
fourths, of all the work connected with its passage. 

I think that the foregoing letter contains a full statement of what 
you wish, and I hope that you will be able to correct, at least to some 
extent, the misconceptions which the selfish vanity of some people has 
occasioned on the subject. Very truly yours, 

[signed] Wm. H. Clagett. 

Mr. Langford published this letter in his journal and added 
a pregnant paragraph thus : 

It is true that Professor Hayden joined with Mr. Clagett and my- 
self in working for the passage of the act of dedication, but no person 
can divide with Cornelius Hedges and David E. Folsom the honor of 
originating the idea of creating the Yellowstone Park. 

Mr. Langford was not the man to withhold credit where it 
was due. On the contrary, he was far more inclined to give 
full measure and running over. By no possibility can what he 
says be construed in any other light than that Clagett presents 
the facts exactly as they were and states the truth regarding 
the matter. If these two did not know the truth no one did, 
and Clagett 's letter evinces no small, mean spirit in the matter, 
but quite the contrary. Dr. ILiyden is certainly entitled to full 
credit for his work in the establishment of the Park, no less and 
no more; and this applies equally to all who were engaged in 
that work. 

The simple truth is that to Folsom and Hedges, as Mr. Lang- 
ford says, is due the genesis of the gospel for the creation of 



national parks; that the Washburn-Doane party are entitled, 
for the greater part, to the credit of preaching and expounding 
that gospel ; that Langford, Clagett, and Hedges, were its in- 
sistent heralds and promoters ; and that Langford, Clagett, and 
Hayden, probably in the order named, were the men to whom 
is primarily due the credit for the passage through Congress of 
the act establishing the Park. In other words, to the AVash- 
burn-Doane party is chiefly due the fact that we have a Yel- 
lowstone National Park. 

That Dr. Hayden 's official position, his photographs and 
specimens, were potent factors in the final argument, is, with- 
out doubt, most true, and no one desires to deprive him of the 
credit thus justly due him. But he was, nevertheless, an elev- 
enth hour convert to tlie idea, and in his labors in behalf of it, 
and must take position accordingly. 

It is certainly to be regretted that these men of science and 
official position have unwittingly taken a stand that, to the out- 
sider, savors of a determination to arrogate practically all the 
credit for this achievement to one only who was himself so 
prominent in science and official life. 

■ While, as previously stated, there may be no memorial mon- 
uments standing in honor of this band of wilderness explorers, 
the great Park itself is the best and most enduring memorial 
of the service they rendered to mankind. 

Until the last trump shall sound and the earth be dissolved 
by fervent heat, that wonderful domain, the most unique area 
of its size in the world, will remain a tangible and glorious 
memorial to the prevision and abnegation that made it possible. 
Let us also be just and frankly include in the category of de- 
serving names that of David E. Folsom, as one equally entitled 
to the plaudits of mankind for the discovery and establishment 
of this magnificent Park. A memorial tablet attached to that 
lava entrance arch at Gardiner, in the absence of a more pre- 
tentious monument in this Park, would be an appropriate rec- 
ognition in part of these discoverers. 

The discoveries and the influence of the Washburn-Doanc 
party are strongh^ and, I may add, very sensibly, reflected in 
the nomenclature of the Park. The names that they applied to 
objects were based upon analogy and common sense, and were 


devoid of eccentricity or the grotesque, A few of these names 
that are so familiar to travelers of the present day are, Tower 
fall, Mt. Washburn, heretofore noted, Crystal fall, Crater hills. 
Mud geyser and ]\Iud Volcano, Alum creek, ^lounts Doane and 
Langford, and Old Faithful, the Grotto, Castle, Giant, Bee Hive, 
Giantess, and other geysers. 

I have stated that when Mr. Langford in 1862 started west- 
ward, he followed a trail that eventually developed a new fea- 
ture in national conservation and in recreation. That trail led 
him, as we have seen, to the upper Yellowstone region, and 
Yellowstone National Park was the result. That was the first 
national park to be estal)lished in this country, and we set the 
fashion for the world. I am reminded of that well known line 
of my boyhood days as true today as it ever was, 
*' Great oaks from little acorns grow\" 

Yellowstone Park w^as set aside ]\rarch 1, 1872. There are 
now, according to the report of the Secretary of the Interior 
for 1910, thirteen national parks, aggregating more than 4,600.- 
000 acres in area. The states of Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, 
Montana, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Dakota, and 
Washington, have each one such park wholly within their bor- 

California has three national parks; and one park, the Yel- 
lowstone, occupies a part of three adjoining states, Wyoming, 
Idaho, and Montana, with by far the most of it lying in Wyo- 
ming. The Yellowstone is the largest of all these parks, and 
they range in size from 780 acres for Sully's Hill Park, in North 
Dakota, to 2,142,720 acres for Yellowstone Park. 

Montana has the credit of having the first and the largest 
national park established, the Yellowstone, partially within its 
borders, and also has the last and the second largest one set 
aside, Glacier National Park, wholly within its boundary lines. 

It may with entire truth be said that, through the person- 
ality of Mr. Langford and his relationship to Yellowstone Park, 
the four states of Wyoming, Idaho, ^lontana, and IMinnesota, 
have a close bond of sympathy and union. Certainly the three 
states first named, in wliich tlie park lies, can well admit hav- 
ing a strong and sentimental feeling, of the higher sort, for the 
sister state that loaned to them for so many years one of its 



citizens who aided so signally in accomplishing such important 
results for humanity. 

Upon the formal establishment of the park, Mr. Langford 
was, very appropriately, made its first Superintendent. He 
thus continued for five years, but the position was largely one 
in name only and quite a thankless one at that. No efforts were 
made by Congress, characteristically, to open the park, no ap- 
propriation whatever being made to build trails or roads, or to 
preserve the park from devastation. Characteristically, again, 
these presumptive representatives of the wisdom of the nation 
allowed the Superintendent to pay his own expenses most pa- 
triotically and unselfishly, and to perform his duties, such as 
they were, without any salary. This Mr. Langford did during 
his entire incumbency of the office. Efforts were strenuously 
and continuously made by sinister minded persons to obtain 
concessions in the park for purposes inimical to the spirit in 
which it was set apart. These attempts Mr. Langford, with the 
consistent and unyielding support of Gen. B. R. Cowen, the 
Assistant Secretary of the Interior, was enabled to frustrate. 

The park was thus fortunately preserved, in the beginning, 
from an improper course of administration, one that would most 
certainly have resulted in gross scandal and national disgrace. 

And what of the probity and moral stamina of the man who 
in that day could maintain himself for five years in such a posi- 
tion unspotted and incorruptible? The Minnesota Historical 
Society may well be proud of the fact that the one time vigi- 
lante, explorer, and National Park Superintendent, at the time 
of his call from earthly labors had been for seven years its 
dignified and honored president. 

As I began so I close ! Fate is a stern and inexorable mis- 
tress. She doeth whatsoever she will, and we may but rarely 
modify or change her decrees. If in his sturdy, vigorous man- 
hood she led our former friend and associate by strenuous and 
danger-lurking trails, she vouchsafed to him in the evening of 
his days a beautiful, even tempered, but still useful life. 

As he slowly approached the summit — his final climb — of 
that last divide, tlie one between time and eternity, that sooner 
or later we must all climb, he went forward calm, serene, con- 


fident, with steady, unflinching steps. ''Sustained and soothed 
by an unfaltering trust" in Ilim who had led him safely thus 
far, I can fancy him softly exclaiming as he toiled onward, "I 
have fought a good fight, 1 have finished my course, I have kept 
the faith." 

And as he reached the crest of that last divide and his spirit, 
loosed from its earthly tabernacle, swept with its spirit sight 
that vast and "mysterious realm" that opened before it, what 
a vision it beheld ! Is it a wholly fanciful picture that among 
that innumerable host of transfigured countenances that 
thronged before him there, with beckoning arms, were those who 
had gone before, with whom he had in those trying days of old 
stood shoulder to shoulder in upholding law and order and 
right living; that there were seen those with whom he had 
labored through the defiles and marshes and obstructions of the 
Yellowstone ; and, again, those wlio in his later days had known 
a life made sweeter and better through his efforts to aid dis- 
tressed and suffering humanity? 

Possibly tlie thought is, indeed, fanciful, but why may we 
not thus indulge it when it comports so fully with that life, now 
closed forever on earth? And we may rest assured that, hav- 
ing crossed the border land, and being brought into the pres- 
ence of that Lord and ]\[aster whom he had here served with 
fidelity, he heard in accents strong and loving the blessed salu- 
tation, **Well done, good and faithful servant, enter thou into 
the joy of thy Lord." 

Minnesota Historical Society. 
Vol. XV. Plate XV. 



On the seventh day of July, 1910, it pleased the Lord of 
Life and Death to call from this world the soul of Dr. Charles 
Nathanael Hewitt. 

The assertion is ventured that no one citizen of Minnesota 
has devoted himself more zealously to her welfare or conferred 
greater benefits on her people than he. If ^Minnesota shall pro- 
pose to perpetuate the memory of men who have rendered great 
public service and furnished models on which her young men 
may pattern their lives, let her place among the statues she 
rears in the Capitol that of this citizen. 

Such distinction may rightly be claimed for the man who 
organized the Public Health Service of Minnesota, and in the 
course of a quarter century's administration of that service 
brought it to a high state of efficiency, saved thousands of 
lives, and prevented an amount of sickness and suffering be- 
yond estimation. 

To record the services of such citizens and preserve the 
memory of them for a posterity which may be more appre- 
ciative of their value than the passing generation, is a worthy 
and proper function of this Society. The following contribu- 
tion is accordingly submitted. 

Charles Nathanael Hewitt was born in Yergennes, Vermont, 
June 3, 1836. Among his ancestors are many notable naiuos. 
His parents moved to Potsdam, St. Lawrence county. New 
York, in his early childhood. For his college preparation lie 
was sent to the old and still famous Academy of Cheshire, Con- 
necticut. From there he passed to Ilobart College, Geneva, 
New York, by which he was graduated Bachelor of Arts at tlie 

•Read at the monthly meeting of the Executive Council, November 
9, 1914. 


age of twenty. Because his heart was in the subject of medi- 
cine he did not aspire to academic honors, preferring to hold 
the position of demonstrator of anatomy in the Medical De- 
partment of the College. He was accorded the same position 
in the Medical College at Albany, New York, from which he 
received his degree of Doctor of ]\redicine in 1S57. His father 
was a physician, and the devotion of the son to that profes- 
sion was evident from boyhood. 

Engaging in practice with his preceptor in Geneva, New 
York, he had barely become established before a call came to a 
new and unexpected sphere of medical practice. After the 
pitiful disaster of Bull Run in 1861 came President Lincoln's 
call for a great volunteer army to be enlisted for a term of 
three years. 

General Charles B. Stuart, a distinguished civil engineer, 
and then Chief Engineer of the United States Navy, conceived 
the idea of raising a regiment of engineer troops, foreseeing the 
need there would be for such a corps in case of a great and 
protracted war. The War Department readily issued the nec- 
essary orders. In the course of a single month the companies 
were filled from central and western New York and northern 
Pennsylvania. The commissioned and non-commissioned offi- 
cers were largely civil engineers, some of them of long expe- 
rience and wide reputation. The rendezvous was at Elmira, 
New York, in August, 1861. 

Dr. Hewitt's preceptor, a physician of more than local emi- 
nence, was appointed surgeon of the new regiment; but ad- 
vanced age and developing infirmity soon disqualified him for 
active service, and he was obliged to resign before his first 
campaign was Avell begun. From the beginning the adminis- 
trative duties had fallen on the assistant surgeon. Dr. Hewitt, 
who at once succeeded him as regimental surgeon. 

It is necessary here to make some account of the peculiar 
organization of this regiment. When the time came for the 
muster-in Of the engineer volunteers, it was discovered that 
there was no provision of law for the enlistment of such troops. 
In expectation that Congress would as soon as possible ratify 
the action of the War Department in prematurely authorizing 



such enlistment, the whole body, officers and men, cheerfully 
acquiesced in being mustered in as infantry. The regiment 
accordingly took the number 50 of New York infantry volun- 
teers. It was not till after the close of the Peninsular Cam- 
paign that the expected Act of Congress was passed. As en- 
acted it provided for the organization of volunteer engineer 
troops in regiments of twelve companies, each composed of 150 
officers and enlisted men, having the pay and standing in all 
respects of engineers of the regular army. 

Like the artillery regiments as then organized, this regi- 
ment was chiefly an administrative unit. Each company, like 
each battery of artillery, was equipped for independent move- 
ment and service. Soon after the passage of the Act referred 
to, the regiment was recruited to its full strength of 1,800 offi- 
cers and men. The habitual distribution of the command was 
as follows : regimental headquarters and one company at Wash- 
ington, D. C, in charge of the engineer depot and construction 
shops; two companies at the headquarters of the Army of the 
Potomac ; and battalions of two or three companies at the head- 
quarters of different army corps. 

The division and scattering of the command imposed on the 
medical staff duties far greater than those falling on those of 
infantry regiments. It outnumbered those brigades which had 
seen two or more campaigns. ]\Iajor Hewitt proved himself 
eciual to every duty and emergency. Riding from camp to 
camp, he saw that his assistant surgeons and stewards were 
provided with needed appliances and supplies, and that they 
were attending to their duties. Dr. Letterman, Hooker's med- 
ical director, paid him the high compliment of saying, ''He is 
the best regimental surgeon in the Army of the Potomac." In 
the last years of the war he was chief surgeon of the Engineer 
Brigade of the Army of the Potomac, consisting of the 50th 
and 15th New York engineer regiments and tlie Regular En- 
gineer Battalion. This position made a large addition to ad- 
ministrative duties. Details of his activities in the successive 
campaigns must be left to a biographer, but some leading char- 
acteristics may properly be noted. 


Major Hewitt had the qualifications essential to an expert 
surgeon, profound knowledge of anatomy, keen perception of 
the immediate problem, and extraordinary deftness of hand. 
But he was as conservative as he was expert, saving to the pa- 
tient every member and organ which could be of use. He em- 
ployed every means of antisepsis known at the time. He used 
to say that he would rather keep patients who had undergone 
severe operations under a tree in the field than expose them 
to the gangrene of the best general hospital in AVashington or 
any other city. For his sick he trusted more to rest, fresh air, 
and good food, than to his medicine chests. The only com- 
plaint his men made was that he would not doctor" enough. 
Many a man who came to sick call in fear of a ''spell" of sick- 
ness went back to his company a new man after a couple of days 
of rest and good feeding. Intoxicants he prescribed very rare- 
ly, finding other stimulants effective enough and more benign. 
It ought to be added that the irrepressible joviality of the Chief 
Surgeon was perhaps the best of his remedies. Yet nobody 
could, when necessary, trim down a shirk or malingerer more 
effectually than this genial doctor. 

Sanitation was his enthusiasm. To prevent disease among 
his men was ever more in his mind than the cure of the sick. 
His eye was ever on the general location and police of the 
camps, but particularly on the commissary departments and the 
company cooks. 

The writer well remembers a certain occasion when his effi- 
ciency in sanitation was displayed in a notable way. A de- 
tachment of the regiment under command of the lieutenant 
colonel was in camp in the late summer of 1864 near the mid- 
dle of the long line fronting Petersburg. Typhoid suddenly 
broke out and was decimating the companies. The command- 
ing officer sent for ^vlajor Hewitt, who next day rode into camp. 
After a half hour's inspection he made his report and recom- 
mendation. In another half hour that camp ground was cleared 
of everything moveable upon it. The ground was thoroughly 
swept or scraped, the drainage was made perfect, new sinks 
were dug, and new sources of water were opened. The cooks 
and commissary men got their orders toward more cleanly 



handling and preparation of food. Then the camp was re- 
established. Typhoid disappeared as suddenly as it had come. 
Major He\vitt deserved the commission of Brevet Lieutenant 
Colonel which came to him near the time of his muster-out with 
his regiment early in July, 1865. 

His old clients at Geneva, N. Y., welcomed Dr. Hewitt on 
his return, and a promising career re-opened there ; but corre- 
spondence with a college friend and brother physician roused 
an interest in Minnesota, and the opportunity to succeed to an 
established practice brought him to Red Wing soon after the 
close of the war. 

A few years now passed devoted to extending his medical 
practice and the establishment of a home, modest, but so charm- 
ing that no calls to larger spheres for the employment of his 
professional gifts ever tempted him to exchange it. It is safe 
to assert that had he moved to either of the "Twin Cities," he 
would have won great distinction in surgery and enjoyed an 
ample income. He married in 1869 Miss Helen Hawley, a wife 
who more than fulfilled all the dreams of a young man's fancy. 

Dr. Hewitt was not the man to be content with the ca- 
reer of a village doctor, however worthy that might be. As 
already suggested, he was inspired with the noble aspirations 
of preventive medicine. A diligent reader of the current liter- 
ature of medicine, he had observed the operation of a law of 
Massachusetts passed in 1869 to establish a State Board of 
Health, and the similar action of California two years later. A 
bill drafted by him on the model of the ]\Iassachusetts Act, 
passed by the legislature on March 4, 1872, put Minnesota third 
on a distinguished roll. 

This was not the first legislation in the State related to pub- 
lic health, but it was the first effective action. The ''Code of 
1857" had provided for municipal boards of health consisting 
of justices of the peace ''in every precinct," trustees of vil- 
lages, and aldermen of cities. Such boards were authorized to 
appoint health officers, to abate nuisances, and to quarantine 

In the general statutes of 1866 we find substantially tlie 
same provisions, with the exception that town supervisors are 
boards of health. 



It was natural that these isolated boards of laymen should 
act, if at all, in a purely perfunctory manner. There could be 
little voluntary co-operation, and there was no central author- 
ity which could require united action. 

The Act of 1872 provided for a central State Board of seven 
physicians, with the following duties: 

1. To put themselves in communication with the local 
boards of health and with public institutions. 

2. To take cognizance of the interests of health and life 
among the citizens generally. 

3. To make sanitary investigations, especially of epidemics. 

4. To study the sources of disease and the elf ects of locali- 
ties, employments and circumstances on public health. 

5. To devise a scheme for vital statistics. 

6. To act as an advisory board to the State in all hygienic 
and medical matters. 

7. To have charge of quarantine. 

8. To enact and enforce measures necessary to the public 

The Act further provided for a Secretary to perform and 
superintend the work prescribed, and to discharge such other 
duties as the Board might require; and it fixed his salary at 
$250 a year, payable quarterly. 

The able and highly reputable physicians appointed to the 
board elected Dr. Hewitt their secretary. It was understood 
of course that he would give only spare time from his profes- 
sional work. 

It is obviously impossible within the limits of the present 
article even to catalogue the numerous activities of so enthu- 
siastic and versatile an official. Certain groups of them may be 
noted and remarked upon. 

The attention of the Board was naturally at once directed 
to putting itself into communication with local boards of health 
as required by the law. This was not difficult in cities and 
villages, but from rural towns there was almost no response. 
Upon representations to the legislature of 1873, that body en- 
acted a law requiring town boards to elect annually a town 
board of health, one member to be a physician and town health 



officer. These elected boards of health may have been an im- 
provement, but there were no penalties to oblige them to con- 
form to regulations of the State Board. It was not till 1881 
that a heavy fine was laid on any local board or member there- 
of for refusing to obey the reasonable directions of the State 
Board of Health. 

These efforts toward providing a machinery for promoting 
public health culminated in an act of the legislature of 1883, 
entitled Health Code.*' It enlarged the powers of local boards 
and gave the State Board still larger powers of regulation. 
Heavy penalties were attached to neglect of duty by local 
boards or members. This act was so drastic that some of its 
provisions were, in a later year, mitigated. It was found im- 
practicable to compel local health officers to make thorough 
sanitary inspections of their towns, villages, or cities, as the 
case might be, and to report in writing both to the local and 
state boards. Prompt repeated and effectual vaccination of all 
children had to be gr^-en up, in the face of a violent if absurd 

The Act of 1885 receded from the plan of having town 
boards elect the town board of health, and revived the old plan 
of making the town board itself the board of health. It was 
not required that there should be a physician on the board, but 
that the board should employ a physician when they should 
deem it necessary, or when required to do so by the state board 
of health. ^ ' ' ' * 

Otherwise the act of 1883 has not been materially changed, 
unless in the provision that there must be at least one physician 
on the board of health. If no town supervisor is a physician, 
the board of health must elect one. 

The local boards of health, thus co-ordinated with and reg- 
ulated by the state board, furnished a state-wide agency for 
checking the spread of epidemics, for preventing the pollution 
of waters, for the collection of vital statistics, and diffusing 
among the people information relating to health. 

AYithout waiting for the perfection or indeed any consid- 
erable improvement in the mechanism for preserving public 
health, the state board, led by the executive secretary, began a 


warfare against epidemic and infectious diseases. Before its 
creation the law for quarantine of smallpox had but occasionally 
been put into effect. Measures were at once taken for more 
effective isolation of outbreaks. Scarlatina was soon added to 
the list of infectious diseases to be isolated ; then typhoid fever, 
and later diphtheria. The last named furnished a most strik- 
ing illustration of the effect of isolation accompanied with im- 
proved medication and nursing. The number of reported 
deaths from diphtheria in 1882 was 1,607 ; in 1887, 788, a reduc- 
tion of nearly one-half; and in 1895 the figure was 466, a little 
more than one-fourth the deaths thirteen years before. In 
those years the population of Minnesota had doubled. It took 
Dr. Hewitt some years to convince his medical brethren gen- 
erally that diphtlieria was infectious. 

As might be presumed, Dr. Hewitt was alert to welcome 
every new development in his profession. He accepted at once 
the statement of Kirchhoff, that whether the bacillus of Koch 
was truly the cause of Asiatic cholera or not, it was the part of 
enlightened physicians to act as if it were. He was fully pre- 
pared for the invasion of that disease whicli appeared in some 
of our seaports in 1890, but happily there was no invasion into 
Minnesota and the appropriation made by the legislature for 
repelling it was not used. 

He was not content with the new learning in regard to tlie 
employment of serums in infectious cases as represented in the 
journals. To get the essentials of that he went to Paris in the 
spring of 1890 and put himself under the instruction of Pasteur. 
His studies were in diphtheria, tuberculosis, and rabies, but his 
main object was to acquire the method of Pasteur. 

The cure of diseases was a solemn duty, which Dr. Hewitt 
shared with the members of Jiis profession; the prevention of 
diseases was for him a holy crusade, in which the physicians of 
the day were not over eager to follow him. The great public, 
inheriting the belief that disease is inevitable and the day of 
each one's death appointed, had little faith in the proposals of 
preventive medicine. His first essay was towards the introduc- 
tion of efficient ventilation in public institutions and in school- 
houses. It cannot be doubted that his inspection and recom- 



mendations had much to do with experiments which were more 
or less satisfactory. For dwelling houses he insisted that no 
ventilating apparatus could equal the open fireplace. He la- 
bored vigorously to introduce earth closets for disposing of 
human excreta where sewers did not exist. 

The continued though abated prevalence of typhoid led Dr. 
Hewitt to examine the water supply of various localities. The 
results were such as to convince him that an immediate and 
extensive examination of water supplies generally was de- 
manded. In 1877 he began a sanitary water survey of the 
state. In the next years he made, and had made, chemical 
analyses of thousands of samples from lakes, rivers, and wells, 
in all the settled parts of the state. Later bacteriological exam- 
inations were added. How many cities and villages were moved 
to install water supply systems is not known, but the number 
was large. Thousands of people were constrained to disuse 
wells, which had been erroneously believed to yield health- 
ful waters but in fact were unfit for human use. 

It was not till 1S85 that the legislature could be moved to 
enact a law to prevent the pollution of rivers and sources of 
water supply. This act gave the state board of health general 
supervision of sources of water supply for towns, villages and 
cities, and required reports from local authorities, water boards 
in particular, to the state board. 

The passage of this important law was recommended and 
urged by Governor Hubbard, who, more than any other of the 
state executives of the time, appreciated the services of the 
State Board of Health and its working secretary. In the same 
year was passed the act conferring on the board power to quar- 
antine domestic animals attacked with epidem'ic diseases. This 
duty was later and properly devolved on a special "State Live 
Stock Sanitary Board," but for some years useful service was 
rendered under the supervision of Dr. Hewitt. His faithful 
execution of this law aroused an opposition which at length 
contributpd to his disadvantage. 

Mention may here be made of another statute of 1885, em- 
powering the state board of health to regulate offensive trades 
and employments upon application from parties aggrieved after 


public hearing. An item well-deserving mention is the investi- 
gation made in his laboratory into illuminating oils, particu- 
larly petroleum distillates. The result' was the establishment of 
state inspection, which immediately shut unsafe kerosene out 
of Minnesota. 

He was the pioneer in exposing the adulteration of foods 
and condiments. 

The untiring industry of Dr. Hewitt in prevention of dis- 
ease has no better illustration than that of smallpox. He shared 
the belief of his profession that effective vaccination, repeated 
at proper intervals, was a perfect prophylaxis against that fear- 
ful scourge. In every possible way, and on all occasions, he ad- 
vocated vaccination. The best obtainable virus was distributed 
from his office. Dissatisfied at length with that furnished" by 
the trade, he established near Red ^Ving a vaccine farm. There 
he produced in liberal quantity virus which he knew to be, and 
which was proved to be efficacious. 

It was found that we had to deal in Minnesota not only with 
cases originating in the state, but in very many instances wnth 
imported cases. To check the immigration of persons having 
the disease, or who might be expected to have it. Dr. Hewitt 
established in 1879 a system of interstate notification which 
made it possible to quarantine such persons if they crossed the 
state lines. Later he prevailed on the U. S. ^larine Hospital 
Service in New York to give him notice of immigrants bound to 
Minnesota who were likely to bring the infection. A similar 
courtesy was obtained from Canadian authorities. In the 
years 1894-95, forty notifications were received from New York, 
seven from Canada, and two from other sea ports, covering 464 
persons who had been exposed to infection. A large number 
of these were intercepted and examined. 

Dr. Hewitt had a cause still dearer to his heart than either 
the cure or the immediate prevention of disease. He was an 
apostle of the *'art of good living," which he gave as another 
name for hygiene. Individuals acting alone could of course 
practice this art, but they would do more and better for them- 
selves when stimulated by the contagion of community interest. 
Hygiene was to him above all a social concern. Perhaps the 



best of all his efforts went to arousing general public interest 
in health conservation. He wrote, he lectured, he personally 
exhorted, and sought the co-operation of physicians, clergy, and 
teachers. He addressed many meetings and conventions of 
teachers, showing them how to teach hygiene in schools. He 
called sanitary conferences at St. Paul, Minneapolis, Northfield, 
Rochester, and other places, which were largely attended. 
Some of the addresses published in the reports of the board are 
well worth republication. 

On none of these occasions did Dr. Hewitt fail to emphasize 
his central doctrine, that it is the duty of every community to 
promote health. The promotion of health, he would say, is 
**as obligatory upon communities of civilized men as upon in- 
dividuals." He cherished a dream of virtually organizing the 
whole state into a health association. He was fond of quoting 
Franklin's sentiment, "Public health is public wealth." In one 
of his early reports he asserted that one fifth of the deaths and 
one-fourth of the sickness in Minnesota w^ere preventable. 

As a means of spreading needed information primarily 
among local health boards, and through them to the general 
public, he began in 1885 the publication of a monthly periodical 
entitled Public Health in Minnesota." This he not only 
edited, but w^rote large parts of it. Soon after he took the office 
of secretary, he began the publication of ''Circulars of Informa- 
tion," regarding infectious diseases. The circulars on small- 
pox, scarlatina, diphtheria, and rabies, were Avidely distributed 
and must have done much to quiet fears and direct proper 

In his whole laborious campaign of education there was 
nothing into which he threw himself with greater ardor than 
into his instruction as non-resident professor of public health in 
the University of ^Minnesota. Beginning in 1873, for more than 
twenty years he gave an annual course of lectures to entering 
classes or the whole student body. There was some variation 
in his subjects ; but the program of 1877 may serve to indicate 
their scope. 

1. Health and hygiene, public and private. 

2. Disease ; causes and prevention. 


3. Poverty and pauperism. 

4. To young men. 

5. Crime and criminals. 

6. Hygiene and education. 

7. Hygiene of the home. 

8. Success in life. 

It was in that year that he began the physical examination 
of the students. The University authorities, indifferent to this 
innovation, gave no support, and after two or three years it 
was abandoned. 

Two years before the creation of the State Board of Health, 
a bureau of statistics had been established in the office of the 
Secretary of State, the Assistant Secretary of State being ex 
officio commissioner of statistics. Provision was made for the 
collection of vital statistics. Some tables of these had been 
published, but no one had put them to any use. Dr. Hewitt 
immediately made a study of the tables, and interpreted tlieir 
lessons. In 1876 he published a ''Study of Vital Statistics of 
10,000 Persons," which set some persons to thinking and ought 
to have set a great many more. 

He found the system of collecting vital statistics so imper- 
fect and inefficient that he soon proposed that the matter of 
vital statistics be transferred to the State Board of Health. 
After more than a decade of patient waiting and importunity, 
that transfer was made. From that time, 1891, the vital statis- 
tics of Minnesota have been increasing in value, and under the 
present administration they rank high among those of sister 
states. It was Dr. Hewitt's merit to have organized them in 
right lines. 

The labors thus mentioned were verily labors of love. For 
the first five years of service, Dr. Hewitt received the sum of 
$250 salary each year. Next for a like term he was paid $500 
a year. The salary was then raised to $1,000 for the next four 
years. Not till 1886 was he paid enough for the support of his 
family, and then only enough, $2,500. In 1894 an increase to 
$3,500 made it possible for him to move tlie office- of the State 
Board to St. Paul and virtually to retire from private practice. 
He was not long to enjoy tliat relief. 



We have considered things which were done. It may be 
that the future will admire this noble public man the more for 
the things he would have liked to do; things which could not 
then be done, partly because the time was not ripe for them, and 
partly because strength failed. Among these unfilled aspira- 
tions were : 

1. To have local health boards and health officers paid 
enough to secure efficiency. In 1896 he reported that more 
than half the physicians serving as health officers of the state 
had no pay at all, and of those who did receive salaries the 
larger number did not receive over $20 each. The highest city 
salary was but $2,000, and that in only two cities. 

2. To have town supervisors elected one at a time for three 
years, instead of three at a time for one year. When the whole 
town board, as frequently happened, went out of office, all tlieir 
successors had to be apprised of their duties as a board of 
health, ^lention has been made of an attempt to remedy this 
evil by having the town board elect the board of health. This 
duty was so ill performed, when performed at all, that a return 
was made to the old form of having the town board itself act as 
the town board of health. Year after year Dr. Hewitt pleaded 
witli legislatures to arrange town elections so that there would 
always be a majority of the board holding over. It did not 
please the legislature to take this perfectly reasonable step 
till 1905. 

3. To have the State establish a hospital for inebriates. 
This proposition was made in his first report, and was repeated 
from year to year until the legislature of 1875 took action for 
the erection of buildings for that jHirpose at Rochester. As is 
known, the extraordinary pressure for larger accommodations 
for increasing numbers of insane, induced the legislature later 
to divert the institution to that purpose. The inebriate asylum, 
wliieh Dr. Hewitt so much desired, Avas opened in the year 1912. 
It is therefore mentioned here as one of the projects which this 
many-sided man had at heart, but did not live to see. The sub- 
ject of intemperance was one on which he thought intensely, 
lie regarded it as an inlieritance of centuries, which could not 
be abolished by any sudden act of legislation. It might take 


generations to raise up a body of people so truly temperate and 
abstinent that the liquor seller's occupation would be gone. 
For the meantime he preached the reasonable gospel of temper- 
ance and practiced it. His lecture on temperance to the Uni- 
versity students explained the evil effects of intoxicants on 
body and mind in forceful but not extravagant terms. He 
believed that habitual drunkenness was a disease akin to insan- 
ity, and therefore held to the conviction that it ought to be 
treated in institutions where proper restrictive and curative 
means and surroundings could be provided. 

4. To have a Pasteur hospital for the treatment of rabies 
established under the management of the State Board of Health. 
On his return from his studies in Paris in 1891 he represented 
that a beginning might be made at a cost of $1,000 a year. It 
was many years after Dr. Hewitt's retirement from public serv- 
ice that this highly necessary work was taken up. 

5. To have township nurses employed to care for epidemic 
cases. This recommendation was repeated in successive reports 
to no purpose. The time was not ripe, and probably it is not 
yet ripe. 

6. To compel the vaccination of the whole population, and 
to exclude children not vaccinated from public schools. At the 
present time vaccination is not yet generally compulsory, and 
only in times of epidemic smallpox can children not vaccinated 
be excluded from public schools. 

7. To have physical examination of all children and youth 
attending public schools begun and ultimately everywhere con- 
ducted. In the years 1877 to 1880 he personally examined 465 
students of the University, the records of which may be found 
in the eighth report of the State Board of Health, for the years 

8. During the twenty years in which he held the position 
of non-resident professor of Public Health in the University of 
Minnesota, it was his hope that a Department or College of 
Public Health might be organized and developed, in which 
health officers might be trained for the prevention of disease. 
He was comparatively indifferent to the development of a med- 
ical department of the traditional kind, in wiiich men are 



trained to cure disease. Still he was loyal to his profession, and 
in the days when the academic work of the University was be- 
ing patiently built up, before the University resources were 
adequate to the establishment of a medical college equipped 
for complete instruction, he suggested the organization of a 
faculty which should simply hold examinations and grant med- 
ical degrees to such as should pass them. This faculty acted as 
a State Medical Examining Board, and it passed upon the 
diplomas of all physicians in practice at that time in the state. 
This organization was made and remained in existence until the 
University, by absorbing a local medical college, was ready in 
1888 to offer instruction. Dr. Hewitt declined a professorship 
in the enlarged medical college, because of the hope that he 
might see a department of Public Health opened, in which his 
talent could be best used and his highest ambition gratified. 
His dream has not been fulfilled, and long years may pass be- 
fore an enlightened public, appreciating his splendid idea, will 
demand this establishment of a college of public, health. His 
lectures on public health were probably the first delivered in an 
American college. 

9. To have a complete sanitary inspection of the State, 
followed by annual sanitary inspection, with reports to the 
State Board. Of this it may be said that it was a mere project 
thrown out to call attention and awaken an interest which in 
the course of time might ripen into actual undertakings. The 
idea of a general sanitary survey is probably not yet deemed 
feasible or desirable by any large number of persons. 

During these long years of service, contending against pub- 
lic ignorance, professional indifference, and legislative par- 
simony, the doctor ^s enthusiasm was constantly warmed by in- 
dications of appreciation. His efficiency in the handling of 
epidemics compelled the admiration of his profession and the 
approval of the general public. Teachers were grateful to him 
for his labors toward the sanitation of school buildings. He 
was cheered by the co-operation of the clergy and of many hon- 
orable women, whose aid he publicly acknowledged. 

His work and writings became known in the neighboring 
states, and later throughout the country. In 1887 he was Pres- 


ident of the American Public Health Association, an organiza- 
tion he had helped to form and build up. His reputation se- 
cured to him an associate membership in the Society of Health 
Officers of England and the Societe d'Hygiene of France. In 
1891 he attended the International Congress of Medicine and 
Demography, held in London, and contributed to the discus- 
sions. Canadian health authorities respected his acquirements 
and efficiency, and were ready to co-operate with him. His Col- 
lege gave him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. 

After a quarter century of devoted service to his State, that 
service came to an abrupt termination. Dr. Hewitt had never 
needed to ask for reappointment to membership of the State 
Board of Health, nor to re-elections as its executive secretary. 
He had kept the office absolutely clear of political complica- 
tions. At work in his office on a certain afternoon in January 
in 1897, wwd came to him that the Governor had omitted his 
name from the list of appointments to membership of the State 
Board. It was the work of a few minutes for him to gather up 
the few articles belonging to him personally and say a word of 
parting to his faithful assistants. In his last report, for the 
preceding year (1S96), in a concluding paragraph he expressed, 
as follows, the feelings of the hour. 

The best of my life and effort have gone into this work. I have 
spared neither time, labor, nor thought, to make it what it ought to be. 
Such as it is, the record is made and closed. I resume tomorrow the 
active practice of my profession with the sincere wish that the public 
health service of Minnesota may maintain and advance the position 
which it has won among the similar organizations in other states. I 
am still more anxious that it continue to serve the whole people of 
Minnesota in the future as in the past. 

This removal from the Board came as an absolute surprise. 
If there had been machinations for it, no one had revealed them 
to him. Never had he been so full of enthusiasm for his great 
work, nor more hopeful of increasing usefulness. To find his 
career as a sanitarian and guardian of the public health of a 
state thus instantly cut short without warning, was a stunning 
blow. He left the office and never entered it again, nor held 
any communication with the State Board of Health or its offi- 
cers. His was not the philosophy to look upon this decapitation 



as one of the things likely to happen to any man in the service 
of the public, holding office at the pleasure of a state executive 
elected by a political party. At some time even such an office 
as his would be needed in a political propaganda. It will prob- 
ably be consented to by all, that one who had labored so faith- 
fully and deserved so well the approval of the public had a cer- 
tain right to suggest the time and manner of retirement, even 
when informed that retirement would be inevitable. The writer 
does not hesitate to say that the action of Governor Clough was 
simply brutal. 

The doctor of course in time recovered from the effects of 
this relegation to private life. He resumed his private praclic(^ 
at Red "VYing, welcomed by a body of old clients. His profes- 
sional brothers came to him for information and counsel. His 
home, with its great elms, its vines, and his garden, occupied 
much of his time. He had long been a busy writer of reports, 
opinions, essays, editorials, and addresses. He now planned to 
use this talent in writing out a history of medicine. He had 
long held the opinion that the great physicians of antiquity 
whose names have come down to us, while ignorant of anatomy, 
still possessed arts of diagnosis and healing which moderns have 
to rediscover. For this purpose he spent some winters at the na- 
tional capital, where the resources of the Library of Congress 
were available and freely granted. One winter he spent in 
Paris. This work he did not live to complete. 

Dr. Hewitt had a great capacity for friendship. He cher- 
ished to the end the attachments Avhich his college fraternity, 
the Alpha Delta Phi, had established. Educated in school and 
college under Episcopalian influences, he maintained his mem- 
bership in that church throughout life. It is well worth while 
to note a characteristic contribution to the work of his parish. 
He had a notable musical gift, which was shared by his own 
children. He organized and for many years taught a choir of 
boys; and he taught them much more than music, — courtesy, 
and honor, and reverence. The memory of those lessons is still 
dear to many of "the old choir boys." 

Along with all his engagements he carried on the primary 
education of his children, and taught as no schoolmaster can be 


expected to do. He discovered that an immense amount of time 
was wasted in schools, that the real learning by children was 
got in a little time and in separate moments of attention. 
Thirty years ago or more he declared that half of the time of 
public school children might be given to what was later known 
as manual training, while still as good progress would be made 
in the usual school studies. 

The life of this noble man, devoted citizen, and sincere Chris- 
tian, ended after a short illness on July 7, 1910, at the age of 
seventy-four years. His body was cremated, and the ashes were 
deposited at his boyhood home in Potsdam, New York. It will 
be long before Minnesota shall look upon his like again. 


Vol. XV. Plati: XVI. 



Frederick Driscoll, whose character and achievement we 
desire to commemorate on this occasion, filled worthily for a 
long period, crowded with important events, a conspicuous place 
in the annals of this city and this commonwealth, besides attain- 
ing positions of nation-wide prominence and influence in the 
realms where his professional activities were especially exer- 

Our friend was so versatile in his endowments, his attain- 
ments, and his sympathies, and so many-sided in his character, 
as to command the sincere respect of contemporaries of all 
shades of political opinion. He was a man of forceful and gen- 
erous nature, with a fertile mind well stocked with ideas and 
lavish in their outlay. "Warm-hearted, open-handed, large- 
minded, wuth a certain profusion in his intellectual expendi- 
tures, as if conscious of an overflowing reserve, his powers were 
wonderfully at his command on those occasions when the exi- 
gencies of the moment required him, in some public assembly, 
to present his views on an important subject under discussion. 

He was equally at home in a political convention, at the 
Chamber of Commerce, or at a great meeting called to decide 
on measures to meet an impending crisis. He made no ora- 
torical efforts, but the clearness of statement, the persuasive- 
ness of his manner of reasoning, all combined to win assent and 
disarm opposition. 

Frederick Driscoll was born at Boston, i\Iassachusetts, July 
31, 183-4. His boyhood was spent in that city, and he received 
a serviceable education at the Groton Academy. He formed 
plans for a mercantile career and was trained in that direction 

*Read at the monthly meeting of the Executive Council, April 10,1911. 


with no premonitions of the wide divergence therefrom the 
future busy years would bring. 

In the summer of 1856 he came west and found employment 
/ for a few months at Clinton, Iowa. AYhile travelling on the 
Lake Michigan steamboat, "Niagara," in 1857, the boat was 
burned near Green Bay, AVis., and many of his fellow passen- 
gers were drowned. In attempting to assist one of these, a 
woman, Mr. DriscoU was struck by a floating spar and deprived 
of the sight of his left eye, — a permanent affliction, honorably 
incurred, wliich however failed to impair his subsequent poten- 

He arrived in ^Minnesota in October, 1857, and, after a short 
stay in St. Paul, located at Belle Plaine in Scott county as book- 
keeper for the land company which exploited the townsite. 

He came, an ambitious, industrious, level-headed young man, 
to the Minnesota of the eventfid decade preceding the Civil 
War, to breathe her invigorating air, to drink of her crystal 
waters, and bathe in her glorious sunshine. He came to share 
her affluent but undeveloped resources, the age-fattened fertil- 
ity of her shoreless prairies, her immeasurable storage vaults of 
mineral wealth, and her forests of lofty pines. 

He came to blend his destiny with a free, brave, virtuous 
people. They were rugged as the red foemen they confronted ; 
primitive ; poor in worldly possessions, but rich in daring and 
will and hope. He became one with them, without delay or mis- 
giving, and within five years had gained a position of promi- 
nence from which he never receded. 

The Belle Plaine Land Companj^ suffered some financial re- 
verses, ]\Ir. D. AV. Tngersoll of St. Paul, a leading merchant, was 
made assignee, and Mr. DriscoU became his agent. Among the 
assets of the Land Company was a weekly newspaper, the ''In- 
quirer," which, after many vicissitudes, suspended publication 
in 1861. At the suggestion of 'Mr. Ingersoll, Mr. DriscoU ac- 
cepted the newspaper plant in payment of arrearages due for his 
services. He was not a practical printer, but he embarked on 
this untried venture, which was to shape and control the work of 
a lifetime, with youthful self-reliance, fully justified by the 



Meantime, other events which definitely affected his for- 
tunes had occurred. On May 31, 1858, he had married at Belle 
Plaine Miss x\nn L. Brown of New York, a daughter of Hon. J. 
B. Brown, who later, as Lieutenant Colonel of the 113th New 
York Infantry Volunteers, made a distinguished record in the 
War for the Union. Miss Brown, who had recently graduated 
at an eastern collegiate institution, was visiting her sister, Mrs. 
William G. Gates, at Belle Plaine, when the acquaintance began. 

In November, 1860, Mr. Driscoll was elected a representative 
in the Minnesota Legislature from Scott county, and served dur- 
ing the session of 1861. He was a Republican, and Scott county 
was strongly Democratic ; he was only twenty-six years old, and 
had lived in the state but two years ; yet he was chosen by a 
small plurality, and bore a highly creditable part during the ses- 
sion in debates as well as in framing legislation. He was spe- 
cially helpful in locating the terminus of the Duluth Railroad in 
St. Paul. 

It was at the close of this session that he purchased the mori- 
bund newspaper, changed its name to the ''Scott County Jour- 
nal," transformed its politics from Democratic to Republican, 
and commenced the journalistic apprenticeship which was to 
give to the state and to the nation a genuine master workman. 

At the opening of the Legislative session of 1862, Mr. Dris- 
coll came to the capital and with the prestige of his previous 
service in the House, added to that of a Republican editor, was 
elected Secretary of the Senate. He discharged his duties, both 
in the regular session and in the special session of that year, so 
acceptabl}^ as to attract the attention of the state leaders of one 
wing of the dominant Republican party, who encouraged him to 
bring his printing material to St. Paul and establish a daily 
paper in opposition to the Press. 

It was a period of depression and solicitude for Minnesota. 
The rebellion in the South had drawn thousands of her patriotic 
sons to its remote battlefields, and the horrible Indian massacre 
of August, 1862, had depopulated her frontiers. Mr. Driscoll, 
physically disabled for field duty, nevertheless was given a com- 
mission which he was unable to accept, but he rendered valuable 
service in the quartermasters' department at Fort Ripley, and 
elsewhere, during the most trying season. 



In November, 1862, he removed to St. Paul and established 
the Daily Union. A young man just arrived from Ohio, named 
Harlan P. Hall, was his city reporter. The Legislature of 1863 
was to elect a United States Senator to succeed Henry Rice. 
There were tw^o Republican candidates, Governor Alexander 
Ramsey of St. Paul and Congressman Cyrus Aldrich of ^linne- 
apolis. The Press, owned by William R. Marshall and Newton 
Bradley, with Joseph A. "Wheelock as editor, earnestly sup- 
ported Governor Ramsey; Mr. DriscoU, in the Union, just as 
earnestly supported Colonel Aldrich. Ramsey won the sena- 
torial toga, but at the same session of the Legislature ]\Ir. Dris- 
coU was elected State Printer, by which proceeding emoluments 
estimated at $20,000 a year were transferred from the Press to 
the Union. Thus both papers had gained, — likewise both had 
lost. A consolidation was suggested and speedily effected. 

Mr. Wheelock, at the outset, doubtless looked with amuse- 
ment bordering on disdain upon this journalistic tyro from 
Scott county, who had the temerity to set up a rival Republican 
daily in St. Paul. But no sooner had the contest begun than he 
discovered, like Fitz-James of old: 

"No maiden's hand is round thee thrown! 

That desperate grasp thy frame might feel, 

Through bars of brass and triple steel!" 

And the contest did not last long. It was soon found ex- 
pedient to unite the two papers. The Union was merged into 
the Press, March 1, 1863. Newton Bradley and William R. 
Marshall retired; Frederick Driscoll and Joseph A. Wheelock 
became partners and began an association that continued until 

As to which was the senior and which the junior partner, 
opinions have differed. ^Ir. Wheelock, the editor, was always 
in the limelight, while Mr. Driscoll, the business manager, was 
less conspicuously displayed. United, they made a remark- 
ably successful combination ; separately, neither could possibly 
have accomplished so much. 

Mr. Wheelock 's half century of primacy in ^linnesota 
journalism has its unchallenged historical recognition. He was 
one of the clearest thinkers and most forcible writers in the 



nation, capable of sustained efforts of uniform excellence, with 
frequent flights into the realms of genius. An adept in nervous 
thought and muscular language, he wrote with a fullness of in- 
formation and a richness of diction that commanded the ap- 
plause of his friends, while it often exasperated his opponents. 
When his righteous indignation was aroused by some political 
atrocity, his wrath became highly inflammatory, and the color- 
scheme of his denunciations took on a lurid, sunset crimson. 
Not infallible in judgment, nor exempt from infirmities of tem- 
per and temperament, which at times cloud the intellectual 
vision, he was always credited with good motives and manly 
conduct. . 

The two associates worked together in harmony, as a rule, 
although such positive natures must have clashed occasionally 
in determining the policies to be pursued. Immersed together 
in many seething cauldrons of controversy, they often emerged 
discomfited, but never disma^^ed. Both cherished high ideals 
of journalistic responsibility. They repudiated the practices of 
those editorial parasites who cultivate an animal instinct until 
it approaches human sagacity in selecting a popular issue and 
then promptly changing it when the babble and jingle of cur- 
rent furor subsides. The editor who adopts this standard in- 
fluences nobody: he permits everybody to influence him. He 
drifts with the tide, sprinkling all his utterances with a ster- 
ilized mist until the drift is discerned. Whether afflicting man- 
kind through the pages of the daily yellow, the weekly roast, 
or the monthly muck-rake, he is a functional derelict. 

No such perversion of allegiance marred the record of 
Wheelock and Driscoll. They were early in adopting and per- 
sistent in maintaining the standards of the press which made 
public opinion the paramount force in society and government. 
Healthfully directing this public opinion, the press of those 
days became an instrument of communication, a vehicle of in- 
fluence ; not the creator of civilization, but a marvelous engine 
for its diffusion ; not perhaps moving the world, but moving 
with the world, and recording all its movements. In tliis ca- 
pacity it developed into a ramified, radiating, educational in- 
stitute, in whose laboratories the best thoughts and most prac- 


tical intelligence were raw material, to be worked and re- 
worked into progressive institutions. 

"While Mr. Wheelock had little or no taste for business de- 
tails and left them all to his capable partner, it does not follow 
that Mr. Driscoll was equally unconcerned with matters per- 
taining to the editorial province. 

Sarcasm and stigma have been lavished by unthinking 
phrase-coiners and wind-spinners on the charge that certain 
newspapers are ''edited in the counting room.'^ In one sense, 
the paper that is not edited in the counting room will not be 
edited at all, for any considerable length of time. Nor does 
this fact presuppose venality, or a lapse into the paths of con- 
solidated corporation publicity. Even in the most independent 
and progressive journals, the business manager must be con- 
sulted as to the broad lines of editorial policy, as to allowable 
expenditures for news service, and as to the personnel of the 
staff, as well as their compensation. He thus becomes, to all 
intents and purposes, the managing editor, and has weighty 
prerogatives outside the vital function, naturally assigned to 
him, of providing the ways and means. 

Mr. Driscoll was all this to the Press and the Pioneer Press 
for thirty-six years. He probably wrote few editorials. He 
probably censored few of Mr. AYheelock's writings, — it might 
have been better for the paper and the party if he had censored 
more of them, for his was the cooler brain. But that he forti- 
fied many of the strongest positions, energized many of the most 
creditable achievements and inspired many of the most tren- 
chant utterances, is a well established truth of history. Thus 
in the broadest meaning of the term, Frederick Driscoll was a 

From the conjunction of AVheelock and Driscoll, in the own- 
ership of the St. Paul Daily Press and the harmonious adjust- 
ment of their respective functions, dates the entrance of the 
latter into a field of state-wide influence. His great oppor- 
tunity had come, and he embraced it with the ardor that vital- 
ized all his enthusiasms. He became a militant ]\[iunesotan. 

Sir Isaac Newton, modestly disclaiming praise for his scien- 
tific triumphs, attributed them to the broader vision he en- 



joyed through standing on the shoulders of giants who had pre- 
ceded him, Galileo and Kepler and Copernicus and the rest. To 
these he yielded primacy of honor. 

But the early Minnesotans had no predecessors in their 
splendid work. The}^ did not stand on the shoulders of giants. 
They were giants themselves, as if nourished on lions' milk 
and the marrow of bisons. Toiling terribly, they wrought 
mightily in their several spheres, each solicitous to do his manly 
part in building and embellishing the grand structure which 
his prophetic eye clearly discerned. 

Minnesota was an empire from the day it was founded. 
Saint Paul was a city at the hour it was born. 

There were giants in those days, and Frederick Driscoll was 
with them and of them. He stood shoulder high with the 
pioneers, like Alexander Ramsey and Henry M. Rice and H. H. 
Sibley and AVilliam R. Marshall. He kept step with the de- 
velopments worked out by E. F. Drake and AY. L. Banning and 
W. F. Davidson and George L. Becker and Oliver Dalrymple 
and Thomas Lowry and James J. Hill, the empire builders, the 
men who did things. He sat in council with such financiers as 
Erastus Edgerton and Horace Thompson and H. P. Upham. 
He measured up to the intellectual standard of jurists like Gil- 
fillan and Cornell and Cole and Flandrau and R. R. Nelson and 
George B. Young. In politics, he was the trusted adviser of 
AYindom and Pillsbury and Dunnell and Washburn and Wil- 
kinson and John B. Sanborn and Cushman K. Davis; the 
dreaded antagonist of Donnelly and Eugene Wilson and Nor- 
ton and Coggswell. He was the co-worker in business enter- 
prise with John Nicols and C. D. Strong and P. H. Kelly and 
C. AY. Hackett and Channing Seabury and J. C. Burbank. He 
worked in the ranks of journalism for the upbuilding of the 
State, heart to heart with J. A. AYheelock and AY. S. King and 
J. A. Leonard and Daniel Sinclair. He walked hand in hand, 
in gracious deeds of philanthropy and benevolence, with D. W. 
Ingersoll and Wilford L. Wil son and D. R. Noyes and Thomas 
Cochran. "With bowed head, reverently, he marched abreast of 
churchmen like S. Y. McIMasters and D. R. Breed and E. D. Neill 


and II. B. Whipple and John Ireland, in paths that lead to 
righteousness through Christian faith and hope. 

It were an honor to any man who sustained himself for a 
long series of years, on terms of acknowledged equality in a 
companionship like this, emulating the brotherhood at King 
Arthur's table round, the goodliest fellowship of famous 
knights whereof the world holds record. Frederick DriscoU 
thus sustained himself and more. In numerous vital emergen- 
cies, he was pushed forward, in one or another of these several 
fields of usefulness and honor, to a position of applauded lead- 
ership, and in no such case did he fail to vindicate amply the 

His early outlook and outreach had even a wider signifi- 
cance. They comprehended questions of national import, and 
involved considerations of loftiest patriotism. Mr. Driscoll 
was not only a Territorial Pioneer, but was a staunch and loyal 
supporter of Lincoln and the Union in the dark and bloody 
days of the war for the suppression of the slaveholders' rebel- 
lion, the days that tried men's souls. 

The issues of the hour were clearly defined. In regard to 
them the paper published by AVheelock and Driscoll sounded 
always the clarion note of unconditional loyalty. The domi- 
nant issue was the life of the Republic. On that question there 
could be no equivocation or compromise, — he who was not for 
the country was against it. And in all the years succeeding, 
these patriots of the war era were ever the champions of the 
veteran soldiers of the Republic in every just appeal to the 
gratitude of the nation. The predominating tenet in their 
creed of civics was aggresive, progressive Americanism. 

My personal acquaintance with Mr. Driscoll began at the 
first meeting of the ^Minnesota Editorial Association in Feb- 
ruary, 1867. lie was the chairman of the local committee which 
invited the editors of the state to come to St. Paul. He was 
master of ceremonies at the initial assemblages, toastmaster at 
the banquet, and in general the director (if not the originator) 
of the movement which during forty-four years has done so 
much for the publisliing fraternity of Minnesota, meanwhile 
developing into a powerful national association, which origi- 


nated here. The state organization was, from the beginning, 
with the full approval of the city members, specially devoted to 
the interests of the country press, but, as one of its founders, 
. Mr. Driscoll always felt a personal pride in its prosperity. 

In 1867 he was appointed Chairman of the Republican State 
Central Committee, and held the position until 1870, conduct- 
ing with skill the campaigns which resulted in the second elec- 
tion of Governor IMarshall and the first election of Governor 
Austin. He was during this period and subsequently the mov- 
ing spirit in what we called ''the Ramsey dynasty," the inner 
circle of leading Republicans who had in charge the political 
fortunes of Senator Ramsey. Governor Marshall, Gen. R. N. 
McLaren, Mr. Driscoll, and Mr. AVheelock, composed this inner 
circle, and they so managed affairs as to indicate, with a view 
to the Senator's continued tenure, most of the nominations for 
state officers, Congressmen, etc., as well as most of the appoint- 
ments to Federal positions, during at least a full decade of 
Minnesota history. It was a puissant combination, devoted to 
what its members then believed to be a laudable purpose, as 
indeed is now conceded by some of their surviving opponents. 

In May, 1870, Joseph A. Wheelock was, on the recommen- 
dation of Senator Ramsey, appointed Postmaster of St. Paul, 
by President Grant. The office in those days was usually 
treated as a sinecure, a political perquisite^ not necessarily in- 
volving personal attention to its duties. The previous incum- 
bent, Dr. J. H. Stew^art, had continued his lucrative medical 
practice without interruption. ^Ir. Wheelock made Mr. Dris- 
coll assistant postmaster, thus accomplishing the doubly desir- 
able object of ensuring a competent business supervision of the 
post office and of securing a welcome recourse, for upbuilding 
the Republican party organ, of perhaps seven thousand dollars 
a year from their united salaries. 

During the five years they filled these positions, Mr. Dris- 
coll gave all necessary attention to the postal work. In the 
beginning he demonstrated his executive ability by choosing 
Patrick O'Brien, from among his employees in the Press count- 
ing room, to handle the post-office money and keep the accounts. 
Mr. O'Brien is there today, having served continuously as As- 


sistant Postmaster since 1875, with the unqualified approbation 
of all succeeding administrations. Compared with its present 
operations and functions, the St. Paul post office was in 1869 of 
limited scope. But even then it was important, as the center 
of an expanding mail system. ^Ir. Driscoll managed its affairs 
efficiently, introduced many substantial reforms, and when, by 
the mutations of politics, Dr. David Day became postmaster 
in 1875, turned over to him the well organized up-to-date postal 
plant which it has ever since remained. If Mr. Driscoll had 
done nothing else that was noteworthy during his post-office 
incumbency, the discovery of Patrick O'Brien and his induc- 
tion into the service would be a title to public gratitude. 

Senator Ramsey's second term expired March 4, 1875, and 
his friends waged a furious campaign for his re-election, of 
which campaign Mr. Driscoll was the commander-in-chief. 
Three candidates for Republican support were entered against 
him, — C. K. Davis, W. D. ^Yashburn, and Horace Austin. After 
long delay and much heart-burning, Hon. S. J. R. McMillan, 
chief justice of the Supreme Court of the state, was elected as 
a compromise. Alexander Ramsey retired from the Senate, and 
the Saint Paul Press lost faith in the virtue of the party, if not 
in the perpetuity of the Republic. 

One of the earliest official acts of Senator ^Ec^Iillan was to 
demand the removal of Mr. Wheelock and the appointment of 
Dr. David Day, the Senator's brother-in-law, as postmaster of 
St. Paul. Party usage constrained President Grant reluctantly 
to acquiesce, and the change was made. ]\Ir. Driscoll ceased to 
be de facto postmaster, but left his salutary impress and his 
proficient helper behind him. 

Shortly after this occurrence the startling announcement 
was made that the Pioneer and the Press had been consolidated 
under the management of AYheelock and Driscoll, and that the 
Pioneer Press was to be conducted as an independent journal, a 
thing then unprecedented in ^Minnesota politics. 

By this consolidation, the oldest newspaper in the state, the 
Pioneer, became the senior segment of the coming colossus of 
the Northwestern press. The merger took effect April 11, 
1875. A year later, the Pioneer Press acquired the Morning 



Tribune and the Evening Mail, at Minneapolis, suspended 
their publication, and for a time held a monopoly of the daily 
newspaper field of the Twin Cities, except the St. Paul Even- 
ing Dispatch. 

Mr. Driscoll was necessarily the prime factor in negotiating 
and effecting these several fusions or amalgamations, in each 
case adding to the prestige and profits of his great journal. 
Whether the ablest survive, or only those ablest to survive, the 
survivals concededly receive the credit and reap the rewards. 
In his admirable history of Minnesota Journalism, in this 
Society's Collections (Volumes X and XII), Mr. D. S. B. John- 
ston traces the pedigree of the Pioneer Press, and shows that 
nineteen daily and weekly newspapers were first and last 
absorbed into its ravenous organism. 

The Pioneer had been a Democratic paper, and the Press 
had been Republican. It seemed to be both logical and prudent 
that the consolidated sheet should be independent. But its 
new owners were too sincerely attached to their party prin- 
ciples, and had too long held front seats in the party councils, 
to refrain permanently from partisan and even factional in- 
terposition. Within two years the Pioneer Press was as solic- 
itous for Republican nominations as the familiar Press had 
been for fifteen years preceding. 

In the interim of attempted neutrality, however, the Re- 
publicans of the state, feeling lost without an ''organ" at the 
capital, which was then deemed essential to the maintenance 
of party ascendancy, purchased from H. P. Hall the Demo- 
cratic St. Paul Evening Dispatch, and transformed it into an 
exponent of unconditional Republicanism. Thenceforward for 
ten years the Dispatch was mostly under the editorial control 
of the writer hereof. During that period and long afterward 
the Dispatch at least shared equally with the Pioneer Press 
the honors of a consistent advocacy of Republican principles, 
and of choosing the winners among Republican candidates 
for nominations, — in the latter performance the two papers 
being invariably on opposite sides. 

After 1875 Mr. Driscoll 's aggressive personal leadership in 
political contests had measurably ceased. In 1879 he led a sue- 


cessful campaign for Governor Pillsbury's third term nomina- 
tion; in 1881 he tried to rehabilitate Alexander Ramsey as a 
senatorial candidate, but failed; the same year he supported 
Governor Pillsbury's unsuccessful candidacy for a fourth 
term ; in 1883 he was prominent in the movement to re-elect 
Senator AVindom, who was defeated. In these struggles he 
was of course supported by the Pioneer Press, which was an- 
tagonized by the Dispatch and by ninety per cent of the Repub- 
lican country papers throughout the state. The scepter had 

As a result of these and other episodes, the Pioneer Press 
and its conductors gradually lost in political prestige. But 
in the legitimate newspaper field, in news gathering, in the 
intelligent presentation and discussion of important events, 
in expanding circulation and increasingly profitable advertis- 
ing patronage, the enterprising journal went on conquering 
and to conquer. As always, Frederick DriscoU guided its 
financial destinies. His eye was on every detail of its compli- 
cated business, and that of the manufacturing and mercantile 
branches he had built up around it, the printing, binding and 
lithographing establishment, the wholesale paper and station- 
ery trade, and the ready-print auxiliary, each an industry in 

Yet amid all the exacting demands of this, the busiest time 
of his busy life, he always found leisure for cheerful participa- 
tion in matters relating to the public welfare. In this capacity 
he was one of the strongest and most useful men our city and 
state have ever known. The real value of his truly unselfish 
service cannot be overestimated. He was the cultured man, 
the gentleman, in the highest meaning of those expressions. 
Yet his was a militant soul. He was not merely a good man 
negatively; he went out and fought for the faith that was in 

His interest in everything that pertained to business ex- 
tensions, municipal policies, and official responsibilities, made 
him a leader among the men vvho were shaping the evolution 
of our ambitious and struggling young city. Every step in 
St. Paul's advance had to be worked and fought for against 


vigorous rivalry. No more zealous worker or more chivalrous 
fighter than Frederick DriscoU contributed to the ultimate 

One of the chief instrumentalities through which the un- 
failing public spirit of ^Ir. DriscoU was manifested was the 
Board of Directors of the Saint Paul Chamber of Commerce. 
During thirty-five strenuous years this organization had an 
influential part in shaping the policies which built up the 
metropolis out of a struggling trading post. During that pe- 
riod, I sat with him in that body, composed of about fifty active 
citizens in professional and business lines, who met at nine 
o'clock every ^Eonday morning to discuss and act on measures 
of general interest. Thus I witnessed his intelligent zeal for 
the public good, saw the results of his arduous labors on many 
committees, learned to recognize and admire his self-reliant - 
leadership at critical crises in our municipal annals. In 1890, 
at one of its most strenuous epochs, he served as president of 
this powerful organization. 

Among the numerous important matters in which he thus 
exercised a potent influence, were the extension of early rail- 
road systems and the location of their shops and headquarters ; 
securing manufacturing and commercial establishments; build- 
ing two State Capitols, the Court House, the Federal Buildings, 
depots and hotels; locating schools, colleges, parks, bridges, 
and street car lines; regulating taxation and bond issues; 
establishing water works ; encouraging immigration ; and pro- 
moting all enterprises that promised benefits to the people. 
Scarcely one of these failed to receive the special impress of his 
good sense and untiring effort. 

A typical instance of Mr. DriscoU's single-hearted devotion 
to his conception of civic duty occurred in 1890. In that year 
the Chamber of Commerce appointed a committee on the Cen- 
sus, instructed to stimulate, by legitimate means, the federal 
authorities in securing a full and fair enumeration of this 
city. The committee consisted of Frederick DriscoU, Charles 
Nichols, and the writer hereof. It was a period of intense ri- 
valry between Minneapolis and St. Paul, and without the knowl- 
edge of our committee the acting mayor of this city, Mr. 0. 0. 


Cullen, employed skillful detectives to watch the census opera- 
tions of our aggressive twin. Unmistakable evidence was se- 
cured that systematic methods for improperly swelling the 
'population rolls were being employed there. Advised of this, 
the St. Paul census committee made complaint to the census 
bureau at "Washington, which, on investigation, found that a 
flagrant violation of law was being perpetrated. Warrants 
were sworn out; the two managing agents of the conspiracy 
were arrested; a wagonload of incriminating fraudulent sched- 
ules was secured, and the scheme by which it was proposed to 
add 50,000 names to the lists was thwarted. 

A stupendous explosion of local indignation promptly en- 
sued. The honest people of Minneapolis, innocent, and igno- 
rant of the work in which a few of their unscrupulous leaders 
had been secretly engaged, denounced the seeming outrage of 
the proceedings taken in St. Paul, and blazed forth in fierce 
wrath against those responsible for it. Well to the front among 
those who were thus marked for vengeance was Frederick 
Driscoll. He had most to lose, but he did not shirk nor quail. 
The Pioneer Press had then a large daily circulation and a 
profitable advertising patronage in Minneapolis, which was lost 
in a day and w^as never afterwards regained. But ^^Ir. Driscoll 
and Mr. Wheelock and their paper stood by their guns at the 
cost of many thousands of dollars, and of a journalistic ''dual 
city'* prestige which had been their joy and pride. 

They were sustained by St. Paul sentiment. The movement 
resulted in a fair count in both cities. The arrested criminals 
were indicted, pleaded guilty, and were punished by heavy 
fines, thus vindicating the proceedings taken and those con- 
cerned in them. But the pecuniary loss suffered by the paper 
and its owners was, of course, never recompensed. It was a 
deliberate sacrifice to the obligations of good citizenship, as 
understood by those wlio made it. 

Another manifestation of Mr. DriscoU's progressive public 
spirit was seen in the fine buildings he caused to be erected in 
St. Paul, and in his participation in the development of subur- 
ban property. W^hen I first met him, the Press office was a 
dilapitated half-subterranean structure at the Wabasha street 



bridge. In 18G9 he built a new and, for the time, elegant stone 
building at Third and Minnesota streets. Five years later, this 
being outgrown, its capacity was increased fourfold by addi- 
tions to its length, breadth, and height. About 1888, he built 
the magnificent Pioneer Press Building at Fourth and Robert 
streets. He scrutinized every feature of its construction with 
careful attention. After more than twenty years it still remains 
the finest structure in the city, a monument to his far-reaching 
enterprise. Now that the newspaper plant has been removed, 
it ought to be rechristened ''The Driscoll P>lock," as a tangible 
and enduring tribute to his memory. On Summit avenue, he 
built one of the most sumptuous of its stately homes, that now 
occupied by IMr. Frederick Weyerhaeuser. He was the leader 
in building up a prosperous manufacturing suburb at North 
St. Paul, an undertaking in advance of the demands of the 
time, and of no pecuniary profit to himself or his associates, 
but now partially recognized as a valuable tributary to the city. 

A crucial test of individual merit is the estimation with 
which one is held by those in long and near association with 
him as subordinates and employees. On the whole, several 
thousands of persons were employed in the various depart- 
ments of the allied concerns managed by Mr. Driscoll, and few 
indeed will be found that did not see in him a helper and a 
friend. In the best newspaper offices of the country, in banks 
and counting rooms, from ocean to ocean, will be found success- 
ful men who are earnest in their ascriptions of praise for the 
training they received at his hand. In the higher ranks of the 
writers attached to his editorial staff at different periods were 
such strong and able men as Louis E. Fisher, Charles Yale, 
Harlan P. Hall, David Blakeley, James H. Davidson, Paul 
Selby, F. A. Carle, J. G. Pyle, Conde Hamlin, W. C. Handy, 
and others equally notable, each abundantly equipped for inde- 
pendent service, but all paying to their one-time employer the 
homage of their respect and esteem. 

Owing to mutations of fortune caused by conditions which 
he could not foresee, and for which he was in no way respon- 
sible, Mr. Driscoll surrendered the management of the Pioneer 


Press corporation on December 1, 1899, after a continuous serv- 
ice of more than thirty-six years. 

The momentum given to its varied business operations by 
his masterly supervision was so powerful that all have been 
maintained unimpaired to this day. During the intervening 
eleven years, the newspaper has passed to the ownership of 
Mr. George Thompson, Proprietor of the Dispatch, both jour- 
nals retaining their old names and their individuality as to 
hours of publication, etc. ; the Newspaper Union ready print 
department has become a separate institution ; the manufac- 
turing and commercial branch has organized into the Pioneer 
Printing Company, with ^Ir. Walter J. DriscoU as its president ; 
the superb office building is now under distinct proprietorship 
and control. Thus the great enterprise built up by Frederick 
DriscoU has been segregated into at least four flourishing estab- 
lishments, each requiring unremitting diligence and exceptional 
managerial skill. 

At the age of sixty-six, two years beyond the supposed 
limit of efficiency in officers of the army, he laid down the spe- 
cial burden he had carried for a generation, but he did not re- 
tire. On the contrary, he entered on a new career, which led 
him into even higher, wider ranges of endeavor than those in 
which he had previously toiled and triumphed. 

He had already become a national figure in lines connected 
with practical journalism. He was one of the founders of the 
Associated Press, the universal news-gathering agency of the 
country. In 1881 he became one of its directors, and for ten 
years served on the Executive Committee of three, which gov- 
erned its affairs. He was also a member of the Executive 
Committee of the American Newspaper Publishers Association, 
embracing the dailies of all the principal cities. In 1891 he 
was chosen chairman of a special committee of this body to ex- 
amine the merits and possibilities of type-setting machines, then 
regarded with suspicion by publishers and with open hostility 
by printers. After patient and thorough investigation this 
committee recommended the adoption of the new invention in 
newspaper offices, thus revolutionizing the business, making 



the cheap newspaper possible, and vastly extending the facili- 
ties for the diffusion of human knowledge. 

Thus prominently identified with the leading publishing 
interests by long association, his colleagues at once availed 
themselves of the opportunity, when he left the Pioneer Press, 
to enlist his services in a very important capacity, for which 
he was known to possess rare qualifications. A national board 
of arbitration was created. It was composed of the special 
standing committee of the American Newspaper Publishers 
Association and the executive council of the International Typo- 
graphical Union. Of this national board Frederick DriscoU 
was early in 1900 made Commissioner of Arbitration, with wide 
discretionary authority and a liberal provision as to salary 
and expenses. 

The duties of this position covered the adjustment of all 
controversies betwen publishers and printers. They were com- 
plicated and exacting, involving the weariness of long jour- 
neys across the continent, the strain of settling acrimonious 
disputes, and the labor of framing agreements between the par- 
ties thereto. His long experience as a publisher, his firm but 
conciliatory and diplomatic methods, enabled him to handle 
questions of extreme delicacy, in which large money consider- 
ations were at stake, as well as pride of opinion and issues 
seemingly irreconcilable between labor and capital. He was 
implicitly trusted, from the beginning, by the publishers, and 
soon grew to be held in the highest esteem by the labor unions. 
Ever insisting on justice, his conduct was so eminently fair and 
his manner so persuasive that he effected a complete adjust- 
ment in every case submitted to his arbitrament, — a record un- 
paralleled in the history of trade contentions. He assuredly 
earned in this life, and has received in the life beyond, the 
blessing promised to the Peacemakers. 

He was a pioneer in the movement for better relations be- 
tween employer and employed. He had no precedents to guide 
him. He was obliged to blaze his way through a forest of tan- 
gled prejudices and animosities, arrogant defiance on one side, 
and sullen contumacy on the other. These had brought strikes 
and lockouts, sometimes riots, always costly to both parties, 


demoralizing the community and paralyzing its productive in- 

Various remedies had been tried, all of which had failed. 
Finally the publishers and printers decided to seek relief in a 
policy of concilation and arbitration. As a motto they might 
have combined the phrases of two eminent Union commanders : 
**War is hell — let us have peace!" Providentially they found 
Frederick Driscoll competent and willing, and with leisure to 
inaugurate the experiment. Organized labor and the associated 
employers of labor saw in him a mutual friend. Expert, just, 
patient, persistent, and ever kindly, he always found in the end 
a common ground of fairness on which all could meet and frame 
a satisfactory agreement for their future guidance. 

He gave himself to this fruitful mission, with ever increas- 
ing capacity for good, during the remainder of his life. How 
fully he succeeded in accomplishing the duty assigned him, is 
most conclusively shown by the voluntary tributes transmitted 
to his family, after his decease, by the national jurisdiction 
best qualified to appreciate his work. 

A memorial brochure, beautifully engrossed and bound, con- 
tains Resolutions adopted and signed by the National Board 
of Arbitration, including James M. Lynch, Hugo Miller, and 
J. W. Bramwood, representing the International Typographical 
Union, which read: 

"Whereas, death has summoned from among us Frederick Dris- 
coll, Commissioner of the American Newspaper Publishers Associa- 
tion, and V\'hereas, the members of this National Board of Arbitra- 
tion desire to bear witness to their very high appreciation of his valued 
services to the Publishers as well as to the International Typographical 
Union, to his fair-mindedness and unceasing efforts to promote the 
mutual interests of employers and employees, and to his many esti- 
mable and lovable qualities as a man; Therefore, Be it Resolved, that 
the members of this board feel that in Frederick Driscoll's death they 
have lost a distinguished associate and a warm personal friend." 

An equally sumptuous volume, suitably embellished, con- 
tains the ^lemorial to Mr. Driscoll from the Publishers' Asso- 
ciation of New York City, adopted iMarch 27, 1907. 

It is signed by the publishers of the New York Times, the 
Tribune, the Sun, the American, the Journal of Commerce, the 



World, the Evening Post, the Staats-Zeitung, the Brooklyn 
Eagle, etc., and is of similar tenor. These two testimonials 
constitute a significant and conclusive tribute to his exalted 
worth. They will be a precious heirloom for his descendants. 

Innumerable editorial tributes to his memory from the press 
of the United States testified to the esteem in which he was 
held by associates of all parties and in every section. In these 
. conspicuous mention was made of the beneficial results accom- 
plished by the Arbitration Commissioner during his seven 
years' arduous service. 

The distinguished success of Mr. Driscoll in this new field, 
of adjusting the relations between employers and employees, 
led to its adoption in other branches of industry, and the pro- 
cess of extending the policy of arbitration is still going on. 
Comments at a meeting of another national body, which has 
entered upon the same course are as follows : 

"Plans for the elimination of strife are not only going to meet 
with the approval of trade unionists, but are going to be sanctioned 
by the general public, who are anxiously awaiting the evolution of 
things, so that warfare between employers and employees may be 
averted. In the struggle for supremacy between organized capital and 
organized labor, there are three great forces at work. At one extreme 
there are those who say that trades unions are un-American and a 
menace to our Republic. To bring about their annihilation they ac- 
cumulate corruption funds, maintain lobbies, hire strike-breakers, and 
through court proceedings try to tie up the funds of the ITnions. At 
the other extreme we have the radicals who declare that wage-slavery 
must be abolished, and that only through publicly owned monopolies 
Is industrial peace possible. Between these two extremes lies the 
Arbitration idea. Its guiding principle is the making of collective 
Instead of individual contracts, and the adjustment of points of dis- 
pute by arbitration. Our plan of action is to form a coalition with the 
unions for the purpose of maintaining peace. It is understood that the 
exigencies of the business must be taken into consideration, so that 
the customer may be treated with fairness and not have to pay the 
onerous expenses of strikes and lockouts." 

Wherever tried in good faith this policy is said to be ef- 
fective for the object intended. Peace is promoted with profit 
to both sides and to the general public. Thus the results of the 
culminating exploit of Frederick Driscoll are spreading in great 
waves of benignity over the land. If the permanent meliora- 


tions that are now reasonably expected shall be compassed, he 
will be conceded high rank among the nation's benefactors. 

Mr. Driscoll's engagements as Commissioner of Arbitration 
required the establishment of his headquarters in Chicago, and 
he removed from St. Paul to that city in 1900. Thereafter he 
was obliged to travel almost continuously in the performance 
of his duties. A naturally robust physical constitution, forti- 
fied by the good habits of a lifetime, had kept his general health 
sound; but an organic trouble, requiring, in the aggregate, 
seven severe surgical operations, sapped his vitality by degrees 
and led to almost ceaseless suffering. In spite of these afflic- 
tions he went on with his work for seven years, heroically bat- 
tling to the last with bodily tortures that would have baffled 
any but an unconquerable will. 

Finally, in March, 1907, he felt unequal to further service 
as Commissioner, and tendered his resignation to the Arbitra- 
tion Board. He was urged to accept an unlimited sick-leave, 
with continued salary and provision for the expenses of a trip 
to Europe in search of relief. This striking proof of apprecia- 
tion touched him very deeply, but its suggested advantages 
could not be realized. He gradually failed, and on March 23, 
1907, he passed peacefully away at his home in Chicago. Only 
two weeks before his death he had rendered valuable assist- 
ance, by wise counsel, in the settlement of a labor disagree- 
ment. He thus died, literally and appropriately, with his armor 
on, after an extended career of activity and usefulness and 

The funeral services were held in Saint Paul, ]\Iarch 26, 
1907, and were conducted by Dr. Henry C. Swearingen, pastor of 
the House of Hope Church. The pallbearers were AV. J. Dean, 
E. L. Shepley, AVe])ster AVheelock, Conde Hamlin, J. D. Arm- 
strong, and Dr. Archibald ]\IcLaren. The interment was at 
Oakland cemetery. 

He rests in peace. He had kept the faith. He had lanced 
a festering abscess in the bod}^ politic and applied healing lo- 
tions. He had stretched fresh wires into the domain of indus- 
trial economics and electrified them witii liis soul. 



Mrs. Ann Brown Driscoll died ]\[arch 31, 1880, leaving three 
sons. On November 8, 1882, Mr. Driscoll was married in New 
York City to Mrs. Lucy Norris Styles of St. Paul, who shared 
his successes and labors for twenty-five years. Mrs. Driscoll 
now resides in this city. There also survived him, his sons, 
Frederick Driscoll, Jr., Arthur B. Driscoll, and AValter J. Dris- 
coll ; his daughter, a\Irs. Robert H. Kirk ; and his step-son, John 
N. Jackson. 

In regard to the personal character of Mr. Driscoll, I speak 
from the fullness of knowledge and appreciation bom of forty 
years' intimate acquaintance. In politics we were sometimes 
in relations of affiliation, but often in those of intense antago- 
nism; in business life we were at times in keen rivalry, yet 
more frequently in close and harmonious association. But w^e 
were always personal friends, and all my recollections of him 
*are illuminated by the sincere respect which flows from an 
abiding friendship and affection. My sentiment is one of de- 
votion to his memory, inspiring a desire to record some of his 
titles to grateful remembrance. It is my hope that the Min- 
nesotans of today and of the future may keep, around the 
spot where he sleeps, the vigils of their heartfelt gratitude, 
evincing the same constancy and fidelity with which he gave 
his best endowments to their service. 

In his private life Mr. Driscoll was, from boyhood and in 
all relations, an exemplar of correct morals and earnest re- 
ligious convictions. He stood for what is best in framing the 
elements of our Christian civilization, the hope of the country, 
the light of the world. He was one of the first members of the 
House of Hope Presbyterian Church of St. Paul, and was a 
leader of the choir in its early days. He served for many years 
on its board of trustees, and was always a generous contributor 
to its denominational and benevolent agencies. By precept and 
example he lent encouragement to every judicious effort for 
the regeneration of society and the uplift of the race. 

In social circles his genial manners, added to his fine con- 
versational powers, brought to him many sincere and trusting 
friends. When recreation for a season drew him aside from 
his arduous labors, it was witli the most lively satisfaction and 


pleasure that he gave himself up to the full measure of social 
enjoyment; his conversation sparkled with wit and humor; his 
manner, winning with a fine civility, was frank, tender, and 
trusting. In fraternal societies he was prominent and popular. 
He was a Mason of the thirty-fourth degree, and fulfilled all 
obligations faithfully. He was the incarnation of uncondi- 
tional loyalty, — loyalty to his country, his home, and his 
friends. He was chivalrous to women, and little children loved 

In his ideal home life the amiable elements of his character 
were most pleasingly manifested. Those permitted even casual 
observations of that life were always impressed with its beau- 
tiful, affectionate simplicity. Methodical in business, even 
abrupt and emphatic at times, he was always in his home the 
devoted, thoughtful, considerate husband and father. His ten- 
der solicitude for the comfort of an invalid wife during sev- 
eral of the most toilsome, perplexing years in the prime of his 
manhood, was a revelation of his inmost soul that commanded 
the enduring regard of all who witnessed it. 

He was a courageous man, having the courage of his opin- 
ions. No hope of temporary advantage could ever tempt him, 
no flattery could cause him to swerve from his view of the 
right. Steadfast in the convictions of a well-matured, well- 
balanced mind, he stood firm in his position, and hence he was 
a wise counsellor, and a true friend. He could say No! and 
mean it, and stand by it. Thus accoutred, he went forward, 
taking no counsel of doubts or fears. In the corrupted cur- 
rents of the time Frederick DriscoU was incorruptible. In the 
thick of the fray he played the part of a man. 

Mr. Driscoll had many of the true elements of greatness. 
He was manifestly something more than a fortunate man. 
"What there Avas of greatness in his personality or his career is 
due not alone to good fortune, but to a blend of certain in- 
herent qualities, the qualities of honesty, generosity, firmness, 
and patriotism. 

Exceptional faculties of perception, reception, and reten- 
tion, joined to untiring industry,- — these constitute real great- 
ness, and, given or making opportunity, achieve distinguished 


success. Measured by the most exacting standards, Mr. Dris- 
coU was a successful man. It was not a success acquired by 
fortunate accident, nor by any sensational exploit, nor by the 
manipulations of frenzied finance. It was that which results 
from patient industry, careful thought, unceasing persistence, 
and a wonderful faculty for securing loyal service from em- 
ployees. One may pardonably felicitate himself on being hon- 
ored ^vith the confidence of such a man. 

For nearly forty years he was the controlling genius of a 
great newspaper plant, as well as of an extensive manufactur- 
ing establishment, and, latterly, of commercial adjuncts, all 
managed by one corporation of which he was the head. He did 
not inherit this property; he did not acquire it by doubtful 
means, or even purchase it ready made. He created it. He 
built it up and he grew with it, grasping and wielding its enor- 
mous influences, mastering its innumerable details, until, in all 
its business aspects at least, his name and that of the publica- 
tion with its auxiliaries became interchangeable terms, — all the 
activities of the corporation were vitalized with his individu- 

What sturdy development a man's nature may receive from 
a long period of sustained service at the head of a great indus- 
trial enterprise, has been copiously observed in this era of mar- 
velous expansion. The industrial manager entertains no prej- 
udices and plays no favorite. He never indulges in malicious 
animal dogmati&m. He knows that success depends on pre- 
serving an absolutely open mind. His constant incentive is effi- 
ciency, and yet more efficiency. He knows that he is operating 
in a realm where brains are daily subjected to the polishing of 
the fiercest competition kno\^^l to man. 

Frederick Driscoll's career, with its share of trials and re- 
verses, was a success. It is full of good example, and of noble 
encouragement to the young men of today. He took the buffet- 
ing of ill fortune with fortitude, and accepted good fortune 
gratefully, but without false pride. Born and reared with no 
wealth, with no inherited prestige to rest upon, alone with his 
own great mind and energies, he became one of the notable 
men of a notable era in this wonderful new Northwest. 


He was easily one of the foremost in the front rank of his 
contemporaries. He left the indelible impress of his excep- 
tional talents, his tireless industry, and his inflexible integrity, 
on many features of the advancement of this city, of this State, 
and of the embryo communities beyond our Western border, 
which for three decades looked to this center as a source of in- 
formation, of political guidance, of commercial and financial 

And perhaps his last days were his best days. Having 
served faithfully in diverse fields of local effort, with wide radia- 
tions of beneficent influence, he was, at an age which entitled 
him to retirement and rest, transferred to spheres of national 
achievement, yielding distinction it is the privilege of few to 

He did not retire, and he did not rest. Well past three 
score years and ten, his untiring energies still consecrated to 
good works, he fell, at last, a mailed warrior of the Empire of 
Peace and Civilization, *'rich in honor and glorious with 


Vol. X\\ Plate XVII. 


Soldier, Or.\tor, Statesman.* 


James Shields was born in County Tyrone, Ireland, May 12, 
1806. Many authorities place this date four years later, but the 
original family records, now in the hands of St. Paul relatives, 
confirm much collateral evidence of the correctness of this 
statement. He was of notable ancestry. In the paternal line 
it was distinctly Irish and Catholic, but a great-grandmother 
was English, and his mother was Scottish. For generations the 
Shields family were people of property, education, and consid- 
eration, living at Cranfield, County Antrim, Province of Ulster. 
At the battle of the Boyne, in 1690, Daniel Shields and four 
sons fought on the losing side, that of King James II. There 
the father and one son were killed. Two of the surviving sons 
went to Spain, where one of them became a general and finally 
Captain General of Cuba. Daniel, the youngest son, remained in 
Ireland, but suffered from the confiscations and banishment 
visited on the Catholic soldiers of the dethroned king by "Wil- 
liam of Orange, the victor. 

This Daniel married an English girl, whom he had roman- 
tically rescued from drowning, and settled on mountain land 
at Altmore, County Tyrone. He was the direct ancestor of the 
future American general and senator. Charles Shields, a grand- 
son of Daniel, married Katherine McDonnell, of Glencoe, Scot- 
land, lineage, a woman of education and refinement. To them 
were born James, the subject of this memoir, Daniel, and Pat- 
rick, who thus inherited an infusion of the Scotch-Irish blood 
which has been manifest in many distinguished Americans. 
Daniel was the father of Lytton E. Shields and the grandfather 
of James Shields and Lytton J. Shields, all of whom have long 
resided in Saint Paul. 

♦Read at the monthly meeting- of the Executive Council. April 1?>, 


Charles Shields died when his son James was only six years 
old, but the mother, with her Scottish industry and thrift, raised 
her three boys well, giving them the best of existing educational 
facilities. James received some special attention, having early 
developed a taste for books which remained with him during 
his long and active career, and which was of great value in fit- 
ting him for the high positions that he occupied. Soon after 
his father's death, his uncle and namesake came from America, 
where he had lived for many years. The elder James had 
fouglit in the War for Independence, and in the War of 1812, 
on tlie American side, having been wounded in the Battle of 
New Orleans. He remained in Ireland for a few years, during 
which time he acted as schoolmaster to young James and laid 
the foundation for his military bent. This uncle had been pro- 
fessor of Latin and Greek in Charleston, S. C. The boy made 
rapid progress, and the uncle promised that when he grew 
older he would bring him to America and make him his heir. 
At that period also Ireland was full of old soldiers who had 
served in the British army in long campaigns against Bona- 
parte. From one of these young Shields learned fencing or 
sword exercise and became expert in that line. His early les- 
sons in the military drill were from the same source, and the 
rudiments of a military education were acquired from books 
presented to him by one of these veterans. Supplementing the 
education received from his uncle, was a classical training from 
a relative of his mother, a clergyman from Maynooth College. 
One of the old soldiers also taught him French, so that when 
he migrated to America he was unusually well educated for a 
boy of that period. 

Young Shields was a soldier by instinct. He drilled his 
school mates and led them in local battles with opposing clans. 
His shrewd devices, bold strategies, and firm discipline, made 
his force invincible. 

In 1822, at the age of sixteen, James Shields, mindful of his 
uncle's alluring offer, sailed from Liverpool for America. But 
vicissitudes followed him. His ship was driven a wreck on the 
coast of Scotland, and he was one of only three survivors. He 
remained several months in Scotland as tutor in a wealthy 



family. Then he embarked under better auspices. Arrived in 
America and failing to find his uncle, who had died in the in- 
terim, James adopted, for the time, a sailor's life, was purser 
on a merchantman, and became so expert in seamanship that 
many years later he was placed in command of a sailing vessel 
on the Pacific, whose officers were disabled, and brought her 
safely into port. His career as purser terminated in an acci- 
dent, which left him with both legs broken and sent him to a 
New York hospital for three months. 

He interrupted or supplemented this seafaring with service 
as volunteer in a campaign against the Seminole Indians. Au- 
thentic details of this episode are lacking, but he is said to have 
been a lieutenant and to have been wounded in battle, where 
he displayed marked gallantry. On this service rests his title 
of a soldier in three wars. 

Having now reached years of discretion, through varied ex- 
periences, young Shields chose the law as his profession, and 
the old French town of Kaskaskia in Illinois as his field of 
labor. This town, the Territorial capital of Illinois, being also 
the county seat of Randolph county, had been founded by La 
Salle in 1682; was garrisoned by the King of France in 1710 
with troops who in 1755 helped defeat Braddock at Fort Du- 
quesne ; and was captured by George Rogers Clark in 1777. 

He supported himself by teaching school in and near Kas- 
kaskia, his know^ledge of the French language being of great 
value then and afterw^ard. He was admitted to the bar in 1832, 
and opened an office. He gained so rapidly in acquaintance and 
popularity, that in 1835 he was elected a representative in the 
State Legislature, as a Democrat from Randolph county, then 
overwhelmingly Whig in sentiment. He took his seat at Van- 
dalia, the state capital, in January, 1836. Here he met, as 
fellow representatives, Douglas, Lincoln, Browning, Hardin, 
Baker, McClernand, and other young athletes of politics. 
Shields easily took his place on terms of equality in this dis- 
tinguished company. His personal appearance and manners 
were engaging. He was five feet nine inches tall, of fine figure 
and graceful bearing. His voice was well modulated; his 
speech frank, clear and resolute. He was prominent in debate 


and influential in council. It was a critical time in the affairs 
of Illinois, the inauguration of a policy of extensive public im- 
provements, in which the youthful legislator bore a progressive 

Shields served four years in the Legislature, gaining so 
much prominence that in 1839 he was elected State Auditor. 
Meantime, Springfield had become the state capital, and in 1840 
he began his residence there, which continued for fifteen years. 
His administration was so successful that in 1841 he was re- 
elected without opposition. 

While he occupied this important office he was involved in 
an affair of honor" with a Springfield lawyer, — no less a per- 
sonage than Abraham Lincoln. At this time "James Shields, 
Auditor," was the pride of the young Democracy. In the sum- 
mer of 1842 the Springfield Journal contained some letters from 
the "Lost Townships," by a contributor whose nom de plume 
was "Aunt Becca," which held up the gallant young Auditor 
to ridicule. These letters caused intense excitement in the 
town. Nobody knew their authorship except the editor of the 
paper, of whom Shields demanded the name. The real author 
was Miss Mary Todd, afterward the wife of Abraham Lincoln, 
to whom she was engaged, and who felt bound to assume the 
responsibility for her sharp pen thrusts. Mr. Lincoln accepted 
the situation. Not long after, the two men with their seconds 
were on their way to the field of honor. But the affair was 
adjusted without any fighting, and thus ended the Lincoln- 
Shields duel of the Lost Townships. The antagonists were ever 
afterward firm friends. 

Considering all the circumstances, the temperament of the 
respective parties, the customs and surroundings, there was 
nothing censurable in the conduct of either. Shields justly 
deemed himself grossly insulted and humiliated by some of the 
epithets in the letters, and bitterly resented. Lincoln felt in 
honor bound to represent his fiancee. Both displayed bravery 
in meeting the crisis and magnanimity in adjusting it. Times 
and customs have happily changed. Some mistaken friends on 
both sides have latterly felt impelled to discredit the whole 
story, but the trutli of history demands that it be correctly 


Stated. Existing files of the Springfield newspapers contain all 
the correspondence, no material part of which has ever been 

In 1843, Auditor Shields was appointed by the Governor as 
Justice of the Supreme Court of Illinois to succeed Stephen A. 
Douglas, who had been elected to Congress. He heard and de- 
cided many difficult cases. Among the great lawyers who prac- 
ticed at the bar when Judge Shields was on the supreme bench, 
were Abraham Lincoln, John M. Palmer, Lyman Trumbull, 0. 
H. Browning, E. .B. AVashburn, E. D. Baker, J. J. Hardin, 
Stephen T. Logan, J. C. Conkling, AY. Bushnell, and Archibald 
Williams. All of these men afterward acquired distinction, 
many of them becoming United States senators, congressmen, 
and judges. That Shields, who was still a young man, sus- 
tained himself in such exalted company, and afterward, in war 
and in peace, fully maintained his position with them and others 
of nation-wide renown, is conclusive tribute to his ability and 
energy. An eminent Minnesota lawyer of a later generation 
has carefully studied the decisions of Judge Shields, as re- 
corded in the Illinois Supreme Court Reports, and testifies that 
they bear conclusive evidence of a legal erudition and discrim- 
ination, rare in that period, and little to be expected of one so 
seemingly immersed in non-professional interests. 

In 1845, President James K. Polk appointed Judge Shields 
Commissioner of the General Land Office at AYashington. He 
was deeply interested in the important matters coming before 
this great bureau, and was solicitously preparing for such an 
energetic administration as the exigencies then demanded, 
when the outbreak of the ^Mexican AYar gave him a new oppor- 
tunity of proving his devotion to his adopted country. Presi- 
dent Polk, recognizing in him the qualities that constitute a 
great soldier, appointed him a brigadier general of United 
States volunteers. His commission was dated July 1, 1846. 

At the siege of Vera Cruz General Shields distinguished 
himself, and gave good promise of other valiant service. This 
promise was amply fulfilled at the battle of Cerro Gordo and at 
the storming of Chapultepee. At the former battle his deeds 
of valor seem like those of Koland at Roncesvalles or Ney at 


At Cerro Gordo he was severely wounded while leading his 
men, but he refused to quit the field. He advanced to the 
charge, when he was struck in the chest by an iron grapeshot, 
an inch in diameter, that passed through his lungs. He fell 
into the arms of Oglesby, afterward United States senator 
from Illinois, and was carried from the battlefield to all ap- 
pearances lifeless. The wound was skillfully treated by a 
French surgeon, who had been captured with the Mexicans, and 
in nine weeks he was again in the saddle. 

For his gallant conduct on this occasion, he was brevetted 
Major General, and his commanding officers, Generals Twiggs 
and Scott, both mentioned him in most laudatory terms in their 
official reports. Four months afterwards, he led the celebrated 
charge of the Palmettos" of South Carolina and the New 
York volunteers at the battle of Cherubusco, where the Mexi- 
cans, according to the official account of Santa Anna, lost one- 
third of their army. On the 13th of September, he was in the 
thick of the fight at Chapultepec. His horse having been shot 
under him. General Shields fought on foot, bareheaded and in 
his shirt sleeves, leading his brigade, sword in hand. His com- 
mand led the van into the City of Mexico and first planted the 
stars and stripes on the halls of the Montezumas. Here 
Shields received another severe wound, a fractured arm, but 
remained with his brigade until the goal was reached. Among 
the young subordinates and subalterns in the regular service, 
who participated in this victory and won early distinction, were 
U. S. Grant, Joseph E. Johnston, Robert E. Lee, James Long- 
street, George E. Pickett, and ''Stonewall" Jackson. 

One of the notable battle-pictures of the world, hanging in 
the corridors of the capitol at Washington, is that of the as- 
sault on Chapultepec, the citadel of the City of Mexico. It 
shows General Shields, easily distinguishable, in the thick of 
the fight, where he always loved to be. It thus, on the outer 
walls of the Senate, where ten years later he shed glory on 
Minnesota, certifies to his Imperishable renown. 

After the conquest of Mexico, and on July 28, 1848, General 
Shields' brigade was disbanded, and he returned, still feeble 
from his wound, to Illinois and resumed his law practice. His 



State presented to liim a sword that cost $3,000, and South Car- 
olina presented him a diamond-hilted sword which cost $5,000. 
AVhen he died, thirty-one years later, there were left to his 
widow and children the swords of Cerro Gordo, which, with his 
blessing, was about all he had to leave them. 

President Polk, recognizing General Shields' valuable serv- 
ices in Mexico, appointed him Governor of the new Territory 
of Oregon. But his election to the senatorship, which imme- 
diately followed, prevented his acceptance. 

The people of Illinois were not unmindful of the fidelity 
with which the General in his various civil and military capaci- 
ties had served them. Although Senator Breese, then in office, 
had greatly distinguished himself and was a candidate for re- 
election, yet Shields' popularity was so great that he defeated 
Breese and was elected United States Senator for the term of 
six years, commencing March 4, 1849. When he presented his 
credentials some technical question was raised as to their reg- 
ularity. He promptly resigned, returned to Illinois, and was 
at once re-elected. 

He entered the Senate as the colleague of Stephen A. Doug- 
las. He found there ^Yebster, Clay, Calhoun, Benton, and Cass, 
who w^ere among the grandest figures in our annals of states- 
manship, while Chase, Breckenridge, Jefferson Davis, Sumner, 
Fessenden, and Everett, were already entering upon their sev- 
eral spheres of action. This was the beginning of the end of 
the slavery struggle, which affected nearly every important 
debate in the Senate. Shields was opposed to the extension of 
slavery, although his party w^as for slavery, and he did not 
hesitate to express his opinions on the subject. He was placed 
on important committees. His work in constrictive legislation 
was intelligent, practical, and influential. He made many effec- 
tive speeches. He advocated grants of land to agricultural col- 
leges, to railroads, to soldiers, and to actual settlers under a 
liberal homestead law. 

Probably tlie most significant speech of General Shields in the 
Senate was that delivered in January, 1850, on the bill for the 
admission of California. This speech fills many pages in the 
reports, and is saturated throughout with the spirit of patriot^ 


ism, the spirit of liberty, the spirit of wisdom, the spirit of pro- 
phecy. On the attempt by the South to force slavery on Cali- 
fornia, he said : 

Sir, they are laying the foundation of a great empire on the shore 
of the Pacific, — a mighty empire, — an empire that at some future day 
will carry your flag, your commerce, your arts and your arms into Asia, 
and through China, Hindustan, and Persia, into Western Europe. Talk 
about carrying slavery there, of imposing such a blight upon that peo- 
ple, of withering their strength and paralyzing their energies by such 
an institution! No, sir; such a thing was never intended by God, and 
will never be permitted by man. It is sometimes urged here that our 
constitution carries slavery with it wherever it goes, unless positively 
excluded by law; in other words, that slavery is the normal law of this 
Republic. I think the principle is just the reverse. Slavery, being in 
violation of natural right, can only exist by positive enactment; and the 
constitution of this country only tolerates slavery where it exists, but 
neither extends or establishes it anywhere. 

Concerning the Southern threat of secession, he philosoph- 
ized thus eloquently and convincingly: 

But suppose the Southern Confederacy was now established, that 
it was quietly and peaceably established this moment, what would be 
the actual condition of the Confederacy? It could not exist a single day 
without a close and intimate connection with some great nation having 
all the elements of industrial, financial and commercial power. The 
South possesses none of these elements. It has plenty of cotton, and it 
has brave men and lovely women, but it is wholly destitute of all the 
other material elements of national power. In fact the Southern Con- 
federacy would be a mere colony of masters and slaves to raise cotton 
for the factories of England. Besides, sir, it is my firm conviction that 
the institution of slavery, as it now exists in the South, would not last, 
in its present shape, for the space of twenty years in that Southern Con- 
federacy, The South might as well attempt to shut out the pressure of 
the atmosphere, as to shut out the whole pressure of the civilized 
world on its cherished institutions. 

Senator Shields' term of six years expired March 4, 1855, 
and on February 8 preceding the Illinois legislature met in 
joint session to choose his sucessor. Shields was the Demo- 
cratic caucus nominee, but the embryo Republican party was in 
the ascendant and elected Lyman Trumbull in his stead. On 
the first ballot Shields received 41 votes, Abraham Lincoln 45, 
Lyman Trumbull 5, and 5 votes were scattered. On the last 
ballot the anti-Nebraska men concentrated on Trumbull and 



elected him, thus saving Lincoln for the great debate with 
Douglas three years later which made him President in 1860. 

On leaving the Senate in 1855, General Shields came to Min- 
nesota to select some lands that had been awarded for his war 
service. He was so favorably impressed with the country that 
he decided to go East and organize a large colony of Irish- 
Americans to settle on the fertile soil of Rice and Le Sueur 
counties. His project met with much general approval, but was 
vigorously opposed by Archbishop Hughes, then at the head of 
the American hierarchy, and was only partly successful. That 
this opposition policy was a mistaken one, both for the church 
and the people, was clearl}^ shown twenty-five years later by the 
grand work of another and a greater Archbishop, our esteemed 
prelate and citizen, John Ireland. What Shields, unimpeded, 
might have accomplished, with an earlier start and better oppor- 
tunities, can only be imagined. His wisdom and prescience can 
only be commended. He saw, as in a vision, the Clontarfs, 
Gracevilles, Green Isles, and Avocas, embosomed in prolific 
farmsteads, which we now see face to face. 

General Shields received a warm welcome in Minnesota. His 
fame had preceded him. for it was nation-wide. He brought 
with him more acquired eminence than any predecessor. He 
entered at once and with vigor on constructive work. He was 
one of the original proprietors of Faribault. He founded the 
town of Shieldsville, a few miles distant, as the center of his 
extensive rural settlements, but resided in Faribault for a con- 
siderable period. His colony prospered and is now one of our 
richest domains. 

When the first Legislature of the State of Minnesota con- 
vened in December, 1857, it was Democratic in politics and there 
was great rivalry between numerous candidates for the two 
United States senatorships. General Shields was a newcomer, 
with no local claims, but was suggested as a compromise ; and 
he was finally elected with Henry ^1. Rice, then the Territorial 
delegate. The General drew the short term, which expired on 
jMarch 4, 1859, while Mr. Rice had the allotment which carried 
him until 1863. The next Legislature was Republican, and 
Shields failed of re-election, for that reason alone, ^lorton S. 


"Wilkinson being chosen as his successor. Thus, for a second 
time, the shifting fortunes of his party, and not a lack of merit 
or popularity, prevented his return to the Senate. 

The value of Senator Shieds to this State cannot be meas- 
ured by the length of his term. His previous high status in 
the body to which he now returned, made him a worthy col- 
league of the astute pioneer, ^Mr. Rice ; they worked together in 
fine harmony and with rare effectiveness in securing liberal 
favors for the struggling young commonwealth. They ante- 
dated this militant generation, when the hand that rocks the 
cradle stones the premier, and the spear that smites the octopus 
knows no brother. But they helped found a State that has roy- 
ally justified their intelligent solicitude. 

That the services of General Shields to Minnesota were ap- 
preciated is testified to by the naming of a military company in 
St. Paul, ''The Shields Guards," in his honor. The manuscript 
files of the Minnesota Historical Society contain many letters 
from Shields to H. H. Sibley, during the period of his residence 
in this state, which throw instructive side-lights on political and 
social affairs of that period. 

On June 25, 1856, during the last j^ear of Franklin Pierce's 
administration. Shields wrote to Sibley, both being Democrats : 
"This administration has been the most insignificant that ever 
disgraced this great country." On November 21 of the same 
year, Buchanan having just been elected President to succeed 
Pierce, and Shields having gone to Washington to act as "best 
man" at the (second) marriage of his former colleague from 
Illinois, Senator Stephen A. Douglas, he said to Sibley of Buch- 
anan's proposed cabinet : ''My fears outrun my hopes. Buch- 
anan will be forced to take warring elements in, — disunionists 
from the South, presidential aspirants from the North. The 
South elected him, and wall make him a Southern President. If 
he yields to this, he is lost." Impartial history has long since 
verified these sagacious, independent statements and prophecies. 

Anent the Douglas wedding. Shields dropped a remark in 
this letter which the future also fully justified: "The bride, 
Miss Cutts, is a splendid person, and will be a great benefit to 
Judge Douglas. She has good sense, exquisite taste, and a 



kind, generous disposition. Her influence will improve his ap- 
pearance and soften his manners." 

This manuscript correspondence with Sibley shows that dur- 
ing the entire period of his residence in ^linnesota, Shields 
manifested a lively interest in public affairs generally as affect- 
ing the new State, and especially the region occupied by his 
Irish-American colonists. On June 7, 1859, after he had ceased 
to be Senator, we find him writing to Sibley, then Governor of 
Minnesota, from Faribault, that a meeting in that town at 
which he presided, had selected directors to choose a site for 
the State deaf and dumb asylum, including four from Faribault, 
William Sprigg Hall of St. Paul, and N. M. Donaldson of Owa- 

The memory of Gen. Judson "\V. Bishop supplies the nar- 
rative of an episode which we do not find of record, but which 
shows General Shields' dominating military spirit, and which 
came near giving him tlie title of a Soldier in four wars. AVhen 
the Indian massacre at Spirit Lake, Iowa, occurred in 1857, 
General Shields, then residing at Faribault, promptly rallied a 
company of his colonists and other citizens, had them armed 
and mounted and started for the scene of hostilities, about 150 
miles distant. Other bands of settlers, living nearer, arrived 
first, and the Indians had disappeared. General Bishop, head- 
ing a surveying party, met Shields' detachment on their re- 
turn, and vividly describes their zeal and ardor. Thus the for- 
mer brigade commander in Mexico, the future division com- 
mander in Virginia, was eciually ready to lead a hundred un- 
disciplined men in what might have been a very hazardous 

After retiring from office as Senator from Minnesota, Gen- 
eral Shields was led by business considerations to settle in Cal- 
ifornia. In San Francisco, in 1861, he was married to Miss 
Mary Carr, who was a daughter of Jerome and Sarah Carr and 
was bom August 15, 1835, in County Armagh, Ireland. Her 
father, a linen merchant, with the proverbial Irish large-heart- 
edness, had endorsed a note for a friend and thereby lost his 
fortune, the accumulation of years of industry and frugality. 
Looking, as so many others had done, for a place to recover 



his lost resources, he turned to America and settled in the city 
of Baltimore, where he died in 1852, his wife only surviving 
him a year. The daughter, thus left, for a time attended a 
convent boarding school and made her home with relatives. 

The Shields and Carr families were friends in Ireland, had 
intermarried, and quite naturally James Shields and Mary Carr 
met and were friends in America. During the summer of 1861 
Miss Carr was visiting at the convent in San Francisco, and 
when General Shields found he had business in that city, he 
pressed his suit and won his bride. They were married August 
16, 1861, in the Church of St. Ignatius. The General and his 
bride embarked that evening on a steamer for Mazatlan, 
Mexico, thus auspiciousl}^ beginning their matrimonial voyage 
on the smooth and placid waters of the Pacific, truly typical of 
the happy and tranquil domestic life which was ever theirs. 

Soon after Sumter was fired on. General Shields, blazing 
with loyalty and soldierly ardor, tendered his services to his 
old friend, now President of the United States. Official notice 
of his appointment as brigadier general of volunteers to date 
from August 19, 1861, reached him in Mexico, where he was 
manager of a profitable mine in which he had a large interest. 
As soon as his business affairs could be adjusted, he repaired 
to Washington and reported for duty. He was sent to the 
Shenandoah valley in Virginia, which had been the theater of 
much indecisive marching and fighting. 

March 7, 1862, General Shields assumed command of the 
division of General Lander, who had died two weeks before of 
Mexican war disabilities. The division instantly felt the magic 
of his touch, and although only a few men of his new command 
had previously been in battle, they recognized that their com- 
mander had brought with him his master hand, and if any 
soldier had doubts as to the courage or ability of General 
Shields the doubts soon vanished. In fact, within two weeks 
from his taking command they were fighting ''Stonewall" 
Jackson's army at AYinchester, on the 22d of March. The bat- 
tle continued two days, ending at Kernstown. Early in the 
engagement. General Shields was wounded, as usual, having 
his arm fractured and his shoulder badly torn by the explosion 


of a shell, and was carried from the field. But so thoroughly 
had he enthused his little division with his own invincible spirit 
that it went on and gained the victory, while Shields directed 
its movements from his cot of suffering three miles in the rear. 
Colonel Nathan Kimball, who succeeded to the leadership, offi- 
cially reports that he carried out his general's plans and fol- 
lowed his directions, until the field was won and "Stonewall" 
Jackson's invincible cohorts were in full retreat. This was two 
years before Sheridan sent Early "whirling up the valley," 
over some of the same ground. 

Of the close of the battle, in which Shields' division alone 
confronted Jackson's entire army. Colonel Kimball wrote: 
"With cheers from right to left our gallant soldiers pushed 
forward, and as the sun went down, our stubbornly yielding 
foe, who had thrice advanced to the attack, gave way and Jack- 
son's army was badly beaten, — his shattered brigades in full 
retreat." General Banks, Department Commander, congratu- 
lated the troops on their great victory, which had expelled 
Stonewall Jackson from the valley. Jackson retreated eighty 
miles to Harrisonburg, confessing his first and only defeat. 

General Shields' wound disabled him for five weeks. He 
resumed command of his division April 30, 1S62. Jackson had, 
after his defeat at Winchester and Kernstown, retreated so 
rapidly and so far that the authorities at Washington sup- 
posed he had returned to Richmond. Hence Shields' division, 
with other troops, was hurried across the Blue Ridge to rein- 
force McDowell at Fredericksburg. But Jackson had not left 
the valley, and he came back northward as rapidly as he had 
gone the other way. Shields was at once ordered to retrace 
his steps. The remainder of jMcDowell's corps were taken by 
rail to Aquia Creek, by transports to Alexandria, and by rail- 
road to Front Royal, where they arrived two days later than 
Shields' division. General Fremont w^ith his forces, had been 
ordered from the Kanawha Valley to get in the rear of Jack- 
son. Banks was reinforced, and Jackson, learning of these 
movements, again retreated up the Shenandoah. ^McDowell 
follo\ved. Shields in advance. At Port Republic, Jackson made 
a stand, and Shields disposed his division for another battle. 



He ordered Carroll, one of his brij^^ade commanders, to burn 
the bridge across the Shenandoah, in certain contingencies. 
This order was, it was alleged, countermanded by ]\[cDowell. 
At any rate, the bridge was not burned. Jackson crossed the 
river, and severely handled the troops opposed to him. 

Speaking of this occurrence. General Gates, an officer in 
high command under Stonewall Jackson and later a U. S. Con- 
gressman, stated at the reception of the Shields statue in "Wash- 
ington : "Had General Shields' orders been obeyed, there was 
no escape for Jackson." In the same connection, Jefferson 
Davis wrote of Shields and his division as being superior in 
efficiency to the entire corps of General Howard. 

President Lincoln showed his appreciation of Shields' 
achievements in the valley, by promoting him to Major Gen- 
eral of Volunteers, and appointing him a brigadier general in 
the regular army. The Senate, on political grounds, it is said, 
failed to confirm the latter nomination. It is authentically 
stated that the President informally tendered to General 
Shields the command of the Army of the Potomac after ^Ic- 
Clellan had failed, but that the position was declined, owing 
to the general's strained relations with Secretary Stanton. 
For this, and other reasons. Shields resigned from the army 
March 28, 1863, returned to California, and settled in San 

On some accounts the Pacific coast did not satisfy General 
and Mrs. Shields as a place of residence. After the close of 
the war, in 1866, he returned to the Mississippi valley, via 
steamer and New York City. Mrs. Shields, ever on the alert 
for her husband's welfare, persuaded him to retire to a farm, 
hoping that the quiet, restful life would restore his health so 
sadly shattered by his brilliant, though exacting, service to his 
adopted country. The general climate, fertile soil, and new- 
born prosperity of Missouri appealed to them. On an explor- 
ing expedition, the general happened to meet, at Carrollton, 
Missouri, an old friend and supporter in the Illinois legislature, 
Judge George Pattison, who so impressed him with the beauties 
and prospects of that region, that he decided to make that his 
future home. The place selected, still pointed out as the 



** Shields Farm," was the ideal for which these people sought; 
its quiet shade, its spacious comfortable house, its orchard bur- 
dened with fruits, and its natural scenic beauty, appealed to 
the General. Neither he nor his wife had ever lived on a farm, 
but they thoroughly enjoyed all the pleasures of rural life. 
Their hospitality soon became proverbial, and the evening of 
the old soldier's life could not have been more happily spent. 

But he could not entirely escape the penalties of his merited 
prominence. His fame had preceded him. In 1868, only two 
years after his settlement in ^Missouri, his fellow Democrats 
forced on him the nomination for Representative in Congress in 
liis district, which embraced Kansas City. He received a de- 
cided majority, but, on account of some alleged irregularity in 
returns, the hostile canvassing board rejected the votes of two 
counties, and gave the certificate to his opponent. Shields' 
friends contested the election in his name, but the Congress, 
also politically antagonistic, declined to seat him. Neverthe- 
less, it recognized the force of his claim to the extent of voting 
him a full year's salary. 

General Shields' home remained in Carrollton from 1866 
until his death in 1879. Here he cultivated his farm, devoted 
much of his time to lecturing tours for charitable objects, and 
also resumed some interest in political affairs. His benevolence 
covered a wide scope. Lacking w^ealth, he gave freely of his 
time and of his eloquent appeals for every good cause, and for 
every phase of human suffering. When the yellow fever, a very 
pestilence, scourged the South and depopulated cities, when 
every heart throbbed in sympathy for the stricken sufferers, 
and when in populous Atlanta there were not enough of well 
ones left to bury the dead, it was the clarion tones of General 
Shields that woke the echoes from city to city, until more 
money was raised and sent through his individual effort than 
was secured by any score of his co-workers, who also did their 
best in this noble w^ork. 

In the year 1876, General B. F. Butler, Republican repre- 
sentative in Congress from ^Massachusetts, proposed the name 
of General Shields for doorkeeper of the House, which was then 
Democratic. The position was worth $200 per month, but the 


veteran resented the proposal as an indignity, and Butler was 
suspected of a design to entrap the opposition. The Democratic 
caucus had nominated General Field, an ex-Confederate, who 
had left the country to serve in the Egyptian army, and Shields 
was defeated. The House, in order to atone for this action, 
voted to place Shields on the retired list as a brigadier general, 
but the Republican Senate, for some reason, failed to concur, 
and the bill failed to become a law. 

In 1874 General Shields was sent by the Democrats of Car- 
roll county to the Missouri legislature and was re-elected in 
1875. Here, as ever, he was active in useful work. One of his 
wise measures was the law creating the State Railroad Com- 
mission. In the year 1878, he was chosen for the third time 
and from the third State, United States Senator, to serve dur- 
ing the unexpired term of Senator Lewis V. Bogy, deceased. 
He was welcomed back to the halls of legislation, which he had 
first entered thirty years before, by a new generation of states- 
men, who paid willing tribute to his rare endowments. 

The richest treasure a people can possess is the memory of 
their eminent men. Greater in importance than agricultural, 
mineral, and industrial wealth, is the value of the inspiration 
and example of men whose lives exemplify those qualities 
which make for good government and free institutions. The 
life of James Shields meets this standard. The general signifi- 
cance to be found therein is that he was equal to every respon- 
sibility and faithful in every trust. He doubtless had a fair 
allotment of human shortcomings, but they neither marred his 
record nor dimmed the luster of his worthy deeds. "We may 
fervently pray tliat the day will soon dawn when the nations 
shall learn war no more ; but sad will be the hour when we 
cease to honor those who have bravely fought for the honor of 
their country and the freedom of mankind. 

His career empliasizes the possibilities of American citizen- 
ship, and the freedom from religious and racial prejudices of 
our people. Though lie was neither of the race nor creed of 
the majority of the people of the three great states whom he 
represented in the United States Senate, this did not prevent his 
selection. Of a people of whom it has been said, *Hhey have 



fought successfully all battles save their own,** he helped the 
people of his adopted country to successfully fight their wars. 
Born in a foreign land, he was in every fiber of his heart, in 
the very texture of his soul, distinctively and intensely Ameri- 
can. He devoted his life with unchallenged purity of purpose 
to the service of his adopted country, and in three wars shed 
his blood in her defense. He was too generous to be thrifty 
and acquisitive, too honest to be a schemer, and too bold to be 
a trimmer. But he was a true, brave man, a patriot, and a 

His private life was irreproachable. He was strictly tem- 
perate. His bearing was unobtrusive ; his tastes were literary 
and domestic. The bitterest of partisan contests left no taint 
on his reputation. He was a model husband, father, citizen, 
and churchman. 

On the 26th of September, 1878, General Shields, who died 
eight months later, had a characteristic reception and ovation 
in Brooklyn, New York, whither he had journeyed from his 
home in Missouri to deliver a lecture before a large and rep- 
resentative audience in one of the great auditoriums of the 
city. The following spirited report of the occasion will con- 
vey an idea of the enthusiasm which he created whenever he 
made his appearance as an orator or lecturer. 

The space in front of the Academy is black with people, and from 
opposite directions come diverging streams. The doors are thrown 
open, and in twenty minutes the house is packed. The stage, too, 
presently fills up, civilians and military, lay and clerics, take their 
places. The rattle of drums, the clashing of cymbals, and the notes of 
the ear-piercing fife, float in from without. The General, with his 
escort, enters. All is hushed. He is very pale, very attenuated. 
Silence reigns, all eyes and all hearts turn toward him. Simultaneous- 
ly all on the stage rise to their feet. A voice: "Three cheers for 
General Shields!" The great audience rose, and then, as the band 
played "Hail to the Chief," recollections of the victories he had helped 
to win, from Buena Vista to Winchester, flashed back; then, as the 
chieftain who had a generation ago led in triumph the citizen soldiery 
of New York into the City of Mexico, stood before the remnants of his 
comrades in arms; then, as the only man who had ever successfully 
crossed swords with Stonewall Jackson, came in sight; then, when 
General Shields, now a feeble, sick man, presented himself before the 


people of Brooklyn, — ^then went up a tempest of ringing cheers such 
as never before resounded within the four walls of that house. 

Such, episodes, varying in degree, but all testifying to a wide 
popular recognition of his illustrious career, were numerous in 
his later years. As a soldier, he was a true knight : but as an 
optimist, he was a very prince. To his optimistic mind no cloud 
had such density of midnight blackness that it did not show him 
a silver lining. He was always a helper. No human being 
struggling in any whirlpool of difficulty or danger came within 
his sight that he did not immediately ''throw out the life line." 

And he has never received due credit for his accomplish- 
ments and abilities as a theoretical soldier. On January 10, 
1862, in a letter to General ^IcClellan, commander in chief of 
the army, General Shields outlined the military operations 
which he deemed necessary for the suppression of the Rebel- 
lion. Secretary Seward, in an official communication a few days 
later, submitted this letter to the Secretary of AVar, urgently 
inviting his attention thereto. The letter is published in the 
Rebellion Records, Series 1, Volume 5, pages 701 to 703. It is 
one of the most iiuportant papers relating to the conduct of 
the war, and stamps its author as not only brave, but capable 
as a strategist of great ability. 

General Shields died suddenly at Ottumwa, Iowa, on Sun- 
day, June 1, 1879. He had gone there to deliver a lecture for 
the benefit of a local charity, and remained several days visit- 
ing relatives. He had appeared in his usual health on that day, 
but just before retiring he complained of a pain in his chest, 
and shortly afterward said to his niece that he was dying. In 
thirty minutes he expired, sitting in his chair, remaining con- 
scious to the last. His body left Ottumwa for his late home in 
Carrollton the next day. The funeral took place in Carrollton 
on Wednesday. It was largely attended and the services were 
conducted with the imposing ceremonial of the Catholic Church, 
of which he had been a lifelong and consistent member. 

After the death of tlie General, ^Irs. Shields continued to 
reside in Carrollton, educating and caring for her two sons and 
one daughter, as only a mother can from wliom the staff and 
stay has been removed, and who thus leans upon as well as lifts 



and buoys her children, the jewels of her home. For two de- 
cades she lived in her home on North Main street, which she 
still owns, though for the past few years she has lived with her 
son, Dr. Daniel F. Shields, in New York. 

James Shields had a remarkable career, and his was a re- 
markable character. He is to us James Shields born in Ireland, 
the American General, the American Senator, James Shields of 
Ireland and America. We need not hesitate to claim a modest 
participation in his fame and to hail him, James Shields of ]\Iin- 
nesota ! His mortal remains rest in ^lissouri, but Illinois, Min- 
nesota and California, Winchester, and Port Republic, claim 
their share of his renown, for it is as true in America today as 
it was in Greece of old that the whole earth is the sepulcher of 
illustrious men and all time is the millennium of their story. 

The State of Illinois, rich beyond measure in illustrious sons, 
chose Senator Shields as her representative in the hall of fame 
in Washington. The legislature of Missouri, at its latest ses- 
sion, appropriated generously for a colossal bronze statue in his 
honor on the public square in Carrollton. The Grand Army of 
the Republic and the Loyal Legion of Minnesota have heartily 
endorsed a movement to install his statue in our beautiful 

For thirty years his grave remained unmarked at Carroll- 
tion. But finally, by joint action of local authorities and the 
United States Congress, funds were provided early in 1910 for 
the erection of an imposing monument near his resting place. 
It is of red granite and is surmounted by a colossal bronze bust 
of the distinguished General. 

On Saturday, November 12, 1910, this monument was un- 
veiled and dedicated in the presence of ten thousand people, 
after a grand civic and military procession in which a battalion 
of regular troops from Fort Leavenworth, a regiment of the 
Missouri National Guard, and an immense concourse of citi- 
zens, participated. The exercises at the dedication consisted of 
addresses by Governor Hadley of Missouri, Archbishop Glen- 
non of St. Louis, Congressmen Rucker and Borland, Attorney 
Ralph F. Lozier, Senator Busby, and others. There were pres- 
ent, as guests of honor, IMrs. Mary A. Shields, widow of General 


Shields; Dr. Daniel F. Shields, their son; Mr. L. E. Shields, of 
St. Paul, a nephew of General Shields, and other relatives. 

Minnesota was represented at the ceremonies, in addition 
to Mr. L. E. Shields, by ^Ir. J. J. Reagan, President of the na- 
tional organization of the Ancient Order of Hibernians, and by 
the writer hereof, who had been specially commissioned by 
Governor A. 0. Eberhart as the State's official delegate. 

Accorded a leading place on the programme of addresses, 
Minnesota's envoy paid a brief tribute to the hero of the occa- 
sion, which embodied this personal reminiscence: 

A striking incident of my early boyhood is linked across two gen- 
erations with this event. One morning, when I was seven or eight 
years old, the tidings spread through the Illinois village which was my 
home that General Shields, returning wounded from the Mexican War, 
was a passenger in the stage from Quincy, which stopped for break- 
fast and to change horses at our little tavern, A crowd assembled 
and waited, with silent awe, the appearance of the hero. He came out, 
pale and feeble, supported by two attendants, was lifted into the coach, 
and it rolled on toward Springfield. 

To the group of wide-eyed youth who gazed with undisguised 
wonder on the scene, it was a revelation and an inspiration. Many of 
i them were destined, fifteen years later, to be soldiers and heroes in a 

j vastly mightier conflict for an inexpressibly holier cause. But this was 

[ our first sight of a military uniform, our first view of a real general, 

j our first realization of the pains and penalties of war. It was an object 

! - * lesson in patriotism. As that coach rolled away toward Springfield, 

the dust from its wheels, lighted by the morning sunbeams, became 
a golden aureole through which we saw many things in new colors. 
The world was never quite the same again. 

Thus General Shields vanished from our sight as in a cloud of 
splendor. Thus his restless spirit passed through life, — through a pic- 
turesque, versatile, and always honorable career. Thus he lives and 
1 will live in history, a faithful servant of the people, a fearless soldier 

of the republic, worthy to be hailed, with an innumerable company of 
his colleagues and comrades, as a priest in the temple of freedom, a 
prince in the kingdom of glory. 

IN THE Capitol of Minnesota, October 20, 1914. 


To James Shields, the soldier, the statesman, the jurist, 
honor is paid by the citizenship of JMinnesota. A monument of 
him is enthroned in the hall of the Capitol of the State, there to 
perpetuate his name and memory, to the intent that coming 
generations may know him, and, knoAving him, emulate in the 
service of humanity and of country his deeds of noble and dis- 
interested patriotism and valor. 

No unusual occurrence is it in America that a monument be 
built to pay honor to James Shields. In the Hall of Fame, be- 
neath the dome of the Capitol of the nation in ^"ashington, 
stands his figure, placed there by the State of Illinois, when it 
was summoned to name to America's admiring vision two of its 
most distinguished citizens. A statue also has been erected to 
him by the State of Missouri, in the public square of the City of 
Carrollton. Minnesota may well, without fear or peril of blame, 
do as its sister states, Illinois and Missouri, have done, — extol 
the fame of ''the Jurist, the Statesman, the Soldier," James 
Shields, — and do so with especial joyousness, inasmuch as at 
one period of his career he was a citizen and a loyal servant of 
our commonwealth. 

Prom 1855 to 1860 James Shields claimed IMinnesota as his 
home. While commissioner of the Federal Land Office in "Wash- 
ington, he had learnt of the fertility of our fields and the salu- 
briousness of our climate, and had resolved, that, when freed 
from the toils of public office, he would draw hitlier colonists 
from the ranks of his fellow Irishmen in the Eastern States and 
in Ireland itself, less likely to find elsewhere than in Minnesota 
peace and prosperity. He ])ecame one of the proprietors and 



founders of what is now the flourishing City of Faribault, and 
thence sent far and wide invitations to settlement in the neigh- 
boring districts. The fruits of his labors as a colonizer are the 
townships of Shieldsville, Erin, Kilkenny, ^lontgomery, in our 
Counties of Rice and Le Sueur, where reside hundreds of in- 
dustrious and wealthy farmers, of whose good American citi- 
zenship their Celtic names give sure guarantee. "When the first 
legislature of the newly organized State of Minnesota convened 
in 1858, it chose, as its representatives in the Senate of the 
United States, Henry 'M. Rice and James Shields, — the conti- 
nent-wide fame of the latter commending liim to the electors in 
lieu of more immediate labors in ^linnesota itself. As the result 
of the drawing of lots between the new senators, James Shields 
took to himself the short term of two years. This expired, the 
majority in tlie State Legislature meanwhile having changed 
its political coloring, he ceased his service in "Washington, and 
shortly afterward sought a new home in California. 

James Shields was the Irishman and the American, — the 
Irishman by birth, temper, and education, the American by 
loyalty and service, — the Irishman and the American to a 
tj'pical degree. His whole career is summed up in those words, 
the Irishman and the American. 

I give the outlines of his life. He was born in Ireland in 
1806, of honorable and respected lineage. His direct ancestor, 
with four sons, fought on the losing side in the battle of the 
Boyne, — one of those sons later joining the army of Spain, and 
there rising from one honor to another until finally he was com- 
missioned the Captain General of Cuba. An immediate uncle 
of our hero was a soldier in America's revolutionary war and 
in that of 1812. James decidedly sprung from a family in which 
fear of the battlefield was unknown. In his native isle he re- 
ceived, mainly through the tutorship of another uncle, a priest 
who had been a professor in the College of ^laynooth, a liberal 
education. At the age of sixteen he emigrated from Ireland in 
search of fortune in other lands. Arrived in America, he first 
adopted a seafaring life, afterwards serving as a soldier in the 
Seminole W\^r, thence pushing westward to Kaskaskia, at the 
time tlie Territorial capital of Illinois. There he was the school- 


teacher, the lawyer, and quickly the office-holder. He served 
four years in the State Legislature, -was elected State Auditor, 
and in 1843 succeeded Stephen A. Douglas as Justice of the 
Supreme Court of Illinois. • Two years later he was named by 
President James K. Polk, Commissioner of the Land Office in 
Washington. This office he resigned to become the brigadier 
general of volunteers, to be soon brevetted major general, in 
the Mexican War. The w^ar over, he was named by President 
Polk governor of the newly organized Territory of Oregon, — a 
position, however, which he did not accept — a higher distinc- 
tion coming to him from the State of Illinois. Illinois chose 
him as its representative in the Senate of the United States, 
where he served the full term of six years. In 1855 he was in 
Minnesota, the colonizer, and later its representative in the 
Senate of the United States. The outbreak of the Civil War 
found him a resident of California. At once he buckled on his 
warrior sword, and was appointed by President Lincoln briga- 
dier general, soon to be major general of the volunteer army. In 
1863 he resigned his commission in the army, owing to misun- 
derstandings with the Secretary of War, Mr. Stanton. Mis- 
souri now^ became his home. Here he was Adjutant General of 
the State, and later w^as chosen again to membership in the 
Senate of the United States, occupying the seat vacated through 
the death of Senator Bogy. Later he filled two terms in the 
State Legislature. The last years of his life were spent in cul- 
tivating a modest farm near CarroUton, in Missouri, and giving 
lectures in different parts of the country in aid of charitable 
and religious works. He died in 1879, leaving to his w^ife and 
children all that he was able to leave to them as the pecuniary 
result of his many years of civil and militant office-holding — 
his few acres of farm land, the diamond-studded swords which 
had been given to him, one by the State of South Carolina, the 
other by the State of Illinois, — and his blessing. 

A w^onderful career, that of James Shields, in the pictur- 
esqueness of its varieties, in the confidences reposed in him by 
his fellow Americans from Illinois to Washington City, from 
I^Iinnesota to IMissouri, in the enthusiasms his name everywhere 
was wont to evoke ; and wonderful, equally so, in the talents he 


displayed wherever the can lo omce piacea mm, magnincently 
so in the martial skill and bravery of which his sword was ever 
the token upon fields of gore and glory. Picturesqueness it is, 
seldom equalled in the fortunes of other heroes — though so 
many and so illustrious — in the annals of America. Only re- 
call the chief head-lines in the narratives of his career, — Soldier 
and Statesman ; Jurist and Orator ; Legislator in the chief cities 
of two states; Senator of the United States from three of its 
commonwealths; Soldier in three American w^ars. 

Fellow Americans, we announce a noble name, when that of 
James Shields is spoken; we glorify a noble memory, when we 
fling out his figure to the gratitude and the admiration of 
Americans of today, of Americans of tomorrow. 

To w^hat do we attribute these manifold honors, bedecking 
the years in the career of James Shields? 

It is plain from the record that James Shields was no in- 
triguer in politics, no shrewd, insidious wire-puller. He was 
ignorant of the arts of combinations and machineries. He was 
the single-minded and the open-tongued citizen. He simply 
showed himself as he was, willing to take what was offered, 
unwilling, unable even, to plan for favor of preferment. He 
was the old-fashioned knight, without fear, but, also, without 
reproach. Nor, as distinction of office came,. was he cunning in 
schemes to retain it. He did his duty, regardless of conse- 
quences, regardless of the dictates of the political party that 
had entrusted him with power, bidding friends and foes to 
judge his deeds on their bare desert. At all times, and in all 
stations, he was James Shields, to be taken, or to be pushed 
aside, for what he was, for what he was believed to be. 

To what, then, is due his career? To personal character and 
qualifications; to value of service rendered, w^hatever the posi- 
tion to which he was lifted; to the willingness of America to 
recognize and reward merit, wherever merit is discernible. 

Shields was the good man. His private life was above re- 
proach. No weakness was his in the use of drink; no moral 
stain ever darkened his escutcheon. In him deep religious con- 
viction begot the personal and social virtues, and brightened 
their uses and practices. I might, perhaps, blame the impetu- 


osity of a moment which led him to the brink of a duel with a 
famed citizen, Abraham Lincoln. Let the false notions of 
honor, prevailing at the time, excuse the one and the other. 

Shields was the gentleman, in manner polished and refined ; 
in the maintenance of principle, the soul itself of honor and 
integrity. A base proposal would have at once awakened in 
him indignant ire. To give service, to friend or to foe, was the 
imperious dictate of his code of chivalry. 

"We read of the typical Irish gentleman. That was Shields, 
warm Celtic blood ever coursing in his veins, kingly Irish tradi- 
tions ever ruling heart and head. He had the Celtic faults, — 
he was emotional, maybe now and then too quick in decision, 
too impatient, perhaps, for his own w^elfare, too much of a rover 
and a seeker of new things. But at times those very faults 
served him w^ell, as when his sword was brandished on the bat- 
tlefield. And with Celtic faults he had all the Celtic virtues. 
Brave he w^as and valorous, generous of gift and service, the 
high-tempered knight, whose flashing passage across the ranks 
of fellow-men sheds over our world of dull matter and selfish 
plodding the sunshine of uplifting poetry, the sweetness of the 
supernal life. 

Shields w^as the scholar. His early liberal education served 
him well, and continuous study through the years increased its 
brilliancy and power. And, of course, he was the orator, hold- 
ing, as charmed victims of his fiery phrase and his orphean 
voice, no less the sages of legislative and senatorial halls than 
the ruder and less thinking multitudes of voters of Kaskaskia, 
Vandalia, and Springfield. 

Rushed from one occupation to another, from one political 
office to another, he was at home, wiiatever the duties assigned 
to him. His talents were most varied in kind. As lawyer and 
as justice of the Supreme Court of Illinois, he had his reward in 
the genial companionship and the esteem of great men, of whom 
Illinois was at the time the plentiful parent, and all America the 
proud beneficiary, — Abraham Lincon, John M. Palmer, E. B. 
AVashburn, Stephen T. Logan, to name but the few. As Auditor 
of the State of Illinois, he wrested from confusion and uncer- 
tainty its financial budget, and placed it on a secure and envi- 


able foundation. In legislative halls he was the skilled debater, 
the magnetic speaker, the proniotor of whatever was wise and 
just, himself the author of several useful and far-reaching meas- 
ures. In Washington they were the days of "Webster, Clay, 
Calhoun, Sumner, Jefferson Davis, Breckenridge. In no way 
was Shields below the exalted standard then set to the law- 
makers of America. I note but a few of the famed issues amid 
which he w^as the consistent champion of righteous patriotism, 
— that of allotment of free homes on the lands of the national 
domain to soldiers of the Mexican War, and to actual settlers, 
that opposing the extension of slavery to newly organized 
states, that of the preservation of the nation as one and indivisi- 

His own party was opposed to him in the question of the 
extension of slavery. The admission of California to statehood 
was the occasion. Shields' greatest speech entered into the 
debate. I quote a passage, showing not only his firmness of 
resolve with regard to the extension of slavery, but also his 
prophetic view of things to come, of things that are today : 
**Sir, they are laying the foundations of a great empire on the 
shores of the Pacific, — a mighty empire, an empire that at some 
future day will carry your flag, your commerce, your arts and 
your arms into Asia, and through China, Hindustan, and Persia, 
into Western Europe. Talk about carrying slavery there, of 
imposing such a blight upon that people, of withering their 
strength and paralyzing their energies by such an institution ! 
No, Sir, such a thing was never intended by God, and will 
never be permitted by man." 

As to the perpetuation of the Union, his voice alwaj's rose 
loud amid the threats of secession, then thundering through 
senate and chamber. — always proclaiming that secession would 
be the blackest of crimes, the most stupid of follies, that never 
should America permit or endure it. 

Always James Shields was the truest of patriots, the most 
earnest and loyal of Americans. Country was his idol. To 
country he gallantly sacrificed personal interest, dictate of 
party, hope and prospect of popuhir applause and approval. It 
is the undoubted and indubitable fact : From every of!ice, of 



the many held by him, at one time or another, under the gift of 
one state or of another, Shields always went back to private 
life with clean hands, — poor in the possession of all emoluments, 
save that of honor for faithful service. 

But, whatever his other achievements, it is the field of war 
where James Shields is to be seen at his best. There his Celtic 
nature bursts forward in special efflorescence. Above all else 
lie is the soldier. As the soldier, especially, we salute him, we 
lionor him. All the virtues of the soldier are in him in 
plenary apportionment, — skill of strategy, firmness of discipli- 
nary mastership, magic power of control of troops, undaunted 
courage, a dash in attack that bewilders, an endurance of pain 
and fatigue that secures victory when defeat is most threaten- 
ing. The vanguard is always his coveted place, there brandish- 
ing his sword, compelling by sheer magnetism of example oth- 
ers to follow his lead. "Wounded — he was wounded in almost 
every engagement — he still fights on, so long as strength to 
move remains. Compelled to retire, he frets like the caged lion, 
until again he has leaped into the saddle. AVarriors of Napo- 
leon, Ney, Murat, McDonald, — how fittingly Shields should have 
ridden w4th them ! I must not tarry in details. Let praise 
from General Scott suffice. In his report of the battle of Cerro 
Gordo, the commander-in-chief wrote: ''General Shields, a 
commander of activity, zeal and talent, is, I fear, if not dead, 
mortally w^ounded. ' ' Later he said : ' ' Shields ' brigade, brave- 
ly assaulting the left, carried the rear battery (five guns) on 
the Islapa road, and added materially in the rout of the enemy." 
And again: ''The brigade so gallantly led by General Shields, 
and after his fall by Colonel Baker, deserves commendation for 
fine behavior and success." 

Scarcely convalescent, Shields is again on his charger in the 
march to the City of Mexico — always the undaunted soldier. 
In the battle of Contreras, "Shields," said General Scott, "by 
the wise disposition of his brigade and gallant activity, con- 
tributed much to the general results. He held masses of cav- 
alry and infantry, supported by artillery, in check below him, 
and captured hundreds, with one general (IMendoza) of those 
who fled from above." "At Cherubusco," I still quote General 



Scott, "Shields concentrated the division about a iiamlet and 
determined the attack in front. The battle was long, hot and 
varied; but ultimately success crowned the zeal and gallantry 
of our troops, ably directed by their distinguished commander, 
General Shields." "At Chapultepec, his horse was killed under 
him; Shields fought on foot, bareheaded, in shirt sleeves, lead- 
ing his brigade, sword in hand. Yet another wound, but no 
cessation of rush and combat. Shields' command led the van 
into the City of jMexico, and first planted the Stars and Stripes 
on the walls of the Belen Gate. 

Came the great war, — the war for the salvation of the Union. 
Shields, a resident of California, bounded across the continent, 
joyous to be again a soldier. He was commissioned brigadier 
and assigned to the Shenandoah Valley. At Winchester he met 
Stonewall Jackson, fated there to meet under the blow of our 
own hero his only defeat. Shields again was wounded; much 
of the engagement he directed from his blood-stained cot, in the 
rear of his command; Colonel Kimball, vrho led the final charge, 
reported, after the victory, that in all details he carried out the 
plans and directions of his leader. Shields' division alone had 
confronted Jackson's much larger army, and had won the vic- 
tory. If later, at Port Republic, Jackson did not receive an- 
other severe defeat, it was because orders given by General 
Shields to burn tlie bridge across Aquia Creek, for some un- 
explained reason, liad not been obeyed. This is the testimony 
of General Gates, an officer under Stonew^all Jackson, speaking 
at the unveiling of the Shields Statue in the Capitol at AYash- 
ington: "Had General Shields' orders been obeyed, there was 
no escape for Jackson." The orders obeyed, the bridge burnt, 
one of the most decisive victories of the AYar should have been 
gained by General Shields. 

General Shields resigned from tlie army March 28, 1863. I 
take his act to liave been a mistake. He and the Secretary of 
AYar, ^Mr. Stanton, were not in accord. Shields should have 
borne with patience Air. Stanton's displeasure and gone for- 
ward in spite of temporary opposition, gone whither his merits 
bade him go, forward to greater victories and higher rewards. 
It was a mistake of his Celtic temperament, to which we must 

unvb:ilixg the statue of general shields. 739 

grant iudulgeuee, in view of the deeds of glory, of which else- 
where it was the generous prompter. 

General Shields is the soldier of three wars. He barely 
missed being the soldier of four wars. AVhile a resident of Min- 
nesota he heard of an Indian outbreak near the southern border 
line of the State. Quickly his appeal echoed through Faribault 
and Shieldsville ; a troop of his Irish Colonists rallied around 
him, with whatever arms they could gather together. Soon 
General Shields and his braves were on the field of strife, but, 
alas for his expectation of that war, peace had already been 

So, when building a monument to James Shields, we have 
built it to the soldier, General Shields. Have you done well. 
Companions of the Loyal Legion, Comrades of the Grand Army 
of the Republic, in setting up before the eyes of present and 
future generations, in ^Minnesota 's Hall of Fame, the man who 
rushed to war, in defence of country's rights and country's 
honor? Most decidedly so. Peace is the ideal condition of 
human society, — all things, even war itself, must tend to peace ; 
but God avert from America the ruin of its commonwealth, the 
plunder of its territory, the dishonor to its flag, from which war 
alone could have wrested it. Rather war, a hundred times, 
than evils such as those. Never do we know when menace may 
be nigh; never, consequently, must America's sons be void of 
the martial spirit, which bids America ever be free, ever secure, 
ever honored and respected. The names of our military heroes 
are safeguards of patriotism ; their memories arp perennial 
founts of its life and vigor. 

Another factor in the career of General Shields was America 
itself. America gave to him inspiration and blessed his labor. 
America rewarded his merits. 

General Shields was by birth an Irishman, by religion a 
Catholic. By lifelong and most loyal service, by the oft offered 
sacrifice of his blood, he was the American. Never did the 
Star-spangled Banner look down upon more sincere and braver 
patriotism than that which fired the heart and electrified tlie 
sword of General James Shields. America put faith in the 
plighted troth and the deeds of General Shields; accepted him 


into the fullness of sonship, accorded to him all opportunities, 
all rights, all privileges, within the gift of the Star-spangled 
Banner. General Shields was the citizen of America; it was all 
that he should have' desired, all that he could have needed for 
himself, to fall or to stand. Right nobly did he stand. 

Now and then whispers pass through the air that men like 
to General Shields in birthplace and in religious belief are not 
the truest of Americans. Such whispers are the vilest of false- 
hoods. In contradiction, we evoke into speech the battlefields 
reddened by the armies of America, the lakes and oceans fur- 
rowed by its navies; we evoke into speech the monument erect- 
ed this day, within the Capitol of ^Minnesota, to the name and 
the fame of General James Shields. 

Back again, General Shields, to Minnesota, back Avith the 
memories of your services to ^linnesota itself, with the glories 
in other states of the Union, — back with the triumphant flags of 
Cerro Gordo, and of AVinchester, — back, the true and loyal son 
and servant of the Republic of the United States of America. 
Our \\"elcome — the welcome of our admiration and love — is 


Minnesota IIistokical Socikty. 
Vol. XV. 1'lati: XVIH. 


In the Council Meeting on April 11, 1910, an oil portrait of 
the late Professor Jabez Brooks was presented to this Society 
by his friends. 

Judge; Hascal R. Brill, of Saint Paul, spoke on this occasion 
as follows: 

It is eminently fitting that a portrait of Professor Brooks 
should be hung upon the walls of the Historical Society of 
Minnesota. He was the principal of the preparatory depart- 
ment of Ilamline University, located at Red ^Viug, four years 
before tlie state was admitted to the Union. He was President 
of Hamline University from 1861 to 1869, and thereafter for 
forty years he was professor of Greek in the State University. 
These facts alone would justify the preservation of his por- 
trait by the Historical Society. But there are circumstances 
connected with his early career as an educator, which do not 
lie upon the surface but which make it especially appropriate 
that he should be held in lasting remembrance by the people of 
the state, and to some of these I desire briefly to call attention. 

It was my good fortune as a youth to be his pupil for a 
period of nearly five years. The respect at first, and the added 
affection afterward, which I formed for him during this period, 
have been intensified as the years have passed, and as I have 
realized more and more the importance of the work he per- 
formed and the influence he exerted. 

Though not active in public life, Professor Brooks had much 
to do with laying good foundations for this commonwealth. 
His influence upon the quality of the citizenship of the new 
state was very great. The institution of which in the early 
days he was the head was for years the only one of its grade 
in the territory and state. Its list of graduates was not long, 
but hundreds of young men and women from the virgin farms 


and scattered villages of tlie state attended its sessions for the 
only higher education they ever had. Because of the lack of 
library and apparatus in this early institution, the personality 
of the teacher was intensified and was potent to a degree diffi- 
cult now to realize. Lacking funds, the institution was able 
to employ but a scant corps of teachers. Professor Brooks 
taught the classes of many teachers and performed the work of 
many men. He came into close personal contact with all the 

He was born under a foreign flag, but he was an American 
of the best type. His scholarship was broad and thorough, his 
ideals were lofty, his character was of the finest, his person- 
ality was most delightful. He had decided views of right and 
wrong, and stood without wavering for what he believed to 
be the right; but he was tolerant of the opinions of others, 
and he was charitable in a marked degree toward those who 
had wandered from the right way. He was not effeminate in 
any of his characteristics or attributes, but in his intercourse 
with his students he was as gentle and as lovable as a woman. 

In this early period there were no railroads to bring together 
the remote communities. There were no telephones, no auto- 
mobiles, no rural free deliveries, and ox teams were more com- 
mon than horses. The intercourse of the people was slow and 
difficult. There were few of the thousand later methods and 
appliances which have so greatly enlarged the scope of human 
knowledge and have promoted the intelligence of all the people. 

The students of the early institution for the most part came 
from homes which were obliged to sacrifice that they might 
come, and many worked their way. Their opportunities had 
been limited, and their previous learning consisted of what 
they had acquired in the district schools, then far below their 
present standard ; they were much older than the present 
average student of their grade of scholarship; they came be- 
cause they had a longing for something higher and better, a 
desire to fit themselves for the work of life before them; their 
characters were plastic, their minds were receptive, and even 
a short period under proper tutelage meant much to tliem. 
These young men and women were brought into intimate per- 



sonal relation with Professor Brooks. He was not alone the 
head of the institution at which they were students, he was 
their teacher, unfolding to them the infinite possibilities of the 
field of knowledge ; he was their guide to the realm of the good, 
the true, and the beautiful, and he was their friend. His stu- 
dents, whether under his influence for a longer or shorter time, 
carried out into the life of the new community from this quiet 
and modest man an inspiration which made them happier men 
and w^omen, which made them better men and women, which 
made them more useful to the world and better citizens, and 
which was of inestimable value to our beloved state at its 
formative period in the shaping of its destiny. 

General L. F. Hubbard, long a resident of Red Wing, and 
later of St. Paul, said : 

Fifty years ago I knew Dr. Brooks quite well; as well, per- 
haps, as almost any one among the general public who had the 
pleasure and advantage of his acquaintance. AVhen T came 
to Red "Wing in 1857, Dr. Brooks was already established there 
as one of the pillars of Hamline University, engaged with his 
co-workers in an earnest though somewhat discouraging effort, 
to place on a substantial basis the institution founded by 
Bishop Hamline. In those pioneer days one soon came to know 
everybody else in the community, and among those to whom I 
was early attracted by his genial personality was Dr. Brooks. 
I vividly recall the kindly sympathy with which Dr. Brooks 
sought to encourage me in my efforts to gain a footing for the 
enterprise, a weekly newspaper, that I started in Red Wing in 
1857. Such sentiments prevailed in the new communities of 
the west in those days in a much greater degree than is the case 
now, and were a potent agency in strengthening the courage 
and hopefulness of a young man in the outset of his career. 

While all my relations with Dr. Brooks were of the pleas- 
antest character, I especially recall him as one of a group of 
great characters that were attracted to Red AVing by the estab- 
lishment there of Hamline University. Red Wing became, by 
reason of such location, the h.eadquarters for a time of the 
Methodist denomination for the Territory of Minnesota; and 


as a consequence several of the great lights of the Church 
made Red Wing their residence for several years. The Revs. 
Matthew Sorin, Chauncey and Morris Hobart, Daniel Cobb, 
Cyrus Brooks, and B. F. Crary, with Dr. Jabez Brooks and 
others, formed a group of very able men, who by their cease- 
less efforts, sacrifice, and devotion to their work, proved a 
powerful agency in forming and giving force to the moral, 
intellectual, and religious character of the community of those 
early days. They have all passed away. Dr. Brooks was the 
last to go, and for many years was the only one left, but he 
and they have left an impress upon the commonwealth that 
will long endure. 

Professor N. H. Wixchfxl, of Minneapolis, during many 
years the State Geologist, said : 

My acquaintance with Dr. Brooks began in 1872, when I 
first came to ^linnesota. As members of the faculty of the 
State University, we came into close personal and official rela- 
tions. He had been connected with the University for three 
years and was the senior in years and in dignity, and com- 
manded the respect and confidence of all. Although we differed 
on some methods of education, our acquaintance continued en- 
tirely friendly and even confidential. As years passed I saw 
less of him, my duties taking me away from the University 

One summer he spent a part of his vacation with me in the 
field work of the geological survey, examining the rugged coast 
line of the north shore of Lake Superior. It has been said 
that among the soldiers of the late war the close association 
of camp life brought out all the personal traits, both good and 
bad, so that comrades came to know each other better than in 
any other way; and to a large degree the same is true of camp 
life during a summer vacation. That brief period of camp life 
in company witli Dr. Brooks served only to confirm my friend- 
ship for him, and my respect for his personal lionor. Fre- 
quently -in later years the events of that season in camp to- 
gether were a sul)joct of [)leasant recollection and conversa- 
tion. When our paths of duty diverged and separated more 


widely, I found that one of the greenest spots in the retrospect 
over the past was my acquaintance with Dr. Brooks; and it 
was one of my pleasantest social experiences to meet him in 
brief reciprocal visits, and to shake his hand when casually 
meeting him on the campus or in the street. 

His mind always reverted to the camp life of that short 
vacation, and he asked, ''AVhen are you going again to the 
north shore of Lake Superior?" Alas, I told him I thought it 
doubtful if I should ever go, although there were numerous 
unsolved problems remaining which I would like to undertake. 
On occasion of one of the latest interviews, but a few months 
prior to his death, a tentative quasi-agreement was made that 
in the near future we should together repeat, in a measure, 
our old camp life, and should visit again some of the interest- 
ing and beautiful scenes in the rocky outlines of the ''north 
shore." Although he was well aware of the limitations of 
human life and conscious that he was an old man (eighty-five 
years), his mental alertness seemed to warrant him in reck- 
oning on sufficient physical strength to undertake another boat 
trip along the shore where he had coasted twenty-five years 
before. But it was never to be. The gentle summons came 
soon, and that last planned excursion over the old route will 
exist only as a phantom of the hoped-for and unrealized. 

Thus one by one the trees of the forest fall. Dr. Brooks was 
like a sturdy oak, which had breasted many years of storm, and 
only fell when its functions had been all discharged, and when 
the fruits of its long life had been numerous and generously 

In presenting this portrait to the Historical Society, it is 
appropriate to recall some of the services which Dr. Brooks 
rendered to the State of Minnesota. 

He was born September 18, 1823, at Stockport, England, and 
came to America in his sixteenth year. His father, the late 
David Brooks, was a Methodist clergyman w^ell known in Min- 
nesota and in Wisconsin. The son was educated at first at 
private schools, and in Rock River Seminary, Mount ]\rorris, 
111. He graduated at Wesleyan University, Middletown, Conn., 
in 1850. 


He taught a private school in Watertown, Wis., and mathe- 
matics at Lawrence University, Appleton, "Wis. ; was principal 
of the preparatory department of Hamline University at Red 
Wing, 1854 to 1857 ; was president of the same university 
from 1861 to 1869 ; and was president of the ^Einnesota Edu- 
cational Association in 1868. 

He organized the first Normal School Board, and served as 
a member of it for two terms. He was also a member of the 
first Agricultural State Board, w^here he served as president 
for two terms. He was elected to membership in the first fac- 
ulty of the University of Minnesota in 1869, when it was fully 
organized and opened, and maintained that connection, being 
professor of the Greek language and literature, until he retired 
on the Carnegie Pension Foundation in 1909, having completed 
there a period of forty years. 

He served the Methodist Episcopal church in various capaci- 
ties, being pastor in Milwaukee in 1853, and at the Central 
Church, Winona, 1859-60; member of the General Conferences 
of 1864 and 1868 ; and president of Hamline University, as be- 
fore noted, from 1861 to 1869. That institution was organized 
and grew up, vrhile at Red Wing, under his special care and 
direction. He was a member and an official of the Wesley 
M. E. Church, Minneapolis. He died at San Jose, California, 
January 26, 1910, and was buried in Lakewood Cemetery, ]\Iin- 

This painting, which was made by Mr. T. S. Russell of St. 
Paul, has received the special approval and commendation of his 
family, and is said by all to be an excellent reproduction, not 
only of his features, but also of his intelligent and pleasant ex- 
pression. ]\ray it long remain in this State Portrait Gallery as a 
reminder of one of the best and best loved of ^Minnesota 's 

Dr. William W. Folvvell, former President of the Uni- 
versity of Minnesota, spoke as follows : 

I am safe in assuming tliat it is expected of me, on this occa- 
sion, to speak of Dr. Brooks as a teacher. He had of course 
other interests, but teaching was his central life work, his pro- 


fession. When we became associated in the University forty 
years ago, he was already a veteran and had won his way to 
the leadership of the profession in Minnesota. His labors and 
sacrifices are still warmly cherished by a large body of living 
Hamline students, and the historian of Hamline will find the 
romance of that institution in the years of President Brooks' 
service there. 

For forty years it has been my privilege to work by his side. 
I ought to know his place and worth among teachers. I think 
I may assume to. A wise critic praised one of my own teachers 
by saying, ^'He could make boys, even lazy boys, work hard 
and like it." Dr. Brooks could do that. The range and depth 
of his knowledge, his fine art of exposition, his reasonableness 
in exacting tasks, lent interest and dignity to the matter in 
hand. His students felt, and they feel it still, that the hours 
spent in his class-room or in preparation for its exercises were 
well spent. It was worth while to be there and ready each for 
his part. The crowning merit of all teaching is to arouse inter- 
est and employ the faculties of the student. I lay this laurel 
on the brow of this great teacher. 

The great public cannot well know how^ much the time and 
thought of college teachers go to the duties of organization, 
administration, and discipline. Many of us grudge that time 
and groan over the burden. Professor Brooks was always ready 
and willing to share this burden. My heart is full of gratitude 
for his help and counsel in our days of infancy. His ripe expe- 
rience, his trained judgment, his perfect knowledge, above all 
his poise and serenity of temper, made him a tower of strength 
in the faculty. ]Many of us could recall occasions when the final 
word in season of our senior cleared the air, calmed excitement, 
and showed the way out of the tangle. 

Absolutely firm as to principles and ends, he could tolerate 
all kinds of differences as to ways and means. If he found 
himself in the minority, which was rare, he knew how to accept 
the bottom principle of democracy, which is to leave the major- 
ity to work out its policy without impatience or obstruction. 

It was in cases of discipline that the counsel of Dr. Brooks 
was perhaps most precious. His mind made him a judge, his 


heart a father. He could stand for the majesty of the law, 
and yet so temper justice to the individual case as to make 
the offender feel that correction was better than pardon. 

The teacher's art is a noble one. '^I magnify mine office." 
But there is more to the teacher's calling than book work and 
recitations and lectures. 

"We hear much said about the teaching of morals in the 
schools. They are taught and must be ; and, what is more, 
character, the ground and source of morals, is formed there. 
And it is the walk and conversation of the teacher which counts 
for more than all else in character building. The teacher need 
not say a single evil word, and yet he may corrupt and lit- 
erally demoralize every scholar. He need not speak a word in 
praise of virtue, of things which are noble and just, and yet 
every boy who sits at his feet may be ennobled and strength- 
ened for the struggle against sin and wrong. 

Judged from this point of view, our departed Nestor might 
bear the palm. His daily walk among us was a challenge to 
each to be and to do his best. It spoke for purity, honor, cour- 
age, temperance, and all the virtues in the calendar. 

Serene, unatfeeted, simple, dignified but always genial, with- 
out pretense or ostentation, he passed among us a living exam- 
ple and witness of ''the Way, the Truth, and the Life." 

His was the path of the just, shining more and more unto 
the perfect day. 



John Albert Jolmson was the sixteenth governor of Minne- 
sota and the first of lier native sons to occupy that position. 

He was of Swedish ancestry, was born at St. Peter, ]\linne- 
sota, July 28, 18G1, and died at Rochester, ^linn., September 21, 

His death came as a shock to tlie people, not only of his 
native state, but of all the states of the Union; for Governor 
Johnson was one of the public men in America to whom the 
people looked for good government and the advancement of 
American ideals. In the public mind he ranked with such men 
as Roosevelt and Hughes, wiiile those who knew him intimately 
and loved him well believed he possessed the sincerity, cour- 
age, and sagacity of both. 

We can readily appreciate the life and experiences of the 
child of humble immigrants, born in Minnesota in 1861. This 
boy became the main support of his mother and the family 
from an early age, and "the uses of adversity" developed in 
him the very highest qualities, as they always do in one who 
has w^ithin his soul the elemental spark of greatness. So in his 
mature years Johnson w^as contented, for he had the sense of 
duty well performed; he was strong and brave, for he had 
met and overcome great obstacles ; he was faithful, because his 
whole life had been devoted to the fulfillment of obligations 
voluntarily assumed. 

While his intimate friends knew that he had, and deservedly 
so, the confidence and affection of many, it was only after his 

♦Read at the monthly meeting of the Executive Council, October 11, 


A biography of Governor Johnson, with a portrait, is in Volume XIII 
of this Society's Collections, published in 1908, pases 423-460. See also 
Life of .Tohn Albert .Johnson, by Frank A, Day and Theodore M. Knappen, 
1910. 429 pages, with portraits and other illustrations. 


death that they realized the extent to which he was beloved 
by all classes of citizens. The testimonials of grief for his 
early death, and of respect for his character and achievements, 
exceeded those ever paid to tlie memory of a citizen of Minne- 

Governor Johnson was first of all an optimist, he believed 
and trusted in the future, he loved his country and its institu- 
tions, and his favorite topic was the boundless opportunities 
which America affords to the industrious and the alert. AA^hile 
keenly alive to the proprieties of official and social life, he 
ignored differences or grades in the social structure. He did 
not believe, and apparently did not realize that any one could 
believe, that one man is, by birth, entitled to more considera- 
tion than another. The standing of an individual, so far as he 
knew, depended entirely upon the conduct and efforts of the 
individual himself. This with him was not a matter of judg- 
ment or education, it came from no reflection upon his part. 
He was as unconscious of the mental operation leading to this 
attitude as he was of breathing, and made no more attempt to 
control his instinct than to regulate his heart beats: and so 
he. met old men and children, famous authors and struggling 
reporters, great statesmen and humble mechanics, in the same 
simple straightforward manner, and captivated each in turn. 

He had a quality not always found in great men, but one 
which only great men possess. He not only easily forgave, 
but apparently entirely forgot his enemies. He was a brave and 
adroit antagonist, but to "treasure up a wrong" was in his 
mind worse than useless, for it turned his thoughts from pleas- 
ant to unpleasant subjects. He seemed to think that the one 
guilty of the wrong should carry the burden of remembering 
it. He never forgot a friend or a kindness, he did not make the 
mistake of preferring his opponents to his supporters, but the 
fact that he seemingly was incapable of bearing malice had the 
constant eftVct of clianging enemies into friends without los- 
ing former friends. 

As a public ofticial, he exhibited the same characteristics 
and performed his duties in so simple and direct a manner that 
he often accomplished much more good than was realized. The 



great strike upon the Iron Range was settled without blood- 
shed, because he visited the Range personally and convinced 
the strikers that he would put down disorder, and the mine 
owners that the military power of the state could not be used 
for private purposes. Later, when sending me as one of a com- 
mission to the scene, he said: "If possible, I want to avoid 
calling out the militia, but if a single life should be lost because 
of the failure on my part to afford proper protection I would 
never forgive myself. I want this commission to disregard 
entirely every political consideration, and to make its recom- 
mendations as to my future action solely with regard to what 
is right." 

This was not a public utterance of Governor Johnson. It 
embodied his private instructions to his confidential and polit- 
ical friends, and I avail myself of this opportunity to make 
it a matter of historical record. 

His sympathy for the poor and suffering was boundless, 
and yet I have often heard the Chief Justice of this State com- 
mend him for his firmness and candor in the performance of 
his duties upon the board of pardons. 

I am reluctant to end this poor tribute to my friend's 
memory, for I have said so little where so much might be 
said. Remembering him as he was. picture after picture 
glides across one's mental vision, each beautiful and more than 
sufficient to occupy the time allotted to me tonight. His cheer- 
ful greeting, his alert mentality, his active sympathies, his 
brave heart, his devotion to duty, and his reverence for the 
right, will never be forgotten by those who knew him. 

He died while in the prime of life, while flushed with vic- 
tory, and just when Fortune seemed beckoning him on to still 
greater achievements. But who shall say his was an untimely 
death? ^lemory presents the view of a perfected life, useful, 
successful, and buoyant. It is complete in itself, and the mer- 
ciful veil which hides the future from all may have concealed 
sorrow and unfulfilled ambitions in his life had it continued. 
''The past is ahvays secure," and we have now the crj'stallized 
memory of a man wdio successfully performed every duty and 
faithfully fulfilled every obligation imposed upon him. 

The Statue of Governor Johnson at the State Capitol. 

October 19, 1912, a Bronze Statue of Governor Johnson, by 
Andrew O'Connor, sculptor, was unveiled on the ground of the 
State Capitol, near the main entrance of its south side. A 
Bronze Tablet, placed on the north side of the granite pedes- 
tal of the statue, bears this Inscription : 

JULY 28. 1861 SEPT. 21, 1909 




The Library of this Historical Society received in the fol- 
lowing year 1913, by donation of the John Albert Johnson 
Memorial Commission, through kindness of its Secretary, Mr. 
Charles AY. Ames, the full Correspondence and Records of that 
Commission, relating to the erection of this statue and a replica 
of it in St. Peter, these papers being bound in seven quarto 

From the same donor and in the same year, this Library also 
received a series of six quarto Scrap-Books, containing news- 
paper memorial notices, editorials, and other articles, gathered 
during several weeks next after Governor Jolinson's death, 
concerning his character and public services, and evincing wide- 
spread sorrow in Minnesota and throughout the United States, 

w. u. 


Memorials presented in the Meeting of the Executive 
Council, September 8, 1913. 

A manuscript sent by Judge Lorin Cray, of Mankato, was 
read by the Secretary, as follows: 

General James H. Baker, a life member of the Minnesota 
Historical Society, died at his home in the City of Mankato in 
this state on May 25, 1913. 

General Baker was born in Monroe, Butler county, Ohio, on 
the 6th day of May, 1829. He was the son of Henry Baker, 
M. D., and Hannah Heaton Baker. In his youth he attended 
the Firnian Academy at MiddletoAvn, Ohio, and later the Ohio 
Wesleyan University. For a period of time he edited the Sciota 
Gazette at Chillicothe, Ohio, it then being the oldest newspaper 
in the state. He served as Secretary of State of Ohio from 1854 
to 1856, when Salmon P. Chase was Governor of that State. In 
1857 he came to ^Minnesota, and shortly thereafter located with 
his family in Blue Earth County. 

He was elected Secretary of State in 1859 and again in 1861. 
In 1862 he was commissioned, by Governor Alexander Ramsey, 
to be Colonel of the Tenth Minnesota Volunteers, then being 
recruited for service in the "War of the Rebellion. He served 
with his regiment tlie first year in the campaign against the 
Sioux Indians, and in the fall of 1863 with his regiment went 
South. At the close of the war General Baker w^as appointed 
Commissioner of Pensions, and afterward Surveyor General for 
Minnesota. In 1881 he was elected State Railway Commis- 
sioner, in which office he served two terms. 

For a time General Baker was the editor and proprietor of 
the Mankato Free Press. A goodly portion of his life in Blue 
Earth county was spent on a beautiful farm owned by him near 
Rapidan, where he personally engaged in agriculture, in which 
he was always much interested and very progressive. 

General Baker was always much interested in the early his- 
tory of ^Minnesota, and was never more at home than at th^ 



meetings of the old settlers of his county and state. He was 
pre-eminently a social man, an easy, fluent, and very interest- 
ing conversationalist, and hospitable to a fault. He was never 
more happy than when surrounded by his friends whom he 
always delighted to entertain. 

He was a consistent attendant and supporter of the Meth- 
odist Church, and also belonged to the Masonic Order, as well 
as the Elks, the Grand Army of the Republic, and the Loyal 

He was a power to be reckoned with in politics, and his in- 
fluence was always felt in the civic and social life of the com- 
munity in which he lived, and always for the betterment of 
conditions and of humanity in particular. The life of General 
Baker stands out as one of pronounced individuality, and of 
great strength of purpose. 

On September 25, 1851, he was married to Rose Lucia 
Thurston at Delaware, Ohio, who died March 20, 1873. On 
December 23, 1879, he was married to Miss Zula Bartlett, who 
survives him and noAV resides in the homestead in Mankato. 

General Baker was laid away in beautiful Glenwood Ceme- 
tery in Mankato. His funeral was held on Wednesday, May 
28, 1913, being largely attended. 

Mr. Thomas Hughes, of Alankato, contributed the following 
Memorial of General Baker as an Author: 

The late General James H. Baker was a man of many splen- 
did talents. Eminent as he was as an orator, warrior, and 
statesman, he also possessed rare talents as an author. His 
numerous and valuable historical and biographical contribu- 
tions found in the publications of this Society attest this fact. 
Among these papers are "History of Lake Superior," "The 
Sources of the Mississippi River," "Transportation in Min- 
nesota," and "The Lives of the Governors of Minnesota." All 
these w^ritings show great research and a masterly selection and 
presentation of the mass of material their author was always 
able to discover. 

The general had a very acute mind and retentive memory, 
and his long life spanned one of the most eventful periods of 
the world's history; and so far as this related to the "Middle 
West" of our own country, he had a personal acquaintance 



with most of the great men and a personal touch \vith most of 
the big events which went to make up that history. Hence the 
ease with which General Baker could always command the right 
material and infuse into if the very life and atmosphere it had 
when it was the actual reality. 

Besides the very unique relation he bore to the people and 
the times concerning wliich he wrote, the general had a re- 
markable command of the English language and a fervid lit- 
erary spirit, which gave force, fitness, and finish to every sen- 
tence he penned. His style is never dull nor florid, but always 
elegant, incisive, and vigorous. 

His monograph on ''The Sources of the Mississippi" is a 
valuable contribution to geographic knowledge, and it dealt a 
mortal blow to certain theories as to the head of the great river 
once in vogue. His "History of Lake Superior" did much to 
call attention to the world's greatest waterway and the world's 
greatest iron mines. "The Lives of the Governors of Minne- 
sota," forming Yohime XIII of this Society's Historical Col- 
lections, written at the eventide of our author's life, is a fitting 
climax to his literary activity, being truly a great work, which 
will grow in worth and importance as the years go by. 

Mighty was he with tongue, sword, and pen, and his pass- 
ing removes from our midst one of our greatest and best citi- 

Former Governor Van Sant, of MinneapoHs, wrote: 
General J. H. Baker's death was a great loss to the state. 
He served ^Minnesota long and faithfully. He was a brave 
soldier with an untarnished record, and was universally loved 
by all his comrades of the Grand Army of the Republic ; a most 
exemplary citizen ; a statesman of ability ; a forceful and elo- 
quent public speaker; an author of recognized merit: and his 
devotion to his family is an object lesson to every man who 
loves his home. 

Personally I deeply deplore his departure, for "he was my 
friend, faithful and just to me." He lived long and well; why 
then should we mourn? Let us rather emulate his many vir- 
tues, so that it may be said of us as of him, "Well done, good 
and faithful servant." 


Hon. Hanford L. Gordon, formerly of St. Cloud and ]Min- 
neapolis, now of Los Angeles, California, wrote: 

I met General Baker first in the political campaign of 1860. 
I heard him then make one of the very ablest and most eloquent 
speeches I had ever listened to, though I had heard speeches 
- by Daniel "Webster, Daniel S. Dickinson, William H. Seward, 
Joshua R. Giddings, Benjamin F. AYade, Stephen A. Douglas, 
Abraham Lincoln, and many other noted orators. I say now, 
after hearing many speeches delivered by General Baker, that 
in true eloquence he was the peer of all of them, and in power 
the superior of all of them, Abraham Lincoln excepted. Once 
I heard Henry Clay, when I was in my "teens" and Clay was 
an old man, somewhat enfeebled doubtless by age and disap- 
pointment; but the old fire flashed as he picked his flint and 
tried it again," — at any rate, he electro-fired me. AVhen I 
heard General Baker the first time (and many times after), the 
image of Henry Clay came before me like a flash. 

Disraeli said: ''Man is not the creature of circumstances; 
circumstances are the creatures of men." From my very soul, 
and from seventy odd years of observation and reading, I seri- 
ously disagree with Disraeli. Man is, in a large measure, the 
creature of circumstances. If General Grant had had no AYash- 
burn to push and back him, he might have died a poor unknown 
tanner in Galena. If circumstances had not called for Napo- 
leon, he would never have deluged Europe with blood and met 
his Nemesis in Moscow, and finally at Waterloo. If Joaquin 
Miller, one of the truest American poets, had been born and 
raised in Boston, and had belonged to the literary clique of 
Harvard and the Atlantic Monthly, his "Songs of the Sierras" 
and his "Columbus" w^ould be recited in the high schools and 
colleges of America today, along with Longfellow and "\Yhittier. 

General Baker was too proud a man, too great a man, to 
go to the newspapers and buy "glory." He ought to have 
been United States Senator from Minnesota; but he was too 
good, too brave, to buy it. 

Let me speak of his literature. His "Song of Friendship," 
an eulogy on his dead friend, Charles Scheffer, proves him a 
poet. His splendid articles on northern Minnesota, published 
in the Pioneer Press, show his fine descriptive powers, and his 

Memorials op deceased members, 1909-14. 757 

far-seeing mind. His many public addresses stamp him, not as 
an ordinary eulogist, but as a man of sound sense, varied ex- 
perience, and wide learning. His "Lives of the Governors of 
Minnesota" proves him to have been a fair and impartial his- 
torian, giving to even his political opponents fair and just 
credit, and withholding mere personal criticism. 

The faultless man is yet to be born, but when I look back 
on more than fifty years of my knowledge of and friendship 
for General Baker, I can see fifty faults in myself where I can 
see one in him. As a military officer in the Civil War, he did 
his duty and did it thoroughly. Circumstances, the orders of 
superiors, assigned him to important but less conspicuous posi- 
tions. In these he did his duty faithfully and to the utmost. In 
the campaign against the Sioux outbreak he proved his per- 
sonal bravery. Knowing him as I did, I know he would have 
proved it elsewhere, in the Civil War, whenever and wherever 
circumstances" and the orders of his superior officers per- 
mitted him to do it. Men do not make circumstances ; circum- 
stances make men, — or, at least, the reputation of men. 

I am proud (if I am proud of anything) that General Baker 
was my friend; but he was not the friend of his friend's faults, 
as I have had reason to know, and I honor him for it. I never 
had many true friends ; I never sought for many. I know that 
he was one of the sincerest, a true and honest friend. 


In the monthly meeting of the Executive Council, January 13^ 
1913, Hon. Colin F. Macdonald, of St. Cloud, presented the 
following memorial : 

During the past year or slightly more, we in St. Cloud have 
suffered the loss of a number of pioneer heroes, principal among 
them Loren W. Collins, soldier, jurist, and model citizen ; Henry 
C. Waite, member of the State Constitutional Convention, 
miller, merchant, and state legislator; Nehemiah P. Clarke, 
government contractor, leading lumberman, breeder of prize 
livestock, and banker; Josiah E. West, captain in the Seventh 


Minnesota regiment, and St. Cloud's most progressive and pub- 
lic-spirited citizen. 

Loren "Warren Collins, late Associate Justice of the Supreme 
Court of this state, a life member and Vice President of this 
Historical Society, was born in Lowell, Mass., August 7, 1838 ; 
and died in the city of Minneapolis, September 27, 1912. He 
had been in attendance at the National Encampment of the 
Grand Army of the Republic the week of September 8th, ap- 
parently in good health, but became ill of heart trouble and hur- 
ried home only to answer the last roll call of the veteran sol- 
dier. For him "taps" had sounded. Judge Collins descended 
from old New England stock, his ancestors coming to the New 
AYorld in 1G50. Great-grandfathers on both parents' side were 
Continental Soldiers in the Eevolutionary AVar. Some of his 
ancestors served in the French and Indian AVar of 1760, King 
AYilliam's AVar, the defence of Fort Edward and of Black Point. 
They also held many positions of trust and responsibility in 
civil life, one being the last Colonial Governor of New Hamp- 
shire. From such honored lineage Loren AY. Collins descended. 

In 1853, the ''call of the AYest" attracted his father, and 
they journeyed to the Territory of Alinnesota, settling on land 
in Eden Prairie, Hennepin county. Up to this time young Col- 
lins' education had been limited to only such as was afforded 
by .the public schools of Chicopee and Palmer, Massachusetts, 
where his father, as a mill operative, resided. In 1856 the 
family removed to a new home in Dakota county, near Hastings. 

In the fall of 1858, young Loren taught a four months' term 
of school near Cannon Falls, receiving therefor a school district 
order for $60. Ambitious to rise in the world, and feeling that 
he now had resources sufficient for a start, he began the study 
of law in the offices of Smith, Smith & Crosby, at Hastings. 

On August 15, 1862, he responded to President Lincoln's 
call for volunteers, and enlisted in Company F, Seventh Alin- 
nesota A^olunteer Infantry, and was at once promoted to second 
lieutenant. The great Sioux Indian outbreak occurring a week 
later, the regiment was ordered to the frontier, under Lieut. 
Col. AYilliam R. Alarshall. Lieutenant Collins participated in 
the Sibley campaign of that year, ending in the battle of AVood 
Lake, the defeat of the Sioux, and the release of the captive 

Memorials of deceased members, 1909-14. 759 

women and children. The next spring and summer he served 
with his regiment in General Sibley's campaign across the plains 
to the Missouri river and return. 

October 7, 1863, the Seventh regiment was ordered South. 
For six months he was an ofScer of the Provost Guard in St. 
Louis, Missouri. In July, 1864, the Seventh was ordered to 
Tennessee and Mississippi, and was actively engaged until the 
close of the war. This regiment participated in the battle of 
Tupelo, Miss. ; the Oxford, ^liss., raid ; the campaign in Ar- 
kansas and iMissouri in pursuit of the Confederate General 
Price; the two days battle of Nashville, resulting in the defeat 
of General Hood and annihilation of his army ; the investure of 
Mobile, Ala., and the capture of Spanish Fort, April 9, 1865. 
During this period Collins was promoted to first lieutenant, and 
was breveted captain ^larch 26, 1865. From April until Au- 
gust, 1865, he was Post Adjutant at Selma, Alabama. 

As a soldier, Captain Collins exhibited the same traits that 
marked his subsequent life. He was genial and companionable 
with his associates; he was zealous and energetic in the per- 
formance of every duty, or in the discharge of every order ; and 
in battle he was gallant and fearless. 

He was admitted to the bar shortly after his muster out, 
which was on August 16, 1865. 

He took up his residence in St. Cloud in 1866, and at once 
engaged in the practice of his profession, which he continued 
for seventeen years in the large district covering central and 
northern ^linnesota. During these years he was called upon 
to fill many official positions. He was mayor of St. Cloud four 
terms; was also four terms the county attorney of Stearns 
county; and was for two terms a representative in the Legis- 

In April, 1883, he was appointed District Judge, and by 
subsequent election served four years. November 16, 1887, he 
was appointed an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court, to 
succeed Justice Berry, deceased. The following year he was 
elected to succeed himself, and again in 189-1 and also in 1900. 
He resigned in 1904, thus having served twenty-one years on 
the Bench, — four years as Judge of the Seventh Judicial Dis- 
trict, and seventeen years as Associate Justice of the Supreme 


While a member of the Supreme Court, Justice Collins wrote 
over fifteen hundred opinions. On October 23d last, memorial 
exercises were held before that tribunal in his honor, at which 
several eulogistic addresses were delivered. 

I quote the following paragraph from the address of the 
chairman of the committee presenting the memorial: 

He was a learned, clear headed, right minded, honorable and just 
Judge. He met all the requirements of his great office. His service 
as a member of this court was contemporary with that of some of the 
greatest jurists of the state. For years he was a co-laborer with Chief 
Justice Gilfillan and Justices Mitchell, Dickinson, and Vanderburgh. 
He had great capacity for work and was a man of extraordinary in- 
dustry. Patient, tireless, painstaking, he could not rest content with a 
single duty unperformed. He had an attentive mind and a retentive 
memory. He grasped with readiness the facts in a case, even to the 
minutest detail, and with ease arranged them in orderly sequence, so 
that with the law clearly in mind he could speedily reach a right con- 

In 190i Judge Collins was an aspirant for the Republican 
nomination for Governor in one of the most closely contested 
political campaigns ever known in Minnesota. Although fail- 
ing by a narrow margin in securing the coveted prize, the sup- 
port accorded him was a high tribute to his worth and eminent 

At the age of sixty-six years Judge Collins resumed the 
practice of the law in Minneapolis, and met with unusual suc- 
cess for one of his years. He resided in that city the remainder 
of his life. 

During his residence of more than forty years in St. Cloud, 
Judge Collins enjoyed the respect, esteem, and confidence of 
his friends and fellow citizens in a marked degree. He was a 
man of sterling quality, of great moral courage, and of un- 
blemished honor. Having lived for thirty-eight years in the 
same community, which he always regarded as his home, I can 
bear testimony to the high regard in which he was held by his 
neighbors and fellow citizens. His word was as good as a gov- 
ernment bond. His clients had undoubted faith in his judg- 
ment and advice, and opposing counsel respected and admitted 
the soundness of his opinions. Under such conditions he nat- 
urally secured a large clientage, in a practice which extended 



through the counties of Stearns, Benton, Sherburne, Mille Lacs, 
Morrison, Todd, Douglas, and others. Although a strong Re- 
publican, his Democratic fellow citizens, in that stronghold of 
Democracy, frequently elected him to office. 

Lieutenant Collins was a splendid soldier. Although I was 
not personally acquainted with him in the dark days of the 
war, I served in the same division of the Sixteenth Army Corps, 
and I saw mucli of him in the field, as he was a mounted staff 
officer and frequently rode along the line of march or battle 
front. I was greatly impressed with the zeal, energy, and dash 
with which he bore dispatches from point to point. The mem- 
ories of those war days were ever strong with Judge Collins, 
and he cherished a warm regard for his veteran comrades, a 
feeling w^hich was reciprocated an hundredfold. He was prom- 
inent in Grand Army circles, and in the Department of Min- 
nesota was elevated to its highest honor, that of Department 
Commander. He was also closely identified with the National 
organization, in which he was very popular. Had he lived, in 
my judgment, he would have become Commander-in-Chief. 

He took a great interest in the Military Order of the Loyal 
Legion of the United States, and was commander of the Min- 
nesota Commandry for one year. He was also a member of the 
Society of Colonial AVars in this State, and of the Sons of the 
American Revolution. 

Judge Collins was married September 4, 1878, to Miss Ella 
]\r. Stewart, of Berlin, ^Yis., who died May 31, 1894. Three 
sons and one daughter were born to them. The daughter died 
in 1887. The three sons survive, — Stewart Garfield, Louis 
Lorin, and Lorin Fletcher, — to receive the splendid heritage of 
manliness and good citizenship bequeathed them by one of the 
most devoted of fathers. 

The funeral services were held at St. Cloud on Sunday, Sep- 
tember 29, in the L^nitarian Church, of which he was a member, 
and were attended by a large concourse of the late friends and 
neighbors of the deceased jurist. Eulogistic addresses were de- 
livered by tlie minister of the church, the Commanders of the 
Loyal Legion and Grand Army of the Republic, United States 
Senator Knute Nelson, and Judge Ell Torrance. The touching 
Orand Army ritual, by the old veterans of his Post, paid affec- 


tionate tribute and farewell to their comrade. Interment was 
made in North Star Cemetery, by the side of his wife and 
daughter, with ^Masonic ceremonies. 


The following memorial was presented by ^Ir. Edward C. 
Stringkr, formerly of Hastings, now of St. Paul, in the monthly 
meeting of the Executive Council, December 12, 1910. 

Francis ]Marion Crosby, descendant of colonial stock, was 
born in AYilmington, Vermont, November 13, 1830, and died in 
Hastings, Minnesota, Novemiber 15, 1910, at the age of eighty 
years and two days. He received his scholastic education in 
the public schools of Wilmington, Vt., and in Caesar's Sem- 
inary at Swanzey, N. H. 

After his graduation from this seminary he taught school 
for a few years, and then entered the office of Oscar L. Shafter 
of Wilmington, as a student of law, and thereafter the office 
of Daniel Roberts of ^Manchester, Yt. In 1858 he was admitted 
to the Vermont bar. On his admission to the bar he formed a 
partnership with Stephen P. Flagg, and engaged in the prac- 
tice of law at Wilmington. In 1855 and '56 he represented the 
AYilmington district in the Legislature of Vermont. 

In 1858 he removed to Hastings, ^Minnesota, in 1860 was 
elected to tlie office of Judge of Probate of Dakota county, and 
declined a re-election at the end of the term. Shortly there- 
after he entered into partnership with John R. Clagett, which 
continued until 1871. 

In November, 1871, he was elected Judge of the First Judi- 
cial District of the State of ^Minnesota, w^hich position he held 
without interruption until his death. His service of nearly 
thirty-nine years on the bench made him in years of contin- 
uous service the oldest judge on the Minnesota bench. 

Judge Crosby was a member of the Society of Colonial 
Wars; he was also a member of the ^Minnesota Society of Sons 
of the American Revolution, and was president of the latter 



society in 1905 and 'OG. He was elected a life member of the 
Minnesota Historical Society April 13, 1903. 

Judge Crosby was twice married, May 30, 1866, to Helen 
M. Sprague^ who died November 16, 1869, leaving a son, Frank 
N. Crosby of New York City ; October 23, 1872, he was married 
to Helen S. Bates, who died Oct. 2, 1909, leaving two daughters, 
Miss Marion E. Crosby of Hastings and ^Mrs. E. L. Prescott of 
Portland, Oregon. 

His funeral services were held in the Episcopal Church at 
Hastings, Minn., of which church he was a communicant, and 
were attended by a large body of distinguished citizens and 
members of the bench and bar from the Twin Cities and other 
portions of the state. 

These are the mountain peaks of his life, but between them 
lie beautiful valleys of fruits and flowers, the sweetness and 
fragrance of which are best known to those who knew him best. 
His extraordinary term of service on the bench would ordi- 
narily, alone, be a sufficient commentary upon his ability, in- 
tegrity, and fidelity in the discharge of the duties of his high 
office, and upon the confidence, esteem, and appreciation of his 
fellow citizens. But Judge Crosby was not an ordinary man 
or an ordinary judge ; and such commentary inadequately char- 
acterizes the nobility of the man or the qualities of the jurist. 
Judge Crosby possessed an inborn nobility of character second 
to none, — a fine-grained, chivalrous nature, which had not to 
assume the outward appearance of gentility, courtesy, and 
native refinement, but manifested them at all times because 
they were inborn. 

He was a remarkable, impartial, just, and discriminating 
jurist, — patient, painstaking and conscientious, quick of per- 
ception, yet reaching conclusions only after study and reflec- 
tion; a judgment once formed was unalterable. He stood like 
adamant, and his decisions were rarely reversed by the Ap- 
pellate Court. A keen student of human nature and appre- 
ciative of its frailities, he tempered justice with mercy ; pos- 
sessing the highest sense of personal and professional honor, 
he abhorred sham, chicanery and trickery in every form, and 
rarely did it go undiscovered or bear fruit in his court. Judge 
Crosby was most conscientious, but always possessed the cour- 



age of liis convictions. lie was conscientiously opposed to the 
infliction of capital punishment, and for that reason refused 
to try criminal cases in which he might as a judge be called 
upon to impose the penalty his conscience disapproved. 

He was a well beloved and esteemed judge, citizen, and 


In the Council Meeting on September 12, 1910, Hon. Julius 
A. ScHMAiiL, Secretary of State, presented this memorial: 

It is with a feeling of poignant regret tliat I have recalled 
to my mind tonight the passing away of two friends, — the one 
in the ripe, old age of venerable manhood, and the other cut 
dbw^n in the richest bloom of political and commercial pros- 
perity. The former, AYilliam Pitt ^Murray, became my friend 
as far back as 1885, when, as corporation counsel to the city 
of St. Paul, he seemed to take a deep interest in my success in 
entering on my career as a newspaper reporter, giving me much 
friendly advice, and in after years he was a close observer of 
my political career. The latter friend, Clarence C. Dinehart, 
for whom the task of preparing a brief history of his career has 
been assigned to me for this evening, was an acquaintance and 
friend of long after years. Indeed, it was not until his me- 
morable campaign of 1906, when he became the successful Re- 
publican nominee for state treasurer, that he became known to 
and loved by me. 

Clarence Christopher Dinehart was born to Mr. and Mrs. 
C. E. Dinehart in Chicago on April 3, 1877. At the age of seven 
he came with his parents to Slayton, Minnesota, and attended 
the village school. He next attended the Central High School 
in Minneapolis, continued his studies at the State University, 
and was graduated from that institution in 1899. He was a 
member of the class of 1899, and was prominent in student 
activities. He was a member of the glee and mandolin clubs, 
and was a soloist with the glee club in its trips throughout the 
Northwest. In his junior year he was secretary of the Uni-. 
versity Musical Association and editor-in-chief of the 1899 

Minnesota IhsTOiiiCAL Socii:ty. 
Vol. XV. Plate XIX. 


Gopher, the junior annual at the University. He was a mem- 
ber of the Delta Upsilon fraternity, and of the Castalian lit- 
erary society. 

After graduating from the University he returned to Slay- 
ton and served as assistant cashier in his father's bank. In 
1902 he was elected mayor of the village, but resigned that fall 
to pursue the law course at Harvard University. He completed 
this in 1905, and the next year he was urged to run for the 
office of state treasurer. He made one of the most phenomenal 
campaigns ever made in the State, was nominated on the first 
ballot, and was elected by an overwhelming majority. His next 
election followed as a matter of course. In the administration 
of the office he exhibited rare talents as an executive officer. 
He developed ability of a high order as a public speaker and 
was in greats demand at commencements, old settlers' gather- 
ings, picnics, conventions, and fraternal meetings and similar 

His executive ability, pleasing personality, and oratorical 
powers, attracted general attention; and almost with one ac- 
cord the leaders in his congressional district looked to him as 
a suitable candidate for the Republican nomination for Congress 
this year. He was just about to enter an active campaign for 
that office when stricken by death, on June 8, 1910. 

A beautiful life has gone out, a brilliant career has been cut 
short; but there is consolation in the knowledge that he ac- 
complished so much in the time he lived, and satisfaction in 
the success attained. 


The following memorial was presented in the Council Meet- 
ing on April 13, 1914, by Dr. Cyrus Northrop, President 
Emeritus of the University of ^linnesota. 

I appear before you tonight at the request of your com- 
mittee, to present a memorial address in honor of the late Wil- 
liam H. Dunwoody, who had boon a life member of the ]\rin- 
nesota Historical Society since ^larch 8, 1897, and a member 


of its Executive Council fourteen years, since January 8, 1900. 
I do this with some pleasure, because the subject is an inspir- 
ing one ; but I do it with some reluctance, because it was not 
my good fortune to know 'Mr. Dunwoody at all intimately. 
Aside from my own very clear conviction as to his character, I 
must rely almost entirely upon the testimony of others for 
material out of which to construct a memorial address. This 
partial disqualification may possibly result in keeping my words 
of appreciation within such limits as Mr. Dunwoody liimself, if 
he could speak, would approve. I trust it may not result in 
my doing less than justice to his character and achievements. 

AVilliam Hood Dunwoody was born in Delaware county, 
Pennsylvania, March 14, 1841. At an early age lie was em- 
ployed as a clerk in the grain and feed store of his uncle, in 
Philadelphia. lie first came to ^linneapolis in 1869 as a pur- 
chaser of flour for eastern concerns. He had a strong desire 
to own and operate a flour mill, and two years later, in 1871, 
he became a mill owner, operating the Arctic and Union mills 
in Minneapolis. 

In 1877, at the request of General Cadwallader C. Wash- 
burn, the owner of the Washburn Mills, who desired to estab- 
lish direct trade in flour between Minneapolis and Europe, Mr. 
Dunwoody undertook the task of establishing the desired trade 
relations. He visited Europe for the purpose, and although he 
encountered many obstacles he. finally succeeded. It is said 
that the ^Minneapolis millers today attribute the great volume 
of business done by the mills to the efliorts of Mr. Dunwoody in 
those early days. 

In 1879 ]\[r. Dunwoody became a partner with Governor 
Washburn, John Cros])y, and Charles J. ]\Iartin, in the firm of 
Washburn, Crosby and Company ; and his interest in this great 
and prosperous company continued without interruption to the 
end of his life. He contributed in a large way to the perma- 
nence of the milling business in ^Minneapolis. First of all, then, 
in the matter of business, he was a miller. Otlier enterprises 
in which he became interested and in which he took a com- 
manding part were tlie by-products of his energy, though they 
alone were of sufficient magnitude to satisfy the ambition and 
employ the energies of most men. 



Mr. Dunwoody was for many years conspicuous as a banker. 
The Northwestern National Bank of ^linneapolis is today a 
powerful financial institution. It owes much of its strength to 
the wise counsels of Mr. Dunwoody, who was chairman of its 
Board of Directors for thirty-eight years, its president for 
nearly ten years, and twice its vice president. Although in 
1911 he resigned the presidency of the bank, he still remained 
chairman of its Directors, and his guiding wisdom was enjoyed 
by the bank almost to the end of his life. The value of the 
services thus rendered can be specially appreciated by busi- 
ness men whose life sometimes depends on their credit at a 
bank, which in turn has its o^vn power to give credit dependent 
on the wisdom and business sanity of the bank officials. 

For twenty-five years ^Ir. Dunwoody was a director of the 
Great Northern Railway Company, and we in Minnesota un- 
derstand how much that meant. His intimacy with the presi- 
dent of the Great Northern shows that he Avas no merely nom- 
inal director, but an important and influential member of the 
directorate of the great railroad that has done so much for the 
Twin Cities and for the entire Northwest. Undoubtedly his 
connection with the Great Northern railway contributed in 
several ways largely to his success in business. 

Mr. Dunwoody was of Scotch Presbyterian descent, and he 
was loyal all his life to his denominational antecedents. He 
was for many years a trustee of AYestminister Presbyterian 
Church, and was a regular contributor to its support and to 
the various outside missions and schools which it conducted. 

He gave to the City of Minneapolis the land on which the 
Hopewell Hospital was built. AYhen in the latter part of his 
life he built a new home, he gave his old home, a substantial 
brick residence, as a home and boarding house for needy 

When the movement was started for an Art Museum and 
Mr. Clinton ^Morrison gave for the Museum a site valued at 
two hundred fifty thousand dollars, on condition that five hun- 
dred thousand dollars be raised for a building, Mr. Dunwoody 
started the subscription for a building by pledging one hun- 
dred thousand dollars. Tliis appears to be the only large gift 
in his lifetime which was made with special publicity, and this 


was made so only as an example and incentive to others; and 
as a result the requisite amount was subscribed at the first meet- 
ing held for the purpose, at which announcement was made of 
Mr. Dunwoody's gift, he himself being modestly absent. 

Mr. Dunwoody's life was not spectacular. He was a busi- 
ness man. He conducted his business wisely and successfully. 
He made few if any mistakes in making investments. He never 
speculated. He never gambled. He believed in everybody's 
earning what. they received; and he seems to have accumulated 
his large fortune by old-fashioned honest methods, and not by 
monopolizing the gifts of nature intended for the whole human 
family. While prospering in business and accumulating wealth, 
he was not unmindful of those who were less fortunate and 
who needed help, and his gifts were freely and wisely and un- 
ostentatiously given. The w^orld kne^v little about wliat he 
gave, but it did not regard him as lacking in liberality. 

When on Sunday, February 8, 1914, he passed away, no 
voice of criticism or censure was heard. The public felt that 
a good citizen, a generous kindly man, a true friend of what- 
ever was best for city, state, or nation, had gone from them. 
His business friends mourned the loss of a w^se counselor; his 
personal friends mourned the loss of a gentle and congenial 
friend; the public appreciated the loss that had come to the 
city, and, in recognition of his worth, paused in its activities 
long enougli to think of what he had been and had done, and 
to regret that so good a citizen had been taken away. This is 
about the way the record stood after the news had been cir- 
culated that Mr. Dunwoody had died at seven o'clock in the 
morning of Sunday, February 8, 1914. 

And then, after his body had been borne to its last resting 
place, and the Avorld had again taken up its work, there came 
the publication of the will. And what a will it was ! So wise, 
so clear, so thoughtful of all who might reasonably expect to 
be remembered, so helpful to those to whom was intrusted the 
care of his estate, so magnificently generous to causes devoted 
to human welfare ! 

He generously and wisely provided for his wife and his three 
nieces, and for other friends; and then he divided the residue 
of his estate in such a way, and bequeathed it for such purposes. 



as to insure the admiration and gratitude of his fellow citizens 
for all time to come. 

I wish I could include the whole will in this address. It 
alone would be a sufficient memorial to the philanthropist, the 
citizen, the man. Let me at least record here his specific be- 
quests, that they may stand for all time in your treasure house 
of memorials to the noble men who have made Minnesota what 
she is. 

Mr. Dunwood}^ left an estate of about seven millions of dol- 
lars. Two million two hundred two thousand he left to his 
wife, relatives, and friends. The remainder of the estate, 
amounting to four million six hundred and one thousand dol- 
lars, he bequeathed to the public for educational, philanthropic, 
and religious purposes. His gifts in detail are as follows : 

To the Dunwoody Industrial Institute, Minneapolis. $2,000,000 

Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts 1,000,000 

Trustees of Westminster Church, Minneapolis 175,000 

Minneapolis Young Men's Christian Association 50,000 

Minneapolis Woman's Boarding Home 1,000 

Presbyterian Board of Relief for Ministers 100,000 

Presbyteriao, Board of Home ^Missions 100,000 

Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions 100,000 

Dunwoody Home for Convalescents, Newtown Farm, Penn- 
sylvania 1,050,000 

Merchants' Beneficial Association, Philadelphia 10,000 

Newtown Burying Ground, Pennsylvania 5,000 

Merchants' Fund, Philadelphia 10,000 

1 ' $4,601,000 
To his family and friends he bequeathed as follows : 

To Mrs. W. H. Dunwoody $1,500,000 

Three nieces, $150,000 each 450,000 

Other relatives, friends, and associates 252,000 


The children of today will bless him for remembering their 
needs and providing most generously for their training in man- 
ual labor ; the lovers of art will hold him in grateful remem- 
brance for his noble provision for the gratification and culture 
of lovers of beauty; the church which he loved, and its mis- 
sionary societies, will never forget the great contributions he 



made to their work. The Young Men's Christian Association 
will rise into a higher and broader life in new quarters under 
the inspiration of his gift. Thousands of convalescents in his 
old home in Pennsylvania will take in new draughts of life in 
the healthful quarters his liberality has created for them. 
Other organizations will be enabled to widen their work and 
extend their service through his aid, — all this in our day, — 
while generations as yet unborn will in the coming years rise 
up and call him blessed. 

^Vhile all the bequests of Mr. Dunwoody's will are wise, no 
other one is wiser, or destined to be productive of greater good, 
than his bequest of two million dollars to the Dunwoody Indus- 
trial Institute. Such an institution as he had in mind is greatly 
needed. Apprenticeship is no longer usual in this country. 
Some large institution to which young people can go and learn 
the use of tools, the principles of mechanics, and skill in me- 
chanic arts, has been greatly needed for years. 

Another citizen of ^linneapolis had it in mind some years 
ago to establish such an institution in connection with the 
Agricultural Department of the State University, but he died 
before his plans were fully matured. 

The Institute for which ^Ir. Dunwoody has made provision 
is to be so large, so hospitable to all who desire to enjoy its 
privileges, so beneficent in its influence, that only the full text 
of that part of the will devoted to this bequest can give an 
adequate idea of ^Ir. Dunwoody's foresight and wisdom; and 
I need not apologize, I am sure, for quoting this in full. 

Believing that in the multiplied facilities for obtaining a liberal 
education by the youth of this state, enough attention has not been 
given to instruction in the industrial and mechanical arts, therefore, 
it is my purpose and desire to establish and endow a school to be 
called "The William Hood Dunwoody Industrial Institute," wherein 
shall be taught industrial and mechanical arts, giving special impor- 
tance to the different handicrafts and useful trades, including as of 
special importance the art of milling and the construction, of milling 
machinery; and I desire that such school be established and main- 
tained and such endowment fund be administered by and through a 
corporation. Therefore I will and direct that the executors of this 
Will shall, during the life of the youngest of the executors named in 
this Will, and before the final decree is taken, in the administration of 
my estate, organize or cause to be organized under the laws of the 


state of Minnesota, a corporation the name of which shall be "The 
William Hood Dunwoody Industrial Institute," if such name shall be 
permitted by the laws of the State of Minnesota, and if not, then by 
such name to be selected by my executors as the laws of the state will 
permit, with powers and purposes ample to receive, own and admin- 
ister this fund and endowment and all the property covered thereby, 
and to establish and maintain a school to be called "The William Hood 
Dunwoody Industrial Institute," wherein instruction in the industrial 
and mechanical arts, giving special importance to the different handi- 
crafts and useful trades, including as of special importance the art of 
milling and the construction of milling machinery, shall be given free 
to the youth of the City of Minneapolis and State of Minnesota, with- 
out distinction on account of race, color, or religious prejudice; and 
to make such rules and regulations as may be proper or necessary for 
the admission of pupils to said school, always having in mind my wish 
that the benefits thereof be given to as many as practicable with the 
means in its hands; and, to that end, 

I give, devise and bequeath to such corporation all the rest, residue 
and remainder of my property of whatsoever nature and wheresoever 
situate, to have and to hold to it and to its successors, having like cor- 
porate powers and purposes, and assigns, forever. And if the laws of 
the state of Minnesota regulating the formation of such corporations 
shall so permit, I will and direct that James S. Bell, W. G. Crocker, 
Charles Cranston Bovey, John Crosby, Franklin M. Crosby, Elbridge C. 
Cooke, Robert W. Webb, E. W. Decker, Joseph Chapman, William H. 
Bovey, John Washburn, and F. G. Atkinson, be named as trustees of 
such corporation; and if the laws of the State of Minnesota will not 
permit of all of them being named as trustees, then it is my will and 
I direct that so many of them as the law will permit to be named as 
trustees be so named, the selection to be made from the persons spec- 
ified in the order in which their names are written herein; and if the 
laws of the State of Minnesota will not permit the naming of any of 
the persons above named as trustees in the formation of such cor- 
poration, then it is my will and I direct that my executors name such 
other persons, either including or excluding themselves, as they may 
deem proper to act as trustees in the formation of such corporation. 
And in the formation of such corporation, if the laws of the State of 
Minnesota will so permit, it is my will and I direct that the trustees 
who shall have the management of such corporation shall not be less 
than seven nor more than fifteen; and if the laws of the State of Min- 
nesota will so permit, it is my will and I direct that the trustees of 
said corporation shall have power and authority to fill any vacancy in 
their number arising from death, resignation, or otherwise, to the end 
that a continuity of purpose and the best interests of said school may 
be promoted and preserved. 

It is my will and I direct that said corporation select and procure 
a suitable site for said school in said City of Minneapolis, and con- 


Struct and erect suitable buildings and structures for the purposes of 
said school on said site, using and employing in purchasing the site 
and the erection and construction of such buildings not to exceed one- 
third of the amount devised and bequeathed to it; and I direct said 
corporation to use and employ ninety per cent of the net annual in- 
come arising from the remainder of said fund bequeathed to it in open- 
ing and maintaining a school in said buildings, to be called "The Wil- 
liam Hood Dunwoody Industrial Institute," wherein instruction in the 
industrial and mechanical arts, giving special importance to the dif- 
ferent handicrafts and useful trades, including as of special impor- 
tance the art of milling and the construction of milling machinery, shall 
be given free to the youth of the City of Minneapolis and the State of 
Minnesota, without distinction on account of race, color, or religious 
prejudice; and to make such rules and regulations as may be proper 
or necessary for the admission of pupils to said school, always having 
in mind my wish that the benefits thereof be given to as many as 
practicable with the means in its hands. And I direct that said cor- 
poration take and hold all the remainder of the moneys and property 
which it shall receive under this bequest, after paying for said site and 
the erection of said buildings and structures as hereinbefore specified, 
as and for a permanent endowment fund; and I direct that the moneys 
and property held by it as and for such endowment fund be invested 
and re-invested in the investments and securities specified by and in 
the manner provided in Clause Fourth hereof, if that shall be permitted 
by the laws of the State of Minnesota; and that ninety per cent of the 
net annual income only arising therefrom be used and employed in the 
maintenance and support of said school, the remaining ten per cent of 
the net annual income to be held as and for an emergency fund to be 
used and expended whenever necessary to meet unforeseen contingen- 
cies and emergencies; my purpose and aim being to provide for all 
time a place where the youth of this city and state may, if they so 
desire, learn the different handicrafts and useful trades and thereby fit 
themselves for the better performance of life's duties. 

And I hereby authorize and empower said corporation and its suc- 
cessors to sell, dispose of and freely alienate any and all property, 
real, personal, or mixed, which it shall receive under this the residuary 
clause of my Will; and nothing herein shall be construed as in any 
manner limiting the free alienation at any time of any part of said 
fund and endowment by said corporation or its successors; but it is 
my wish that said corporation and its successors invest and re-invest 
the funds which shall come into its possession and under its control in 
the investments and securities specified by and in the manner provided 
In Clause Fourth hereof, if that be permitted under the laws of the State 
of Minnesota; otherwise in such securities as the law permits. 

It is my desire and I will that this Will be so read and construed 
as to permit such residue of my estate to be so donated and used free 

Memorials of deceased members, 1909-14. 773 

of any and every prohibited trust feature and free of any and every 
rule of law which may make my aims and purposes uncertain; and to 
that end my directions as to details herein may be construed, if nec- 
essary, as suggestions. And until said corporation is created as herein 
provided, the legal title of the residue of my estate, and all of the 
same, shall vest in Kate L. Dunwoody, C. C. Bovey, and John Crosby, 
as executors of my "Will, charged with my wishes, directions and will, 
with full power and authority unto my said executors, Kate L. Dun- 
woody, C. C. Bovey, and John Crosby, or a majority of them, while they 
hold the legal title to the residue of my estate, to sell, dispose of and 
freely alienate any and all property^ real, personal, or mixed, so held 
by them. 

AYilliam C. Edgar, a close friend of Mr. Dunwoody, speaks 
as follows, respecting "the unostentatious good" which he did : 

"Mr. Dunwoody was one of the very few people in this world who 
'do good by stealth and blush to find it fame.' The most unpretentious 
of men, it seemed actually to pain him to be praised for his innumer- 
able kind and generous acts; and as far as possible, he avoided re- 
ceiving thanks or acknowledgments. His gentleness, his thoughtful- 
ness for others, his readiness to help in time of need, his true kindli- 
ness of heart, and his sympathy with those in distress or trouble, made 
him sincerely beloved by all who knew him; but he was so excessively 
difhdent about being given credit for what he did that very few in- 
deed, even among his most intimate associates, realized to what extent 
his acts of benevolence reached." 

May I be pardoned if in a few words I give you my per- 
sonal impression of Mr. Dunwoody as a man? First of all, he 
had not a particle of that air of self-importance which wealth 
sometimes bestows upon men when they become rich. He was 
modest. He was gentle. He was a gentleman. He did not 
draw you to him by any effort on his part. He did not repel 
you by aggressive self-assertion. With all his wealth, he seemed 
not unmindful of the fact that the things which are seen are 
temporal, but the things which are unseen are eternal. Up- 
right, clean, quiet, efficient, earnest and kind, he was 
**A combination and a form indeed 
To give the world assurance of a man." 

And how true it is of him that though now "he rests from 
his labors, his Avorks do follow him." 


Born Skptember 15, 1859; Died July 11, 1910. 

In the Council Meeting on September 12, 1910, Dr. Cyrus 
Northrop presented this memorial : 

A great sorrow has come to us all. The friend whom we 
loved, the man whom we honored, the scientist on whose knowl- 
edge and skill we relied, and the executive whose forceful and 
wise carrying out of plans gave tlie fullest assurance that every- 
thing committed to his management would be most success- 
fully done, has been stricken down in a moment, when appar- 
ently he was in the full vigor of virile strength, in the very 
flower of healthy manhood. What it means to him we do not 
know. A\"hether in a moment he passed from the activities of 
a strenuous life in the service of the state to a full realization 
of immortality, eternal life, we do not know. But we do know 
what it means to us, his friends, his colleagues, his associates, 
his colaborers. For us it means loss, — irreparable loss; for us 
it means bereavement and sorrow. For us it means a realiza- 
tion of a great place left vacant by his departure, — a place 
which we feel sure no one can ever fill to the full measure that 
he filled it. 

Samuel B. Green came to us from j\Iassaehusetts in the early 
days of the Agricultural Department of the University, when 
the future of agricultural education was very uncertain. He 
was Professor of Horticulture. At first he had little equipment 
for the development of his work. But he did what was possi- 
ble. As the years went on and the inner life of the College 
and School of Agriculture became both more peaceful and 
orderly, the Department of Horticulture grew^ in importance, 
buildings and equipment were provided, and Professor Green 
could point with pride to his department as successfully doing 
its work, and he miglit have been content with that. But he 
was not. He had a noble ambition to lift the College of Agri- 
culture and make it as truly an agency for higher education as 
any of the other colleges of the University. He carefully 
planned the curriculum, and, as chairman of the Committee on 
the Course of Study, he secured the adoption of the present 


high and excellent curriculum. So far as the College of Agri- 
culture is concerned, Professor Green was the man who 
moulded it into its present shape and gave it the resulting 
attractiveness. But he was not content with this. 

His mind was actively engaged all the time in finding ways 
by which the work in agriculture could be extended. He was a 
member and a most influential member of the Board having 
in charge the Farmers' Institutes, by which so much good has 
been done for years past. He was practically the executive in 
charge of all the extension work in agriculture provided for 
by the last session of the State Legislature. 

Lieutenant Governor Rice and I Avere associated with him 
in this work, but I am sure that Mr. Eice would be quite as 
ready as I to bear witness that it was Professor Green who 
planned, and who executed the plans; and I recall with won- 
der his complete mastery of the details of this whole work, and 
his never failing attention to the work at the right moment, 
notwithstanding his many engagements in his own special work. 

And then he was president of the State Horticultural So- 
ciety. He put a new life into this organization, and the faith- 
ful old men who for years had been working together in tlie 
society must have been cheered and delighted when this young, 
forceful, wise scientist, with full knowledge and hearty sym- 
pathy, took hold of the work with them and gave them assur- 
ance that it would be a success. 

And then he was in touch with farmers all over the state. 
He was interested in the establishment of schools of agricult- 
ure and helpful to those who had the duty of locating such 
schools. In short, he in a way pervaded the agricultural life 
of Minnesota and wherever men were interested in getting food 
from the earth, they could always find a sympathetic friend 
and earnest and safe counselor in Professor Green. 

But even tliis did not fill up the measure of his activity. He 
became interested in Forestry, and his vision of future forestry 
reserves, and of the work to be done in connection therewith, 
the training of masters of forestry, the cultivation of trees, the 
enrichment and beautifying of large regions otherwise useless, 
— his vision of all these things was so clear that his hand was 
stretched out to grasp them ; and had he lived to the full meas- 


ure of years, he would undoubtedly have grasped all that he 
had seen in vision. As it was, he had already accomplished 
much, securing thousands of acres for his work, while he him- 
self had become one of the leading authorities in the country 
on forestry. Only a few weeks ago, the Board of Regents 
formally organized the Department of Forestry, and elected 
him Dean of the Department. 

But why should I enumerate his work further? A man of 
restless energy, never happy unless he was doing something, 
never so happy as when he had done something worth while, his 
life was literally filled full with usefulness and duty. 

We honor him for the grand work he has done. We honor 
him for being the grand man he was. If at any time his asso- 
ciates did not agree with him in some respect, there never was 
a time when they were not ready to praise him as the man who 
does things. And as I recall the momentum which he always 
seemed to have gathered before putting propositions for new 
enterprises before me, there comes over me an appalling sense 
of irreparable loss in the death of this courageous, strong, en- 
terprising and public spirited man of science, educator, for- 
ester, citizen. 

And that is not all. It is a noble record of work that he has 
left behind him. But I like to think of him as he was. A true 
man, clean in his life, of heroic attitude against evil, he would 
have been a crusader if he had lived in the time of the crusades. 
As it is, he carried the same spirit into his fight against igno- 
rance and poverty and unhappiness; and, bravely bearing his 
own burdens without a murmur, he did what he could to the 
very last to make the world better and happier. Farewell, dear 
friend ! We shall meet beyond the river, and may our crowns 
be as bright as yours surely will be. 

A Mi:morial presented by the Secretary. 
Lucius Frederick Hubbard, a life member of this Historical 
Society since September 11, 1899, and an elective member of 
its Executive Council since September 12, 1901, died at the 
home of his son in Minneapolis on February 5, 1913. 


He was born in Troy, N. Y., January 26, 1836. His father 
died when the son was only three years old, and seven years 
later his mother died, leaving him to be cared for by an aunt in 
Vermont. He attended the public schools in Chester, Vt., three 
years, and then spent two years at an academy in Granville, 
• N. Y. He was apprenticed to a tinsmith at the age of fifteen, 
and devoted the next three years to learning that trade. From 
1854 to 1857 he worked as a tinsmith in Chicago. 

Tempted by the opportunities offered by the AYest, Hubbard 
came to Minnesota in 1857, settling in Red "Wing, and there 
established a newspaper, called the Red Wing Republican, 
which is still one of the leading journals of Goodhue county. 

Upon the breaking oat of the Civil War, Hubbard enlisted 
as a private in Company A of the Fifth Minnesota Infantry. 
He was made captain of his company in February, 1862 ; a few 
weeks later was promoted to lieutenant colonel ; and in August 
of the same year became colonel of his regiment. 

He served throughout the war with distinguished valor, 
attaining the rank of brigadier general in 1864. 

At the close of the war he returned to Minnesota, and until 
1901 resided in Red Wing, being engaged in grain business, 
milling, and railroad building. In 1872-5 he was a state sena- 
tor, and in 1882 to 1887 was governor of Minnesota, his second 
term consisting of three years on account of the change to bien- 
nial sessions of the legislature. 

He removed to St. Paul in 1901, and afterward lived there, 
except that his home during the last two years was with his 
son in Minneapolis. 

Governor Hubbard was appointed by President McKinley 
a brigadier general at the beginning of the Spanish-American 
war, and he served with the Seventh Army Corps. The v/ar 
ended before these troops were called into active service, yet 
the heroism and patriotism of the general, who thus served in 
two wars, were nobly attested. 

He was a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, the 
Loyal Legion, the Society of the Army of the Tennessee, the 
Military Order of Foreign Wars, and other patriotic organiza- 
tions. For the day of his funeral both branches of the State 


Legislature adjourned. The burial was in Lakewood Cem- 
etery, Minneapolis. 

His biography by General Baker, in ''Lives of the Governors 
of Minnesota," forms pages 251-281, with a portrait, in Volume 
XIII of this Society's Historical Collections. 

In Volume XII of this series. Governor Hubbard contributed 
Civil ^ar Papers," pages 531-638, with a later portrait, seven 
maps, and other illustrations. 


In the meeting of the Council on ^larch 11, 1912, the Secre- 
tary presented the following memorial : 

" David Lansing Kingsbury was born in Marshall, Mich., Dec. 
28, 18-12 ; and died at his home in St. Paul, January 24, 1912. 
His father died when he w^as only eight years old, and he lived 
afterward in the family of his aunt, his father's sister, Mrs. 
Henry Bunce, and came with them to Monticello, Minn., in 
1856. Although only eighteen years old when the civil war 
began, he was very anxious to serve as a soldier, and in 1862 
enlisted as a private in the Eighth Minnesota Regiment. In 
186'! he was promoted to be first sergeant of his company. For 
two years he served on the frontier against the Indians, going 
with General Sully's expedition to the Yellowstone river. He 
participated in two pitched battles with the Sioux. In 1861 
his regiment was sent to Tennessee, and later served in North 
Carolina. ^Ir. Kingsbury was in all the battles in which his 
regiment engaged, but received no wound during the entire 
war. In July, 1865, he was mustered out as second lieutenant. 

He settled in St. Paul, and engaged in hardware business 
from 1873 to 1886. He was assistant librarian of the ]\Iinne- 
sota Historical Society continuously since 1893, during more 
than eighteen years, and in this position did much for the suc- 
cess and upbuilding of this institution. He became a life mem- 
ber of the Society in 1895, and was a member of its Executive 
Council since 1896. • 

He was greatly interested in military matters, and upon the 

Memorials of deceased members, 1909-14. 


organization of the Grand Army of the Republic was one of its 
early members. He was also a member of the ^Minnesota Com- 
mandery of the Loyal Legion of the United States, and was its 
Recorder since 1898. 

Mr. Kingsbury. was married in 1869 to ^liss Anna Sawyer 
Braman, who died in St. Paul in March, 1908. They had no 
children. Their home w^as at Merriam Park, and there ^Ir. 
Kingsbury continued to live. He took much delight in the cul- 
tivation of his flower garden. Last summer he made a visit to 
his only sister, Mrs. Gen. Edwin C. Mason, in Los Angeles, Cal., 
and on the same trip attended meetings of the American Library 

Mr. Kingsbury was a man of strongly marked personal char- 
acter, greatly attached to his friends, generous, sympathetic, 
and ardently devoted to whatever work he undertook. He had 
an unusually large number of warm personal friends, and had 
the esteem and affection of his old comrades in the army, of 
the workers in the Historical Society Library, and of those asso- 
ciated w^ith him in every walk of life. 

He contributed papers to this Society's Collections in Vol- 
ume Yin, "The United States Government Publications," 
pages 120-128, and ''Sully's Expedition against the Sioux in 
1864," pages 449-462, with a map; and in Volume XH, ''The 
Old Frigate Minnesota," pages 85-97, with his portrait. 

Justice Loren W. Collins, presiding in this meeting, said: 
Having under consideration the life and character of David 
L. Kingsbury, I may very properly add a few words concerning 
him. There are very few present who have known him as long 
as I, for when I went to St. Cloud to reside in 1866 I became 
acquainted with his brother, Charles W. Kingsbury, and very 
soon afterward met David, who was then a resident of St. Paul. 
Charles was foreman of the St. Cloud Journal, a weekly news- 
paper published in that city, and as we boarded at the same 
place, I at once became acquainted with him, and became so 
intimate with him that when he died some fifteen or eighteen 
years ago I was named as executor of his last will and testa- 
ment. This intimacy with Charles led to a very close acquaint- 
ance with David and also with Mrs. Mason, their sister, who 



was the wife of Captain Edwin C. Mason, then of the Tenth 
Infantry and stationed at Fort Ripley, some fifty miles north 
of St. Cloud. The captain, his wife, and David, frequently vis- 
ited St. Cloud, spending usually two or three days with their 
brother. The resemblance between the two brothers was very 
noticeable, and the only real difference lay in the fact that David 
was two or three inches taller than his brother. Both were 
men of marked character and most excellent reputation. 

"VYhile David was Recorder of the Loyal Legion, I met him 
frequently, and my admiration for the man steadily increased 
so long as he lived. He was exceedingly painstaking and in- 
dustrious in everything that he undertook, and this was made 
very apparent in his strong devotion to the work as Recorder 
of the Legion. It is a position which requires industry and 
attention to the many details which are in the hands of the 
recorder, and it must be looked after by him with strict fidelity. 
I think I can safely say that no man ever rendered more faith- 
ful service to the Loyal Legion than he did, and this may be 
said of him in everything that he undertook. His loss to the 
organizations of which he was a part, and to the community in 
general, is exceedingly great, and we honor ourselves in honor- 
ing his memory. 

Memorials presented in the Annual Meeting, January 8, 


A manuscript by Rev. Dr. David R. Breed, formerly of St. 
Paul, now of Pittsburg, Pa., was read by Vice President William 
H. Lightner, as follows : 

I made the acquaintance of Mr. Langford in the early sev- 
enties, before his permanent removal to St. Paul, and saw much 
of him during his visits to the place. I officiated at his mar- 
riage with Miss Emma C. Wheaton, November 1, 1876, the wed- 
ding certificate being signed by his mother and her father. He 
had already built a home for his bride on Exchange street, 
within a block of my own house, to which he brought her after 
the wedding trip, and where he continued to reside. AYe were 
therefore near neighbors. I saw him every day, and had abun- 



dant opportunity to study his character. I was also intimately 
acquainted with his three sisters, — all women of like tempera- 
ment to his own and reflecting the marked characteristics of 
the family. All this continued for about ten years, when I 
removed to Chicago. I speak therefore from close and familiar 

If I were to summarize the elements of Mr. Langford's per- 
sonal character in a single sentence, I should say that it was a 
rare combination of tenderness and strength. In him the most 
profound convictions were united with the sweetest charity; 
heroism was tempered with mercy. He was a fine illustration 
of the lines of Bayard Taylor, in "The Song of the Camp," 
**The bravest are the tenderest, 
The loving are the daring." 

That which impressed me most of all in those early days 
was his devotion to his aged mother. She was proud of him; 
he was most attentive to her. She was then past the line of 
four score, but in possession of all her faculties, interested in 
all that concerned others, and fully abreast of the times. In 
appearance she was certainly the finest old lady I have ever 
seen. But her sweet, strong character was reflected in her 
strong, sweet face. Knowing Mrs. Langford, it was apparent 
whence her son had derived his superior qualities of both body 
and mind. And Mr. Langford appreciated her. He showed her 
every attention, was most solicitous for her comfort, planned 
for her every convenience. It seemed to be his chief joy to 
wait upon her. I think his return from Montana to St. Paul 
was occasioned first of all by his anxiety in her behalf. 

The next illustration of his peculiar character which occurs 
to me, was his loving ministry to the sick and disabled. He 
was a ''trained nurse," but in no technical sense. If there was 
any accident or illness in the neighborhood, it was always ex- 
pected that Mr. Langford would be on hand. V^lien one of 
the boys fell over the bank near Irvine Park and broke his 
arm, it was Mr. Langford who frequently visited him there- 
after during his confinement to his room, to cheer and divert 

Very soon after my own severe accident he came to my 
house. Day after day he was with me, to smooth my pillows 


and bathe my brow. And so this great, strong, fearless fel- 
low, who had tracked the wilderness, faced the savages, and 
defied the highwaymen, showed the touch of a woman from the 
hand of a giant, the ministry of an angel in the garb of a 

I have spoken of Mr. Langford's care of the crippled boy, 
and this recalls another trait of his character, his devotion to 
the young. He loved them and loved to be with them, and 
they all recognized in him a sympathizing friend. 

Many incidents occur to me which are too confidential to 
be made public, which, should I tell them, would show how 
true and kind and strong he was. I have seldom known any 
one to be so tried by injustice and severity as was he, upon a 
certain occasion, and I never knew one to exercise a more for- 
giving and peaceful spirit under trying circumstances. He 
consulted me with regard to his course, and his disposition was 
revealed in most emphatic form. 

Mr. Langford was a fine type of the conscientious business 
man, the honorable public servant, the congenial acquaintance, 
the helpful neighbor. Others will tell of his services to his 
city and country; but for me, I have that to say of him which 
a certain distinguished British statesman has declared is the 
very best epitaph that one man may carve upon another's tomb : 
"He zvas my friend." 

General William G. Le Due, Councilor, said: 
My acquaintance with Mr. Langford commenced in the 50 's, 
when he was cashier or assistant cashier with his brother in a 
bank established by William R. Marshall, on the north side of 
Third street, St. Paul. The brothers were so much alike that 
I mistook one for the other, and some pleasantry occurring 
therefrom fi.xed the time of the beginning of our acquaintance 
in my mind; but from that time to the present I have been 
more or less familiar with the life of N. P. Langford while 
resident in Minnesota and Montana, and it may be sufiicient 
to say, in the briefest of epitaphs, that N. P. Langford was 
one of those comprehended in the concrete expression of a 
famous English author, "An honest man's the noblest work of 


As a banker, as an officer of the United States having charge 
and care of public funds, the bright gold of thousands has 
passed through his hands, and there is nothing to show of this 
glittering hoard; no palatial mansion, filled with expensive 
treasures of art ; no palaces of business, no banks, no railroads, 
no mills or factories, from.all the great opportunities for gains. 
He leaves a modest competence only, the savings of an indus- 
trious, frugal life, — and he leaves the well-earned reputation 
of an honest man, the noblest work of God. 

What more need be said? Wife, relatives, and friends, 
mourn his decease ; he was instinctively the lover and friend of 
his country, his state and city; and we, too, are entitled to ex- 
press our sympathy in his departure from this earthly life to a 
higher, a spiritual life. 

At the ceremony of laying the corner stone of the great 
Cathedral now building in this city, I heard the learned Arch- 
bishop Ireland say that the spirits of Bishop Cretin, Bishop 
Grace, and Father Ravoux, were undoubtedly present and 
blessing by their presence the assemblage ; and, as I now be- 
lieve, the spirit of N. P. Langford is now here present. 

Henry S. Fairchild, Councilor, read the following tribute', 
**Mr. Langford, the Good Citizen:" 

It is a sad and pleasant duty, and a privilege, to pay this 
tribute of respect, admiration, and love for one whom we knew 
so well, respected %o highly, and admired and loved so much. 
I have known Mr. Langford for more than fifty years, and my 
regard for him has increased with the years. In all these years 
I have never heard or known of his saying or doing anything 
inconsistent with the life of a true, high-minded gentleman. 
As a husband, as a citizen, as a business man, as a public offi- 
cer, as a friend, he was all our hearts could ask. 

As president of this Historical Society, Mr. Langford was 
always alert, watchful of its interests ; and he guided its course 
with peculiar tact and ability. He seldom failed in his attend- 
ance, and he presided with easy dignity, ability, and fairness. 

As president of the County Board of Control, he gave to the 
discharge of its arduous duties an amount of time, thought, and 
care, that only those closely associated with him knew. It was 


here we learned what thoughtful care he gave to the county's 
interests, how correct were his judgments, and how unimpeach- 
able his integrity. For party purposes, he %Yas bitterly as- 
sailed, but the public's confidence was never in the least 
shaken. Mr. Langford listened respectfully, then calmly read 
the law on which his action was based, and stated the facts in 
the case calmly, clearly, and forcibly, showing that his course 
had been legal, wise, and beneficial. He had the satisfaction 
of reading in the faces of his auditors their approval of his 

Of late I became conscious of the fact that I had never 
heard Mr. Langford speak in disparagement of any one ; and 
on my expressing this to several of my friends, each said, "I 
never thought of it before, but now I recollect that such was 
the case." Though a man of great courage and fearless in the 
expression of his opinions, yet he never engaged in denuncia- 
tion or innuendo. He was above it, and it had no place in his 
nature. Mr. Langford was a brilliant writer, a good talker; 
had a fine vein of wit and humor; was a good raconteur, and 
had a large repertoire of good stories ; in fine, was a most 
companionable man, so that his friends' faces always bright- 
ened as they saw him approaching.- 

That he was a man of the highest moral and physical cour- 
age, was demonstrated in Montana, when he boldly and fear- 
lessly led the forces of good order and good government and 
after a fair but not legal trial brought to punishment the most 
of the gang of desperate, lawless characters, who for years had 
terrorized all the Montana mining region, and made it an unfi.t 
and unsafe place to live, for any one who had any regard for 
decency, morality, or civil order. 

Again he showed his courage and self-reliance when as a 
bank examiner, at times carrying considerable money, he rode 
on horseback over the wild, thinly populated western terri- 
tories, knowing he was likely to be waylaid and shot. 

What a national blessing it would be if we could have a 
Congress filled with men of his candor, courage, ability, and 
fine moral sense I 

Did any of you ever submit to him a mathematical problem 
which he failed to solve almost instantly? 

Memorials of dece^ased members. 1909-14. 


Did he ever, in hours of leisure, pour forth on you the 
treasures of his memory? I liave often listened with wonder 
as he recited poem after poem, and I envied him. Once he 
recited to me a long poem without any pretence to merit, and 
I said, "Mr. Langford, why do you store your memory with 
such trash?" He replied: "I read it when a boy, and did not 
care to remember it : but occasionally it will pop up, and I get 
it off just to show what a foolish thing the mxcmory can be." 
Tlien he added, 'Olr. Fairchild, you once said to me that you 
thought it probable that no emotion of the human heart, nor 
any thought of the human brain, is ever irrecoverably lost, — 
and this is in support of your theory." 

Those who served with ]\Ir. Langford on the Board of Con- 
trol, and the members of the Board of County Commissioners, 
acting so often with the Board of Control, will always remem- 
ber what careful consideration he gave to all that came before 
us, how sound his judgment, how strong his sense of duty, and 
how unquestionable was his integrity. Perhaps the most 
marked characteristic of Mr. Langford, after his integrity, was 
his kindness of heart and his freedom from tlie use of language 
that would offend. 

A generation ago, Clotho smiled benignantly and sent forth 
a galaxy of great men who were to grow up and build this 
great State ; and to preserve the records of their works, this 
Historical Society was formed in the very infancy of the State. 
From this group of great men was selected, as the first presi- 
dent of this Society, Alexander Ramsey, who was the Governor 
of the Territory and State, a member of Congress, United 
States senator, a member of the President's cabinet, the nego- 
tiator of valuable treaties, the great War Governor, and the 
author of our magnificent State School Fund. 

AYe next selected as our president, Hon. Henry I\L Rice, an 
early settler, a man of ability, a United States senator; and 
after him General Henry Hastings Sibley, one of the first white 
settlers in the State, who rose to be Congressman and the first 
Governor of the State, and who rendered signal services as 
General of our forces defeating tlic Sioux, who were mas- 
sacring our frontier settlers. In that campaign Sibley released 
from a captivity, worse tlian death, more than a hundred 
women, and drove the savages beyond our borders. 



From then on, in a long list of presidents, we find tlie names 
of Governor William R. Marshall, Captain Russell Blakeley, 
Elias F. Drake, Archbishop John Ireland, and others, all so 
worthy that any one may feel proud to be chosen as the suc- 
cessor of Mr. Langford. 

AYe can pay no tribute to the memory of our departed 
friend more fitting than to keep the Historical Society on the 
high plane on which he left it. 

To the wife he loved so well, to secure whose happiness he 
gave his constant and last thoughts, we tender our sincere 
sympathy. . 

To our departed friend, we pay the sincere homage of our 

Warren Upham, Secretary, presented the following memo- 
rial, "Nathaniel P. Langford, the Councilor and President of this 

In this tribute to do honor to our revered and beloved for- 
mer president, let us look through a brief and very concise 
chronicle of his life. It was prolonged to almost fourscore 
years, and it was actively spent in service to the nation, to this 
state, and to this city. 

Nathaniel Pitt Langford was born in Westmoreland, N. Y., 
August 9, 1832 ; and died at his home in St. Paul, Minn., Octo- 
ber 18, 1911. He came to St. Paul in 1854, became cashier the 
next year in the banking house of ^larshall and Co., and in 
1858 cashier of the Bank of the State of Minnesota. He re- 
moved to Montana in 1862 ; was collector of internal revenue 
in Montana, 1864-68 ; was one of the organizers of the expedi- 
tion that in 1870 discovered the Yellowstone geysers, and in a 
series of magazine articles he made them known to the world: 
he was the first superintendent of the Yellowstone National 
Park, 1872-77 ; and was national bank examiner for the Pacific 
states and the territories, 1872-84. 

He afterward resided in St. Paul, and was author of "Vig- 
ilante Days and AVays, the Pioneers of the Rockies, the Makers 
and Making of ^lontana, Idaho, Oregon, AYashington, and 
AVyoming," two volumes, 1890, and "DiaTy of the Washburn 
Expedition to the Yellowstone and Firehole Rivers in the Year 
1870," xxxi and 122 pages, published in 1905. 

Memorials of deceased members. i909-i4. 


His life and public service in Montana, and especially his 
part in exploration of the Upper Yellowstone region and the 
establishment of its National Park, have been related in a pre- 
ceding paper of this Volume (pages 631-668). 

He contributed two papers in this Society's Historical Col- 
lections, Volume IX: "The Louisiana Purchase and preceding 
Spanish Intrigues for Dismemberment of the Union," pages 
453-508, with a portrait and a map ; and "The Library, Museum, 
and Portrait Collection of the Minnesota Historical Society," 
pages 569-575. 

Mr. Langford was elected a life member of this Historical 
Society on March 9, 1885. He was a member of its Executive 
Council twenty-two years, from November 11, 1889, until his 
death. Since 1891, during twenty years, he was chairman of 
its Committee on Publications ; and since 1894 he was a mem- 
ber of the Library Committee. In the work of both these com- 
mittees he took an active part until two months before he died. 
He was elected second vice president, February 9, 1903; first 
vice president September 14 of the same year; and president 
January 9, 1905, which office he held nearly seven years. 

Within the period of my service as secretary of this Society, 
since 1895, I have known four presidents : Governor Ramsey, 
who continued in the presidency until his death in 1903 ; Gen- 
eral John B. Sanborn, who lived only about one year after his 
election to this office ; Judge Greenleaf Clark, so elected in 
September, 1904, who died in December of the same year ; and 
President Langford, whom we commemorate in this meeting. 

During the terms of each who preceded Mr. Langford, the 
greatest need of the Society was to secure a fireproof building, 
or rooms in such a building, for safe preservation of its exceed- 
ingly valuable Library, Museum, and Collection of Portraits. 
Often Governor Ramsey expressed his profound solicitude for 
the completion of the New Capitol, and his hope to see these 
priceless possessions of the Historical Society removed to its 
shelter and safeguard from fire; but two years before the re- 
moval he was called by death. In the spring and summer next 
following ]\Ir. Langford 's election as president, tlie great col- 
lections of our Society's Library and ^luseum, and some of its 
portraits, were removed into the fine commodious rooms which 
they now occupy in the New Capitol. Anxiety of the friends 


of the Library against its loss by fire ceased ; and the Museum 
was increased by very extensive archaeological donations of the 
late Rev. Edward C. Mitchell, counselor and chairman of the 
Museum Committee. 

But the greater part of the Portrait Collection, to the num- 
ber of five hundred or more of portraits, other pictures, and 
framed documents, yet remained in the Old Capitol, occupying 
the former governor's rooms, which were assigned to this So- 
ciety as its State Portrait Gallery, because our rooms in the 
New Capitol could display only about a fourth part of this col- 
lection. Through more than five years the most of the portraits 
owned by the Society were thus on exhibition, being a very 
interesting part of its possessions for visitors having only a 
short time to spend in its rooms. In the late winter and spring 
of the past year 1911, through advice of President Langford, 
these portraits were removed from the Old Capitol, because of 
their liability to be destroyed there by fire, and they were care- 
fully boxed and stored in the basement of the New Capitol. 
They will probably in the near future be placed again on exhi- 
bition in a fireproof Library Building, which we hope and ex- 
pect to be provided by the next Legislature. The wisdom of 
President Langford and the Executive Council in withdrawing 
this important part of the Society's collections from present 
use was fully justified while yet the removal was in progress, 
by the burning of the state capitol of Missouri, with the loss of 
nearly all its contents. 

When our Library was removed into the New Capitol, the 
space there allotted for it was ample, but w^as even then almost 
filled. After three or four years the main book-stack rooms were 
inconveniently crowded, and additional space was obtained by 
filling the wide adjoining corridor with bookcases. The Library 
now numbers 105,000 volumes, including more than 9,000 bound 
volumes of our jMinnesota newspapers. Its average yearly in- 
crease of about 4,000 volumes makes it very difficult to place 
the new books on the shelves for the use of readers. Therefore 
the great burdening problem of the later part of ^[r. Langford 's 
seven years as president has been the need, or we may better 
say the necessity, to provide a suitable Library Building, pre- 
ferably on some site adjoining the grounds of the New Capitol. 



Faithfully, ardently, wisely, with zeal and perseverance that 
would do credit to any younger man, President Langford 
worked early and late during three biennial sessions of the 
Legislature, advocating, with other members of special com- 
mittees of the Society's council, that this Historical Library of 
our state be granted an adequate and fireproof building, large 
enough for the expected growth of many years to come. Wis- 
consin and Iowa, our next neighbors on the east and south, have 
erected such historical library buildings. AYe cannot doubt 
that soon, within a very few years, this earnest hope of Presi- 
dent Langford will be fulfilled, for which he gave heroic efforts, 
while suffering severe bodily pain, in the last legislative ses- 
sion, less than a year before he died. Let us believe that in the 
spirit he will behold the new Library Building when its corner 
stone shall be laid, and when it shall be completed and dedi- 
cated to its noble purpose for preservation of the history of 
Minnesota and for education and enlightenment of her people. 

Memorials presented in the Council Meeting, 
March 13, 1911. • 

Father Francis J. Schaeeer, Councilor, Rector of the St. 
Paul Seminary, read the following tribute : 

Ambrose McNulty was born May 18, 1868, at Darwin, Minn. 
After having completed his early training in the schools of his 
native district, he pursued the higher studies in classics, philoso- 
phy, and theology, at the Sacred Heart College, Watertown, 
Wis., the St. Thomas College, St. Paul, the St. John's Univer- 
sity, Collegeville, Minn., and the Catholic University, Washing- 
ton, D. C. On March 28, 1891, he was ordained to the priest- 
hood; and later he became successively assistant pastor at St. 
Joseph's Church, St. Paul, Minn., and Secretary to His Grace, 
Archbishop Ireland of St. Paul. While in the Secretary's 
office he was also in charge of the diocesan journal, the North- 
western Chronicle. At the vacancy of the pastorate of St. 
Luke's in 1896, he was appointed to this important parish in the 
city of St. Paul, and remained there until his death, which 
occurred on Monday, November 28, 1910. 


Father McNulty was esteemed and loved by all who came in 
contact with him. His native kindliness, his winning sym- 
pathy, his keen sense of humor, his broad charity, made hosts 
of friends to him. AVherever he went, whenever he spoke, he 
spread sunshine, and something of the healthy joy of living, of 
which his own soul was superabundantly filled. He was the 
special friend of the little children, who used to run up to him, 
^eet him, and make him the depositary of their confidences 
and the helpful companion of their innocent pastimes. And 
all this he did, although battling against great odds. For years 
the germs of a dread disease, to which he finally succumbed, 
were undermining his health and strength; and all the while 
he knew that he was doomed to an early end. Still he never 
uttered a sound of complaint, never did he mention a word of 
his sickness to others; on the contrary, he was always cheerful, 
he had always the same winning smile, he was always ready to 
help others over the troublesome paths of life. 

Father McNulty loved this life, and took a keen enjoyment 
out of the clean and healthful pleasures which it offers. For 
years he was a member of the St. Paul Rod and Gun Club, and 
took an active part in its healthy sports; whenever he was 
amongst its members', either at the tournaments or at the meet- 
ings, or at the annual dinners, his influence was always for the 
best, and never did an untoward incident mar the joys of these 
friendly gatherings. 

He was an accomplished scholar. His great natural gifts 
of intellect were carefully developed during a thorough course 
of studies, and by a large amount of reading on a wide range 
of subjects. His accomplishments found a fruitful field of em- 
ployment when he was appointed editor of the Northwestern 
Chronicle, in the columns of which he gave evidence of unusual 
ability as a writer and a thinker. 

The study of history, local history in particular, was an at- 
tractive subject for him ; in accordance with this taste he sought 
out the rooms and the library of the Minnesota Historical So- 
ciety, of which he was elected a life member December 8, 1902. 
An elaborate and scholarly essay by him on the history of the 
first chapel in St. Paul, built by Father Galtier, was read be- 
fore this Society and found a place in its publications (M. H. 



S. Collections, vol. X, pp. 233-45) ; it was reprinted, with a few 
modifications and corrections, in the Acta et Dicta (vol. I, No. 
1, July, 1907), the organ of the St. Paul Catholic Historical 

When in 1901 the Diocese of St. Paul celebrated the fiftieth 
anniversary of the advent of its first Bishop, Rt. Rev. Joseph 
Cretin, to his episcopal city, a memorial volume was published, 
**The Diocese of St. Paul, the Golden Jubilee," which was com- 
piled by Father McNulty. In his conversations with friends, 
his broad scholarship became very apparent ; he displayed, with- 
out ostentation, a great familiarity with many and varied sub- 
jects of erudition. 

Father IMcNulty was a faithful and loyal priest, a true min- 
ister of God. His life was without blemish, possessed of all 
the sweet virtues which constitute a Christian and a priestly 
soul; his faith was reverential, and one born of conviction. He 
was ever ready, at the altar, in the confessional, in the pulpit, 
at the sick-bed, to bring spiritual help and consolation to all 
those that needed it. And there was no distinction of rank or 
class; high and low had equally access to him for the dispen- 
sations of his ecclesiastical ministry. He was faithful to the 
last in the fulfillment of his duty. Although for years his 
physical frame was weakened from sickness and pain, he Avas 
always at his post; the very day before his death he dragged 
himself to the altar, and spoke w^ords of wisdom to his parish- 

It is almost a pity that such men cannot be with us forever. 
But there is comfort in the thought that their spirit lives. 
Justice O'Brien has well said : ''To know Father McNulty well 
was to be convinced of immortality; for a spirit such as his 
cannot die." 

Rt. Rev, John J. Lawlkr, Auxiliary Bishop of St. Paul, said: 
It is proper that this Society should pause for a few mo- 
ments to recall the estimable traits in the lives of its deceased 
members. I deem it a privilege to be permitted to offer my 
brief tribute of respect to the memory of Rev. Ambrose ^Ic- 
Nulty, a fellow clergyman whom I knew well, whose sterling 
worth I prized higJily, and whose career I greatly admired. I 


realize that truly Christian lives need no eulogies. "Words of 
mine are not required to extol his nobility of character. En- 
comium of mine, however able, would sound but feeble to all 
who knew his beautiful characteristics thoroughly. If I now 
direct attention to his distinguishing qualities, it is for the pur- 
pose of drawing from them a lesson for our own benefit and 

Prominent among the traits of our departed friend was his 
amiable disposition. His was a remarkable ability to make 
friends and to hold them. Of a kind nature, his heart went out 
to others. His charming personality drew people to him and 
w^on their hearts. He had a cordial greeting, a pleasant smile, 
and a warm hand shake, for those who came in contact with 
him for consultation or advice. He seemed to feel, wdth the 
poet, ''What thou wilt thou shalt rather enforce with thy smile 
than hew to it with thy sword." 

He looked on the bright side of things. Though a sufferer 
for years with a severe malady to which he finally succumbed, 
he bore his illness with patience and resignation. He was al- 
ways cheerful and light-hearted, encouraging others by the 
sunshine of his view of life. There was a vein of humor in him 
that made him a pleasant companion and an entertaining con- 
versationalist. Having a mind stored with wide information, 
he was able, when occasion demanded it, to wield a facile and 
vigorous pen. 

But, admirable as were his natural gifts of head and heart, 
it is chiefly to his priestl}^ life that I wish to draw your atten- 
tion. There is a dash of heroism in the sacrifice of the priest. 
In the bright morning of life, when the world stood before him 
in all its attractiveness, he heard the voice of Jesus say to him, 
*'Son, give me tliy heart." That was the Master's great de- 
mand, and magnanimously did our departed friend give the 
answer: ''Thou art the God of my heart, and my portion for- 
ever." All at once the die was cast, and all the joys and en- 
dearments and ambitions and trappings of earth were set aside 

Laboring side by side with him for years, I observed his 
unselfish devotodness to tlie duties of a zealous pastor of souls. 
He was a true ^hm of God, exhibiting in his conduct something 


of the gentleness and compassion and charity and purity and 
self sacrifice of his Saviour, the Divine original of all goodness. 
His energies were consecrated unreservedly to the service of 
the Church, and the gift of self is the greatest gift of all. His 
life was one of truest altruism, of noblest heroism, as is the life 
of every faithful Man of God. There are few who fully ap- 
preciate the heroism of those who live such lives. Few realize 
that their self-denial, their gift of self on the altar of Christian 
charity, stands for manly courage greater and grander than 
the valor in memory of which nations erect their imperishable 
monuments. Truly has it been said that ''real glory springs 
from the silent conquest of ourselves, and without that the 
conqueror is naught but the first slave." There are illustrious 
characters on history's page, who were masters in the various 
departments of Tiuman energy, but slaves to their own evil 
propensities. There are heroes and heroines who were para- 
gons of courage against the enemies of their country, but the 
veriest poltroons on the silent battlefields of their own hearts. 
To conquer others is much, but to subdue one's self is the vic- 
tory of victories. ''Man who man would be must rule the em- 
pire of himself.'* 

Nobly did Father IMcNulty act out this sublime truth in all 
the years of his ministry. His beautiful life stands as the best 
monument to his memory. "There is one great society alone 
on earth: the noble living and the noble dead." Father Mc- 
Nulty belonged to it. 

Born July 21, 1836; Died December 8, 1911. 
Memorials presented in the Council Meeting, December 

11, 1911. 

Rev. Francis J. Schaefer, Councilor, Rector of St. Paul 
Seminary, said: 

I feel almost that I ought to apologize for speaking this 
evening of the merits of a distinguished member of our Coun- 
cil, who has departed this life ; I have not known the Rev. Ed- 
ward C. Mitchell for many years, nor did I have the privilege 


of knowing him intimately; my acquaintance with him was 
restricted to the meetings of this Council, or of the Museum 
Committee. And still during these intermittent meetings I 
learned to appreciate the high character and the good qualities 
of the man we mourn ; and I gladly avail myself of this oppor- 
tunity to pay a tribute to his memory. 

There were two things chiefly that struck me as being part 
and parcel of his character: a high Christian nobility of soul, 
and an unfailing optimism and cheerfulness. By gathering the 
scattered threads of his casual remarks, I have come to the 
conclusion that there was firmly rooted in his mind the con- 
viction that man, as an ethical being, was destined by Almighty 
God to accomplish the best, the noblest, and purest he is capa- 
ble of performing during the brief span of life allotted to him. 
Man must do good and avoid evil; that was the command of 
God and of Christ ; such was the understanding of Mr. Mitchell 
as to man's duty. 'Mr. Mitchell, as you all know, was a Chris- 
tian minister; and although I learned little or nothing of his 
ministerial work, I feel quite certain that many a time and on 
many occasions he spoke to his people in that strain, explain- 
ing to them what their A^arious duties were, and to what high 
purposes a Christian soul must aspire, in order to reach the 
goal set to it by the Almighty. What he recommended to 
others, that he did himself; his entire life, his whole career, 
known to a large public, testify to the many good deeds accom- 
plished by him. 

Man is destined for high things in this life ; but, alas ! at 
times he falls short of his noble mission. There are many small 
and great weaknesses in this frail human nature of ours, which 
often make man deviate from the straight path. And when 
seeing certain men wander about aimlessly, listlessly, some- 
times with wicked intent before them, one might be tempted 
to think that tliere is no righteousness among men. Such were 
not the thoughts of ^Ir. Mitchell; he was too optimistic to de- 
spair of the ultimate triumph of righteousness in man. He 
knew, of course, human weakness; but he knew also that for 
one wicked man there are hundreds that are good ; and even 
of the wicked he hoped that some day he might return to the 
right path. This optimistic confidence gave rise to that cheer- 


fulness of manner and countenance, which impressed itself so 
much on all those that came in contact with him. There was 
ever ready a cheerful word on his tongue, and a pleasant radi- 
ant smile on his face. 

As to what Mr. ^litchell was to this Historical Society I 
need hardly tell ; it is known to all the members, and to many 
outside of it. He took a very active interest in the work of the 
Society, was present at all its meetings, unless otherwise en- 
gaged; and, as chairman of the Museum Committee, he pre- 
sided over the deliberations of that body. His extensive knowl- 
edge in many fields of human learning, his great store of in- 
formation on present and past history, enabled him to be of 
useful service to a body like this, commissioned to perpetuate 
the records of the past. 

Throughout his long life he gathered up many objects of 
historical and archaeological value, which covered not only our 
fair State of Minnesota, but other states of the Union as well, 
and even foreign lands ; and most of these he donated to the 
Historical Society, to be kept in its Museum, to be classified 
and studied in due time. We owe to Mr. ^Mitchell a great debt 
of gratitude for this rich and valuable collection. 

With his departure is ended a long, useful, and studious 
life; a noble character has gone from amongst us, but his deeds 
remain ; and we may well wish to imitate and follow the good 
things for which he was known. 

Professor N. H. Winchell, Councilor, said: 
My first acquaintance with Mr. Mitchell was in 187-4 or 
1875 at Minneapolis, where he was one of the early members 
of the ^Minnesota Academy of Science, of which he was elected 
Secretary for 1876. He worked in the Academy with the Com- 
mittee on Archaeology, a field in which he was destined later 
to become celebrated as a collecter and patron. But he did not 
stay long in ^linneapolis ; he yielded the chairmanship of his 
committee to Mr. Nathan Butler, and removed to St. Paul. 
However, before he left Minneapolis he presented to the Mu- 
seum of the Academy a collection of ''Japanese coins and 
curiosities," manifesting thus his characteristic generosity, 
which later blossomed out fully in St. Paul. 


After he left Minneapolis I met him rarely, otherwise than 
at the meetings of the Council of the Historical Society, where 
he was regular in attendance and frequently offered something 
of interest in the course of the meetings. He was connected 
with the old St. Paul Academy of Science, having been presi- 
dent in 1895, when he presided, March 6, at a joint meeting of 
that Academy with the ^linnesota Academy of Science, held at 
the rooms of the Commercial Club, St. Paul. 

Mr. Mitchell will be long remembered for his donation of a 
large collection of archaeological specimens to the Minnesota 
Historical Society, and for another collection, of shells, given 
to the St. Paul Institute. To the former donation is due the 
erection of the museum of the Historical Society into the form 
and character of a real museum. The Society immediately pro- 
cured suitable glass cases, twenty-one in number, and with 
great pains and patience ]\Ir. ]\Iitchell himself distributed the 
specimens, with suitable labels, so as to make a beautiful edu- 
cational display, an exhibition which is constantly visited by 
people from all parts of the state and is studied by archaeolo- 
gists from other states. The aggregate number of specimens 
donated, with later additions by Mr. ]\Iitchell, is about 23,000 
pieces. They were collected from all parts of the world, mainly 
by purchase, during a long period of years, and had been kept 
by Mr. Mitchell at his home in St. Paul, where on many occa- 
sions he took delight in showing them to his friends. 

An article, contributed by him, describing this archaeo- 
logical collection, was published in this Society's Volume Xll, 
pages 305-318, with his portrait. 

This generosity of ^Mr. IMitchell was but one of the mani- 
festations of a beautiful and lovable spirit, which character- 
ized all his intercourse with his fellows, and which knit him by 
thousands of invisible threads into the regard and affection of 
the people of St. Paul. To the Historical Society he has bound 
himself not alone by his munificent gift, which in dollars and 
cents far exceeds any gift it has ever received, but by the many 
gentle and courteous words and acts which marked his every- 
day demeanor. 

Personally, after a lapse of several years, I came to know 
him more intimately again, as a co-member of the Museum 

Memorials of deceased members, 1909-14. 79.7 

Committee of this Society, at the meetings of which there were 
serious and important discussions, interspersed with pleasant- 
ries, for which latter ^Ir. Mitchell was usually responsible. 

The last time I heard his voice was by a telephone confer- 
ence. The Historical Museum cases had to be supplied with 
locks that were more secure. As chairman of the Museum 
Committee and as donor of the large collection, he was most 
concerned in the proper keeping of the Museum. I described 
to him the style of lock that was contemplated for the cases. 
He seemed not to fully understand its plans and mechanism, 
but said, "Go ahead, I think it zvill be all right/' He was already 
then evidently too weakened to enter into the details of the 
subject, but, in his usual confiding and optimistic manner, ac- 
quiesced in the plan proposed. 

Since his death that expression has been ringing in my ears. 
It was characteristic of his life and his spirit. That cheerful 
confidence carried him through trials and triumphs, through 
difficulties and successes. So far as I have learned of his career, 
whether as a moral teacher or as a citizen, that which charac- 
terized him above all other traits was an optimistic and cheer- 
ful hopefulness, such as that embodied in his last words to me. 
Go ahead, I think it zvill he all right. 

RivV. Maurice D. Edwards, D. D., Pastor of the Dayton 
Avenue Presbyterian Church, spoke at the funeral services of 
Rev. Edward Craig ^Mitchell, Pastor of the New Jerusalem 
Church, St. Paul, December 11, 1911, as follows: 

What i\Ir. ^Mitchell was to this church, which for so many 
years enjoyed his faithful ministry, is best known to them who 
have here received the divine message from his lips, and who 
have grown intimate with him by the family fireside. 

As, in a sense, representing a large circle of friends outside 
his parish, I have been asked to say a few words of apprecia- 
tion of our brother. This I gladly do. My long acquaintance 
with Mr. i\Iitchell gives me at least some qualification for this 
service. During nearly forty years I have known him. ^Ye 
met soon after I came to the city, which was in 187-1. Ever 
since we have had most pleasant personal relations. ]\Iany 
have been the deliglitful conversations and interchanges of 


views that we have held together. AVe have frequently been 
associated on committees in our work for the general welfare 
of the community. 

While we differed somewhat in our tlieological views, there 
was so much that we held in common, and we were so agreed 
on the great fundamentals of faith and right living, that we 
were always sympathetic. Never during all these years was 
there a ripple of discord to disturb the harmony of our rela- 

From the beginning I learned to have a high respect for 
Mr. Mitchell, both as a man and as a Christian minister. In 
every way he was a strong character. In these days of theo- 
logical unrest and uncertainty, it is refreshing and reassuring 
to meet one possessing such firm and positive convictions as 
Mr. Mitchell held. He knew what he believed, and why he be- 
lieved it. There was nothing hazy or uncertain about his views 
any^vhere. He possessed also the courage of his convictions, 
and on all proper occasions was ready to confess the faith that 
was in him. 

Yet with this positiveness of personal convictions, our 
brother had a broad and generous spirit toward those who dif- 
fered from him, if only they were manifestly sincere and true. 
Honesty of opinion, coupled with uprightness of life, always 
commanded his respect. No one was quicker than he to rec- 
ognize and honor high character wherever found. 

A thoroughly genuine man himself, he loved truth and jus- 
tice everywhere, and nothing so stirred his spirit as wrong or 
cruelty of any kind. He was always ready therefore to cham- 
pion the cause of the oppressed, whether man or beast. 

Mr. Mitchell, like his Master, "went about doing good." 
His constant ministry of helpfulness; his unselfish devotion to 
those in trouble; his many and generous gifts; his high ideals 
of business honor, which sometimes led him to assume obliga- 
tions that neither the law nor custom required; and his sym- 
pathy for the poor; — all these were marked characteristics of 
the man, which every one recognized who had any close rela- 
tions with him. It was such traits and deeds as these that en- 
deared him to a large circle of friends outside his parish and 
made him a benefactor in the community. 


Any estimate of ^Ir. Mitchell's character would be lacking 
that did not make mention of his profound reverence for sacred 
things. He had such respect for Holy Scripture, and for every 
thing connected with the worship and being of God, that noth- 
ing was more offensive to him than any levity or disrespect 
shown these religious themes and objects. 

In his social relations our friend w^as always genial and 
companionable. He loved to meet people in a friendly way, 
and to interchange views with them. Thus it was always a 
pleasure to meet him in society. His presence there was often 
sought and always welcome. 

Mr. ^litchell was too large a man to confine his work and 
sympathy to his own church. He belonged to the community. 
In every respect he was a good citizen. Nothing that affected 
the general welfare was a matter of indifference to him. A 
large part of his time and energy was devoted to public affairs ; 
and no one in the city was quicker to respond to a public call 
for service than himself. Every local philanthropic and pa- 
triotic enterprise found in him a friend and helper. 

He was a charter member of the Sons of the American Rev- 
olution; and, until advancing years prevented, he was active in 
its work as a member of its governing board. His name is 
found also on the membership roll of the Sons of the Colonial 

He was for many years closely identified with the ^linne- 
sota Historical Society; and w^as a contributor to its valuable 

The work of the Society for the Relief of the Poor also com- 
manded his interest, and was aided both by his generous gifts 
and by his personal service. 

Such objects as the Free Kindergarten and the St. Paul 
Academy of Science, indeed every agency that sought the en- 
lightenment of men or the betterment of their condition, found 
in him a friend and supporter. 

And INIr. Mitchell's connection with any organization w^as 
never merely nominal, but he always felt a personal respon- 
sibility in its conduct and took an active part in its work. 

Such men are invaluable in any community. When they are 
taken away, every public interest feels their loss. Yet their 

800 Minnesota historical society collections. 

work and influence abide. Being dead they yet speak. They 
have an earthly as well as a heavenly immortality. This was 
eminently true of our brother. He will not be forgotten. The 
good he has done in a hundred ways is seed that will perpet- 
uate itself in the years to come. 

Some lives, as they pass from us, are like the setting of the 
sun in southern climes, where the light soon fades away after 
the sun has disappeared. Other lives are like the sunset in the 
far north, where the twilight long lingers and sometimes tar- 
ries even until the morning. ^Ir. Mitchell has left us, the place 
that knew him shall know him no more ; but there is an after- 
glow in the sky that v/ill long linger. It may be that it will 
abide until the morning. 

Born June 21, 1825; Died June 20, 1910. 

In the Council Meeting, September 12, 1910, the following 
memorial was presented by Henry S. Fairchild, Councilor. 

On June 1, 1849, sixty-one years ago, the Territory of Min- 
nesota was organized, containing then a population of about 
1,000; and its capital, St. Paul, had about 150 inhabitants. It 
had been partially explored and was known to be begemmed 
by nearly ten thousand lakes; its scenery was described as 
beautiful, its climate as healthful, and its soil as exceedingly 
fertile. Game and fish abounded, making it the paradise of 
sportsmen. Its fine commercial position at the headwaters of 
the kingliest river of the continent added to its attractions. 

Into this new territory flocked from the East great num- 
bers of lumbermen, farmers, and mechanics, and a host of am- 
bitious young men with aspirations for political honors, and 
many older ones wlio had occupied high positions in the East 
but had been crowded aside by younger or abler men, and who 
hoped here to regain their lost honors. 

Among the immigrants into this land of promise in 1849 
was an earnest, able, ambitious young man from Indiana (born 
in Ohio) by the name of William Pitt Murray, in respect to 
whose memory we are gathered here tonight. Mr. Murray was 


an active and valuable member of the Executive Council of this 
Historical Society, and contributed a valuable paper of remi- 
niscences of early historical events (M. H. S. Volume XII, pages 
103-130, with his portrait). Perhaps no man in the state knew 
so much of our early history, of the origin of the names of our 
lakes and rivers, towns and counties, as Mr. Murray. We shall 
always greatly miss his cheerful presence and his valuable 

Within two years after ]\Ir. ^lurray's advent here, he let 
the pioneers know that he would like to have a hand in shap- 
ing the legislation for the young state, and before their sur- 
prise was over he became one of the leading and most active 
and useful members of the legislature. The Territory soon 
sought statehood, and ^Ir. Murray signified his willingness to 
assist in forming a constitution. He was elected to the Con- 
stitutional Convention, which, appreciating his ability and fit- 
ness, made him its president. 

He served several terms in the House, also several terms in 
the Council (now called the Senate), at times as presiding 
officer, at other times actively on the floor, teaching his fellow 
members from outside in the state that if they wanted their 
local bills to go through, they must not attempt to block the 
passage of his local bills. In addition to the offices hereabove 
named, Mr. ^Murray was during many years a member of the 
St. Paul city council, for a time on the Board of County Com- 
missioners, and for thirteen years was the City Attorney. 

Perhaps the greatest service he ever rendered to the city 
and state was the defeat (aided by Joe Rolette) of the in- 
famous bill to remove the state capital to St. Peter. 

Mr. ^lurray secured an endovv'ment of $25,000 from Bishop 
Hamline of the E, Church for Hamline University, and drew 
the charter for it. This university from its beginning provided 
for co-education of the sexes, as was also provided by the State 
University and Carleton College, which began their work of 
instruction several years later. 

Mr. Murray had a kind and generous nature and quick 
sympathies, which caused him to give very freely of his time 
and means. He was a tender and loving husband and father; 
to Ids wife in her age and feebleness he was devotion itself, 




constantly watchful to do some little service. He was a true, 
loyal friend, and a loyal citizen, always faithful to St. Paul's 
interests. He was the last one of the long list of lawyers of 
1857. Murray county, established in that year, was named in 
his honor. 


In the Council Meeting on December 12, 1910, the following 
memorial biographic sketch was presented by Everett H. Bailey, 

Deeply feeling the loss of a warm personal friend, — a genial 
companion during long years of close acquaintance, in which 
were recognized and valued the sterling qualities of mind and 
heart he possessed, — I present to the Council and friends here 
gathered these Avords of tribute to the memory of Channing 
Seabury, an honored member of this Council since 1893. 

ChanniDg Seabury was born in Southbridge, ]\Iass., January 
5, 1842; and died in St. Paul October 28, 1910. At an early age 
he was left an orphan, and was cared for by an uncle, Mr. 
Plimpton, his guardian. He was fitted for college in an acad- 
emy at South Bridgewater, Mass., but at fifteen years of age 
went to the city of New York, where he became an errand boy 
for the firm of which his uncle was a member, Hastings and 
Plimpton, importers and jobbers in carpets. 

Three years later, in November, 1860, young Seabury came 
to St. Paul, and here was his home for fifty years. He was at 
first a clerk for J. C. Burbank and Co., engaged in an extensive 
warehouse business, steamboat agency, and overland transpor- 
tation to the Ped river. In 1865 this firm was dissolved, and 
Mr. Seabury became a partner of Amherst H. Wilder. 

In 1867 he again made a change in business, and for the 
next five years was assistant secretary and treasurer of the 
Northwestern Union Packet Company, of which William F. 
Davidson was president. This company owned and operated 
twenty-eiglit steaml)oats on the Mississippi river. 

In 1872 Mr. Seabury was offered and accepted an interest 
in the large wholesale boot and shoe house of C. Gotzian and 
Co., and was a member of that firm until 1882, when he retired 



and engaged in the Avliolesale grocery business, iu which he 
continued for the remainder of his life. The firm was at first 
Maxfield & Seabury, until in 1891, the Maxfields having with- 
drawn, the firm was styled Seabury and Company. 

Mr. Seabury was always a public-spirited man, generous 
and ready to give practical help in every emergency. He 
served as president of the Jobbers Union and of the Wholesale 
Grocers Association of the Northwest, and in both positions 
was active and influential. 

His ability and devotion to public interests was recognized 
by Governor Hubbard, who appointed him a member of a com- 
mittee of five to disburse relief for the sufferers after the tor- 
nado at St. Cloud and Sauk Rapids, in April, 1886. This com- 
mittee built and furnished IS! houses for the destitute sur- 
vivors of the disaster, and conducted the whole distribution of 
relief in such an economical and efficient manner that they 
were able to return a part of the funds entrusted to them. 

In September, 1891, he served as one of a committee of 
three, instrumental in furnishing threshing machines and labor- 
ers to grain growers in northern Minnesota and North Dakota, 
enabling them to secure an unusually large wheat crop, which 
had been in danger of loss through lack of implements and field 

The chief public work of Chanuing Seabury was as a mem- 
ber of the State Capitol Commission. Early in 1893 he was 
one of the citizens of St. Paul who were most active in securing 
the passage of the bill in the legislature providing for the new 
state house. The care of this great enterprise was entrusted to 
seven commissioners, appointed by the governor, one from each 
congressional district; and ^Ir. Seabury was appointed by Gov- 
ernor Nelson as the commissioner for his district, without so- 
licitation on his part. From that time, in 1893, until its great 
undertaking was completed, in 1907, he was Vice President and 
acting chairman of this board, and w\as constantly and faith- 
fully devoted to its labors. The magnificent marble building is 
a worthy monument to his patriotic devotion. 

The citizens of St. Paul and the State of I\Iinnesota have 
come to realize and gratefully appreciate the unselfisli and la- 
borious services rendered by Channing Seabury, at great per- 


sonal sacrifice, during the long period of eoustruetioii of the 
Capitol, now the pride of our Commonwealth, and a perma- 
nent monument to the ability and unswerving fidelity of Mr. 
Seabury and liis associate members of the Board of Capitol 
Commissioners. Mr. Seabury 's aptitude and readiness for pub- 
lie service, his keen perception of the requisites for prompt, 
effective methods in business administration, and the intelli- 
gent and conscientious discharge of duties assumed by him, 
placed him in the first rank of citizens to be depended upon in 
emergency needs. lie enjoyed the full confidence and esteem 
of his associates, who relied upon his sound judgment and who 
admired liis genial kindly nature. 

For the past three years Mr. Seabury was in failing health, 
and spent a portion of the winter months in the South. He 
died of heart failure at his home on Ashland avenue. x\. widow, 
three sons, and a daughter survive him. 

In the deatli of Channing Seabury his home city, the State 
at large, a host of admiring friends, have lost a citizen broad 
of mind, large of heart, of rare ability, of reputation untar- 
nished, whose memory is a rich heritage to be treasured. 


The following memorial, written by William H. HinklE; 
formerly of ^linneapolis, was read by Councilor Noyes in the- 
Council fleeting, September 13, 1909. 

Samuel Richard Thayer died January 7, 1909, at the home 
of his brother, George W. Thayer, in Rochester, N. Y. He had 
been ill several weeks, but the fatal termination of his illness 
was not expected. 

jNIr. Thayer was born in Richmond, N. Y., December 12, 
1837. He was prepared for college at Alfred Academy and 
w^as graduated with honors from Union College in the class of 
ISGO. In this class were many men who became prominent, 
among them being AYarner ^liller, Douglass Campbell, Charles 
Sprague, William IT. ^McElroy, and the late Charles Emory 
Smith, wlio was one of Tliayer's closest friends. After his 
graduation ]Mr. Thayer moved to IMinneapolis, where he studied 



law and practiced his profession. At this time began the life- 
long friendship v*'ith Governor Ciishman K. Davis, who later 
became United States Senator from ^Minnesota, and it was 
chiefly through his influence that ^Ir. Thayer was appointed 
Envoy Extraordinary and ^Minister Plenipotentiary to the 
Netherlands by President Benjamin Harrison. 'Mr. Thayer was 
at this post from 1889 to 1803, during Harrison's term and for 
about a year of the Cleveland administration. His discharge 
of the duties of that office was conspicuously approved by the 
State Department on several occasions. 

His courtesy to fellow countrymen who visited the Nether- 
lands earned for him a wide popularity. It was through his 
initiative that the [Memorials for the Pilgrims were set up at 
Delfthaven and Plymouth. 

After his return to the United States he lived most of the 
time in New York City, interesting himself in public affairs. 
He was a delegate to the International Peace Conference at 
Luzerne, where he delivered an address, and was a welcome 
speaker on many public occasions. A few days before his 
death, Mr. Thayer was appointed by Mayor George B. ]\IcClel- 
lan a member of the Hudson-Fulton Celebration Commission. 

He received tlie degree of LL.D. from Alfred University and 
from Union College. He was a member of the Cosmos Club of 
Washiugton, the Minnesota Historical Society, the Huguenot 
Society of America, the Society of Mayflower Descendants, and 
the Union League Club of New York. Mr. Thayer was a mem- 
ber of the Congregational Church. He was unmarried. His 
brother and one sister, Mrs. Elizabeth T. Beadle, survive him. 

FeAV persons have possessed a more engaging personality. 
Endowed with a fine and highly cultivated intellect, and hav- 
ing a wide knowledge of men and affairs, he made the acquaint- 
ance of most of the prominent men of Europe and America dur- 
ing the past thirty-five years. Possessed of a large fund of 
information gathered in this and other countries, thoroughly 
versed in the political history of this country and Europe, witli 
a ready wit and fluent speech, his conversation was always in- 
teresting and instructive. Elevated in his tastes and predilec- 
tions, he naturally drew to himself tlie intimacy of a large 
number of persons of like character and disposition. 


Memorials in the Council Meeting, November 8, 1909. 

The following biographic memorial was presented by Wil- 
liam H. LiGHTNER; Councilor: 

To no one member is this Society more indebted for its 
growth and stable foundation than it is to Henry Pratt Upham, 
who departed this life on May 1, 1909, and it is fitting that a 
record be made of his life and services. 

Mr. Upham was born on January 26, 1837, at Millbury, Mas- 
sachusetts. His father, Joel T^'orthington Upham, was engaged 
in the manufacture of turbine wheels at Worcester, Massachu- 
setts, by which he acquired a competency, and he died there in 
1879 after a residence of forty years. Mr. Upham 's mother was 
Seraphine Howe, w^ho died in 1839. His father having married 
a second time, he was brought up by his step-mother, whom he 
bore in affectionate remembrance. He had a brother, George, 
who served as an ofiicer in the navy during the AVar of the 
Rebellion, and a half-brother, Charles, who served in the 15th 
Massachusetts Regiment, was captured by the Confederates at 
the Battle of Ball's Bluff, and died in Libby Prison in 1861. 

Mr. Upham was descended from John Upham, wiio with a 
company of colonists, under the leadership of Rev. Joseph Hull, 
set sail from "Weymouth, England, for New Engalnd on March 
20, 1635. These colonists arrived at Boston on May 6, 1635, 
and made their home in Massachusetts, choosing We^onouth as 
the name of their new abode. John Upham appears to have 
been a strong man in his day and generation and to have trans- 
mitted to his numerous descendants, w^ho are now" to be found 
in all parts of the United States, the sterling qualities of the 
early New England colonist. 

After receiving a public school education at Worcester, 
Massachusetts, in 1856, at the age of nineteen, Mr. Upham came 
to the Territory of ^Minnesota and reached St. Paul March 9, 
1857. Here he formed a co-partnership with Chauncey W. 
Griggs and for some time engaged in the lumber business. He 
also engaged in the flour-milling business. In 1863 he began 
his career in banking by becoming teller in the banking-house 

Minnesota Historical Society. 
Vol. XV. Plate XX. 


of Thompson Brothers, which was the same year organized as 
the First National Bank of St. Paul. He continued in the posi- 
tion of teller until 1867 when he was elected assistant cashier, 
which position he held until 1869, when he, with others, or- 
ganized the City Bank of St. Paul, of which he became cashier, 
the president being H. H. Sibley. This bank was operated suc- 
cessfully for four years, when it was consolidated with the First 
National Bank, Mr. Upham becoming cashier of the latter in- 
stitution, with which he remained connected until the time of 
his death. On May 12, 1880, after the death of the late Horace 
Thompson, he was elected president of the bank ; and he served 
in that capacity until he retired from active duties on January 
8, 1907, continuing thereafter as chairman of the board of 
directors until his death. 

In September, 1868, he married Evelyn Gertrude Burbank, 
the daughter of Simeon Burbank of St. Paul, formerly of Lud- 
low, Vermont. They had three children: Gertrude, who mar- 
ried Jolm F. Harris, of New York City; Grace, who married 
Horace E. Bigelow, of St. Paul; and John Phineas, who is un- 
married and resides in St. Paul. 

This bare outline of Mr. Upham 's business career is the 
record of a successful business life, but does not disclose his 
sound business judgment, his strong conservative character, his 
far-reaching influence, his interest in public affairs, his devo- 
tion and loyalty to his friends and associates, and his kindly 
and generous disposition, which endeared him to his many 
friends and made his death a great loss not only to his imme- 
diate family but also to the community. 

For many years past the First National Bank of St. Paul 
has been one of the leading and strongest financial institutions 
in the Northwest. Successful in business, it has proved profit- 
able to its stockholders. It has stood for safe and conservative 
business methods. Repeatedly when great financial distress 
has prevailed throughout the country, its credit and standing 
has remained wholly unimpaired. Never has its soundness been 
in question. An institution of this character is one of the most 
important factors in the development of a new country and the 
maintenance of prosperity in tlie community. To no one is more 
credit due than to Mr. Upham for the usefulness, the high 


standing and the success of this institution, with which for 
forty-six years his career was identified. 

An old friend, writing several years ago, correctly said: 
**Mr. Upham is the personification of business, and has a sort 
of reserved power which indicates the character of the man. 
He is a strong business manipulator without the rant, a loco- 
motive without the noise, a motive pov.'er with a steady push. 
His career from a bank clerk to a bank president has been a 
peculiar one, but marked by that remarkable trait of character, 
steadiness of purpose, which is the predominant element in his 
nature. Modest and retiring, he moves more especially in the 
business circle, and yet he loves outdoor sports and delights in 
rambling among the archives of the past.'' 

Though deeply interested in public alfairs and active in the 
support of good government, 'Mv. Upham never sought public 
office. He contented himself in rendering, when occasion pre- 
sented itself, active aid to any candidate in whose character 
and principles he had confidence and to those measures which 
made for law and order. Entirely unostentatious, he was in 
his quiet way a most valuable support to the measures and men 
whose cause he espoused. 

He was a man of pronounced views and convictions. He 
had no sympathy with dishonesty or shady transactions. The 
line between right and wrong was clearly defined in his mind, 
and where any transaction caused the loss of his confidence, it 
was extremely difficult to regain it. Yet he was a very just and 
charitable man. His gifts to charities and to those in need 
were liberal, and were inade from a sense of duty as well as 
from feelings of kindness and generosity. Whatever may be 
one's personal desire as to contributing from their means in 
aid of a meritorious cause, it frequently happens that such 
contributions are made because they are solicited. It was very 
characteristic of Mr. Upham that he disliked to give upon 
solicitation, but that he made his liberal benefactions sponta- 
neously at regular seasons without solicitation, from a sense of 
duty and a wish* to aid those less fortunate than himself. 

By much reading and study lie supplied the want of a col- 
lege education and acquired a broad acquaintance with liter- 
ature. Mr. Upham moved much with his fellow men and took 



great interest in social and literary organizations. He was a 
member of tlie American Anticiuarian Society, The Society of 
Antiquity of Worcester, the ^layflower Society, the Society of 
Colonial AYars. of which lie was some time governor, the Sons 
of the American Revolution, the ^linnesota Club, of vv^hich he 
was at one time president, the Masonic Order, being a Knight 
Templar, the Ramsey County Pioneer Association, and the St. 
Paul Chamber of Commerce. He took a lively interest in the 
St. Paul Public Library, and for several years was on its di- 

His interest in history was early aroused, and he became a 
member of the Minnesota Historical Society on June 8, 1868. 
He was much interested in genealogical studies, and was con- 
sidered one of the best genealogical students in the Northwest. 
In this Society he became a life member in 1876 and was a 
member of the Executive Council from March 8, 1875, until the 
time of his death. He was treasurer of the Society for more 
than thirty-three years, chairman of the finance committee since 
1881, and chairman of the library committee since 1889. As 
chairman of the library committee he mainly selected the books 
purchased, and as treasurer and chairman of the finance com- 
mittee he had practically the sole management of the finances 
of the society. 

In 1908 a committee of the Executive Council made a re- 
port on the permanent trust fund. From this report it appears 
that this fund began with $300 in 1871. In 1876, when Mr. 
Upham became treasurer, the fund amounted to about $1,500. 
In 1908 it had increased to $75,000. The care and management 
of this fund, no part of which was received from tlie State of 
Minnesota, was entirely entrusted to Mr. Upham. It was ac- 
cumulated from private donations, dues, and judicious invest- 
ments made by him. In the words of tlie report of the commit- 
tee, certainly there could be no better evidence of the watch- 
ful care, the good judgment, and prudent management of this 
fund on the part of our treasurer, who has had the custody 
and the management of it during all this tiihe. " 

Mr. Upham repeatedly declined to accede to the wishes of 
his friends that he should accept the presidency of this Society, 
believing that he could be of more service in promoting its 


interests in the position which he held. To a very large extent 
the credit for the sound financial condition of this Society and 
for its valuable and well selected library, which ranks favor- 
ably with the best historical libraries in the country, is due to 
the devoted and unselfish services of Mr. Upham. With his 
many other cares he always found the time to guide and guard 
its interests. 

When he obeyed the last call and closed his days, he had 
completed a successful and well-rounded life. He left a de- 
voted family who mourn their loss and a host of friends who 
bear tribute to his unusual ability, his unflinching integrity 
and honesty, his sound and conservative judgment, his stead- 
fastness of purpose, his devotion to his friends, and his kindness 
and liberality to those in need of assistance. 

Everett H. Bailey, Councilor, read this tribute: 
At a regular meeting of the Board of Directors of the First 
National Bank of St. Paul, held on Friday, June 25, 1909, the 
following resolutions commemorative of the late Henry P. 
Upham, ofi'ered by the President, were unanimously adopted:' 

"Resolved, That with profound sorrow we record the death on 
May 1st last of Henry P. Upham, for more than forty-six years closely 
identified with this institution. His conspicuous ability, sterling In- 
tegrity, superior judgment, and widely known administrative qualifica- 
tions, w^on for him the admiration and esteem of a wide circle of 
friends, and endeared him to his associates in business and in private 

"Entering this bank on February 1, 1863, as teller, in 1867 he was 
elected Assistant Cashier, On January 15, 1873, he was elected Cash- 
ier, which office he held until May 12, 1880, when he was elected Presi- 
dent; and he served in that capacity until he retired from active duties 
on January 8, 1907, continuing a member of this Board of Directors, 
and its Chairman, until his death. 

"His decease, after so long and so prominent an active business 
career, is a great loss to our city, and his unimpeachable reputation 
and charitable nature are a heritage to be treasured. The Directors 
and officers of this Bank, his close associates for many years, mourn 
the loss of a loyal friend, a wise counselor and guide. 

"Resolved, That* these resolutions be spread on the records of the 
bank, and a copy be tran.smitted to the members of his family, expres- 
sive of our sympathy in their bereavement." 

As a close business associate with Mr. Upham for thirty-six 



years, probably no person outside of his immediate family bad 
a better opportunity than myself for discerning and appreciat- 
ing the qualities of mind and heart which in so positive a man- 
ner characterized him among his townsmen. 

The admirable memorial to which we have just listened well 
records his kindly, considerate nature, his helpfulness in coun- 
sel and in material ways. His constant desire to render serv- 
ice, where deserved, in his own quiet manner, always impressed 
me as one of the governing principles of his life. His career 
was marked by the thoroughness, the accuracy of detail, with 
which he surveyed business or social problems. He possessed 
an analytical mind. Among the most positive attributes of his 
character were scrupulous fidelity, integrity of purpose, and 
fairness in all things. 

The continuous service so devotedly rendered by Henry P. 
Upham to this Society during many years, will be an inspira- 
tion to those who succeed him in its councils. 

Hon. John B. Gilfillan, of Minneapolis, said: 
I would not have my silence upon this occasion construed 
as indifference to what has been said and done here in honor 
of our friend. It was my privilege to know him first, I think, 
away back in the early sixties, when he held a position of trust 
and responsibility in the banking institution of Thompson 
Brothers; and from that time forward, through a long life of 
business activity, it was a great and growing satisfaction to 
come into associations with him frequently. The impress of 
his daily life was productive of pleasant memories all along the 

If there was any one characteristic that impressed me more 
than another, it was his native manliness. No one could look 
upon him, or have to do with him, without feeling, there is a 
man. In him were found all the elements of manliness in an 
eminent degree. Ever courteous, kindly and considerate, he 
always won friends and held them with a firm hold. He enter- 
tained malice toward none, but sympathy for all. His word 
was as good as the written bond. Cool, clear, and considerate, 
his judgment was without error, his counsel safe, and his aid 
always valuable and dependable. Looking back over his whole 


life, we see nothing to be repented of, but rather a life witliout 
blemish, an inspiration and a guide to the best this world 

Well will it be for us if in tiie end we shall be able to com- 
mand in a like degree the respect, approval, confidence, and 
love of our fellows. 

Hon. Chaxning Seabury said: 

Mr. Uphani was an upright man, a hater of meanness or 
deceit, and a loyal friend. It has been said that "a successful 
banker must have an iron face." Its meaning is that he must 
learn to say "No." Mr. Upham learned to say "No," but he 
could also say "Yes," with cordiality. I will give an example 
of the latter trait of his character, simply to illustrate it. The 
firm of which I am a member had been customers of his bank 
for many years. I had never been told what our "line" or 
"limit" was, although it is usual and customary for every bor- 
rower to have an understanding of this character with his 
banker. So I asked him once, what I should consider our 
"line" to be, as I did not want to ever meet with a refusal. 
He quickly answered me, "As long as Bailey and I run this 
bank, come and get money when you need it. "Whenever we 
think you have had enough, we will tell you so." This was 
the only answer I ever got, but it illustrates his loyalty to any 
one he believed in. I am only one of many who can testify 
to it. 

He was a strong man, at all times, — in the hours of pros- 
perity, or when panics came. I have seen him under all con- 
ditions, and if there were more men like him in the world, it 
would be a better place to live in. 

Rev. John Wright, pastor of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, 
said : 

I desire at this time to emphasize a certain aspect of 'Sir. 
Upham 's life, his habitual benevolence. This was not left to 
caprice, impulse, or sentiment, but followed a deliberate sys- 
tem. His ear was ever open to the cry of distress, and his heart 
softened whenever he knew of a case of suffering. 

I never had to appeal to him or make any solicitation or even 
refresh his memory. There were certain times wlien his be- 



nevolence acted promptly, gladly, and freely. For over twenty 
years he sent me each Christmas, Easter, and Thanksgiving, a 
check representing a substantial sum, and left it to my judg- 
ment how it should be applied. I knew of many persons who 
would never seek aid from the charitable organizations of a 
great city, who would quietly accept relief through me. 

In this way I Wcis able to reach very deserving cases. In- 
valids who were emaciated and weakened through the lack of 
nourishing food, were supplied with the sustaining things of 
life, and were brought back to health. Through the stress of 
poverty others were behind in the payment of rent, and the 
proffered relief brought peace of mind and communicated new 
courage for the battle of life. Loss of employment, unexpected 
sickness, funeral expenses, and the varied phases and condi- 
tions that belong to the laboring and lowly classes, were splen- 
didly met through the generosity and thoughtfulness of Mr. 

He had a kind heart, and it was full of sympathy for those 
who W'ere in genuine distress. He had a strong dislike for the 
confirmed crank, or for any insincerity in applicants for char- 
ity. But for the truly deserving he had words and deeds of 
helpfulness. The death of 'Mr. Upham was a personal loss to 
me, and he will always have a loving place in my memory. I 
also know that his death brought sorrow to the hearts of hun- 
dreds of people in this community who had been uplifted and 
blessed through his benefactions. 


In the Council ^Meeting on January 13, 1913, the following 
memorial was presented by Hon. C. F. ^Iacdonald, of St. Cloud. 

Among the young men of the East, sixty years ago, who 
"Heard the tread of pioneers 
Of nations yet to be," 

in the far west, and joined the tide of emigration towards the 
setting sun, was Henry Chester Waite, a native of Rensselaer- 
ville, Albany county, New York, born June 30, 1830. When 


quite young, his parents moved to Chautauqua county, and later 
to a farm where Henry had agricultural experience. He pre- 
pared for college at Fredonia and Jamestown, and graduated 
from Union College,' Schenectady, in 1851. He read law in the 
office of Emory F. Warren, of Sinclaii'ville, and was admitted 
to the bar at a term of court held at Angelica, Allegany county, 
in 1853. In the autumn of the same year, Mr. Waite journeyed 
westward to i\Iadison, Wisconsin, and formed a law partner- 
ship with Alexander Botkin and Thomas Hood, under the firm 
name of Botkin, Hood & Waite. In the spring of 1855, Mr. 
AYaite located at St. Cloud, Minnesota, and was the first attor- 
ney to open an office in that embryo city. 

After practicing several years, he engaged in the banking 
business with Thomas C. ]MeClure, a brother-in-law, and con- 
tinued until 1865, when he was appointed Eegister of the United 
States Land Office, a position he held for four years. Follow- 
ing this period, and for some years, he was engaged in flour 
milling at Cold Spring, merchandising at the same place, and 
farming. He was a member of the firm of Clark, Waite & 
McClure, probably the strongest business organization in cen- 
tral and northern Minnesota at that period. 

He saw a great deal of frontier life, and took an active in- 
terest in plans for the upbuilding of that region, as well as in 
political matters. In 1857 he was elected as a Democratic dele- 
gate to the Constitutional Convention, and took his seat in that 
wing of that body. In that period of anti-slavery agitation in 
the North, and of bitter threats of retaliation by secession in 
the South, partisan feeling was very strong, and both factions 
sought to control the new state. Leading Republicans from 
other states came to Minnesota to aid their party friends in 
the battle royal, among them John P. Hale, of New Hampshire ; 
Lyman Trumbull and Owen Lovejoy, of Illinois ; Schuyler Col- 
fax, of Indiana ; and our own James H. Baker, then of Ohio. 

In the membership of the two wings of that memorable con- 
vention were many of the ablest and brightest pioneer citizens 
of the Territory, who were and ever will be a credit to the Ter- 
ritory and State, whose memory w^ill be honored more and more 
in generations to come, as the inestimable value of their serv- 
ices in laying well the foundation of this great commonwealth 


comes to be more fully realized. In the Democratic wing were 
such leaders as Henry 11. Sibley, Willis A. Gorman, William 
Holcombe, George L. Becker, ^Michael E. Ames, C. E. Flandran. 
B. B. Meeker, Lafayette Emmett, and Henry C. AVaite, well 
fitted for the task before them; as w^ere equally so the leaders 
in the opposing branch, Thomas AYilson, St, A. D. Balcombe, 
Lucas K. Stannard, Clark W. Thompson, Thomas J. Galbraith, 
John W. North, 0. F. Perkins, Amos Coggswell, and Cyrus 

In that body of able men Mr. Waite took a prominent part. 
Lie was tenaciously opposed to any compromise with what he 
and others termed ''that other illegal body," and was one of 
the thirteen Democrats who voted against the final Compromise 

When we consider the strong bitterness existing betw^een 
the two wings, it is a source of surprise and gratification tliat 
the fundamental law^ finally evolved has proven so meritorious 
and has guided the Ship of State safely for more than half a 

Mr. Waite later allied himself with the Republican party, 
as did other Democrats. From the Republican wing there also 
w^ere desertions, such leaders as Thomas Wilson, Amos Coggs- 
well, and Cyrus x\ldrich, going over to the Democracy in later 

It was thought at the time of his death that "Sir. AVaite was 
the last survivor of the Constitutional Convention membership, 
but it has since developed that Lucas K. Stannard still sur- 
vives, aged eighty-seven years. 

In the later history of the State, Mr. Waite served one term 
in the House of Representatives and three in the Senate, tak- 
ing a leading position. He was a life member of this Society. 

In disposition he was one of the most kindly of men, a good 
friend and neighbor, and highly esteemed for his many gener- 
ous and endearing qualities. His tastes were along literary 
lines. He possessed poetic talent of a high order, and was the 
author of poems and other articles of excellence. 

January 1, 1S60, Mr. Waite wedded Airs. ALnria D. Paige, a 
daughter of Dr. Shepard Clark, of Ilubbardston, Alass. Two 
sons were born to them, John Chester and Clark. The former 


died in November, 1887. ^Irs. "Waite died three years ago. 

For several years prior to his death, Mr. "Waite 's growing 
infirmities incapacitated liim from active life. The last two 
years he spent on his farm near St. Cloud. Following the 
death of his wife, he gradually but surely failed until finally 
the lamp of life ceased burning, at the dawn of Friday, No- 
vember 15, 1912. 

More than a quarter of a century ago, Mr. AYaite became a 
convert to the Roman Catholic faith, and his funeral services 
were held in the St. Cloud Cathedral, on Monday, November 
18. His remains were laid at rest in North Star Cemetery, in 
the Waite family lot. 


A Memorial Presented by the Secretary. 

William Drew Washburn, a member of the distinguished 
Washburn family of nation-wide influence and fame, and one 
of the most prominent citizens of Minnesota, was born on a 
farm near Livermore, Maine, January 14, 1831, being the sev- 
enth son of his parents. He attended the district school in his 
childhood, and later attended an academy and Bowdoin col- 
lege, being graduated from this college in 1851. The next two 
years were spent in reading law in the office of his brother 
Israel, and in that of John A. Peters, later chief justice of 

In 1857 young Washl)urn came to Alinnesota, and in May he 
opened a law office in ^Minneapolis. 

President Lincoln appointed him surveyor general of this 
state in 1861, and after serving four years in this position he 
engaged in the lum])er business. 

From 1869 to 1877 he was a railroad builder for the Minne- 
apolis and St. Louis railway company. Later he began the con- 
struction of the ]\Iinnea polls, St. Paul and Sault Ste. i\rarie 
line, building several hundred miles of that railway in tlie 
years 1885-80, and was president of this company until the lat- 



ter year, when he resigned on account of his election to the 
United States Senate. 

Besides these large lumbering and railroad enterprises, he 
was interested in the extensive Pillsbury-Washburn flouring 
mills, these companies being organized both in ^Minnesota and 
in England. 

In 1871 Mr. Washburn was a representative in the State 
Legislature. In 1878 he was elected to the lower house of Con- 
gress, where he served six years ; and from 1889 to 1895 he was 
United States senator from Minnesota. He was prominent in 
public services and charities in this state, and he was elected a 
life member of this Historical Society on November 13, 1882. 

He died at his home in Minneapolis, July 29, 1912. 

Born November 21, 1834; Died April 4, 1914. 

The following memorial was presented by Newel H. Clapp, 
of St. Paul, in the Council Meeting on April 13, 1914. 

It is difficult to speak of men who have achieved the suc- 
cess to which Mr. Weyerhaeuser attained without speaking in 
exaggerated terms. This is more especially true of him be- 
cause so much of the success ascribed to him by the general 
public, and in the public prints, as relates to the volume of his 
wealth or property, is really the aggregate of success finan- 
cially of many others jointly with Mr. Weyerhaeuser. So it 
must be borne in mind that when any one speaks of the prop- 
erties owned by ^Ir. Weyerhaeuser, he is, unconsciously per- 
haps, but nevertheless necessarily, speaking of him and his as- 
sociates. I shall try in what I have to say this evening to avoid 
this error, and to speak only of the man and his character. 

When I first knew him, in the early eighties, before his com- 
ing in 1891 to be a resident of St. Paul, he had passed the early 
stages of his business career, had built up the great business 
machine of which he was the director, and was perhaps at the 
zenith of his power as an organizer and controller of men. It 



•is of some of the qualities of mind and lieart that enabled him 
to rise to that position tliat I want to speak at this time. 

Mr. Weyerhaeuser was a business genius. He was one of 
those rare men who can, and do, see beyond the present and 
immediate future, and forecast with a wonderful degree of cer- 
tainty and accuracy the progress and outcome of a particular 
line of business or a particular kind of property. He used to 
deny that he or any otlier man was ever possessed of any such 
intuition or judgment, and to say that business success awaits 
any man who has fair judgment and nerve to back it, and who 
will work hard to attain his ends. But I feel sure there is 
something more than merely fair judgment, nerve, and indus- 
try, required to attain such great success as did Mr. AYeyer- 
haeuser. I think this wonderful ability to foresee the value of 
a piece of property, or of a method of conducting a business in 
a particular manner, was one of the main factors in his success. 

Then, he was a thoroughly honest man. He was not honest 
because he felt that was the best policy, but because his mind 
could tolerate nothing else for himself, and the standard he set 
for himself he required others to conform to. 

He was kind, generous, and considerate ; while he was a 
man of strong will, determined to carry out his plans in all 
cases when he believed them right, he was always glad to listen 
to the views of others and never attempted to force his opinions 
on any one. No matter how much any or all of his associates 
might disagree with him, he never even tried to compel them 
or any of them to adopt his views. No large purchase of prop- 
erty was ever made, no general change of business methods or 
policy was ever ordered, without the unanimous consent oi 
those interested with him, nor until by kindly argument, which 
amounted usually to a demonstration, he had convinced those 
who at first opposed him, that he was right. He was a genuine 
conservator ; not one of tliose who believe that the way to con- 
serve is to put away and neither use yourself nor let anybody 
else use, but one who believed in the teachings of our Saviour, 
that if one was entrusted witli a talent it was his duty to make 
that talent produce as many others as possible. He was among 
the first, if not the first, in his line of business, to see the ter- 
rible waste of money and material that was taking place, and 


to devise methods to prevent it ; and he continued to strive for 
those methods which would still further prevent waste as long' 
as he lived. 

About the year 1870 he, with Mr. Denkmann, was engaged 
in the business of manufacturing lumber at Rock Island. They 
had up to that time prospered in their business, and had con- 
ducted it without much reference to what others in the same 
line were doing. They owned some pine timber on tributaries 
of the Mississippi, and, like all their competitors, they ''looked 
out for themselves," which means that in the fall each man, or 
firm, went into the woods with his own crew of men, built his 
own logging camps and logging roads and dams, and cut and 
hauled his logs to some stream down which they could be 
floated, ^^hen spring arrived with its floods, each proprietor 
went on the stream prepared to "drive" his own logs; he paid 
no attention to his neighbor, took no precaution to prevent too 
many logs being driven into one place at the same time, nor 
any heed of his neighbor's necessity for the use of the same 
water that he needed. Of course, the logs ultimately became 
hopelessly intermingled, and they must be, and were, stopped 
many times and assorted, so that the logs belonging to indi- 
viduals doing business at that point were delivered to them. 
This necessarily involved handling and rehandling them many 
times, hindering tlie ultimate delivery of the logs to the mills 
for manufacture. Necessarily, too, this method caused con- 
stant friction and ill feeling and more or less litigation, and it 
was constantly growing worse. 

Mr. Weyerhaeuser saw that in some way these w^arring fac- 
tions must be brought together and made to work in harmony. 
The work of cutting and banking the logs must be put in the 
hands of the best men, who were not necessarily the best men 
to drive them, and for that part of the work also the best men 
must be selected. If a road, dam, or other ''improvement," 
necessary to handle the timber belonging to several parties, 
must be built, all must contribute to the building, and then all 
must be allowed to reap its benefits. The waters of the various 
tributaries upon whicli the logs Avere banked, and of the main 
streams, must be controlled and used so as to obtain the best 
results for the lumbermen as a whole; some scheme must be 




devised whereby tliere should be, as far as possible, a coinmon 
ownership of the logs, and then the logs must be so divided 
that each owner should receive his fair proportion, quantity 
and quality being considered. To those of us who have seen 
the result finally attained, all these things look so reasonable 
and necessary that we can hardly conceive how anyone would 
do, or want to do, otherwise. But when we consider that 'Mr. 
\Yeyerhaeuser's business competitors were also men of strong 
wills, with fixed ideas as to the way in which their business 
should be conducted, and with the usual selfish belief that their 
particular property and business methods were a little or a 
great deal better than any or a great majority of the others, we 
get a faint idea of the task ]Mr. Weyerhaeuser set himself to 

Time will not permit, nor am I sufficiently familiar with 
details to be able to recount all that was accomplished. The 
first organization was known as the Mississippi River Logging 
Company, in which Mr. "W^eyerhaeuser succeeded in bringing 
together a large majority of the mill owners and lumbermen on 
the Mississippi and its tributaries (other than the St. Croix) 
reaching into the pine forests of Wisconsin. Using their com- 
bined capital, they were able to buy large and choice tracts of 
timber when the owners were ready to sell them, and combin- 
ing their skill as lumbermen they were able to, and did, inaug- 
urate business methods which eliminated waste, fraud, and du- 
plication of labor, to such an extent that they could be certain 
of a fair profit, wdiere, pursuing the old methods, loss would 
inevitably have resulted. IMr. Weyerhaeuser 's business career 
up to that time had earned him the reputation of being honest, 
farsighted and careful, and the men Avho were then associated 
with him knew him well. 

As time Avent on, they and others learned more of his un- 
erring judgment, his sterling honesty and good sense, his abso- 
lute fairness, and his ability and disposition to put his own 
selfish interests in the background when they conflicted with 
those of his partners in business, until they came to place upon 
his shouldo's tlie entire burden of nuinaging the conduct oi' 
their business. From time to time all, or some of them, joined 
with him in forming oDier corporations to carry on the ium- 



bering business. They all knew he would never in any way 
permit himself or anyone else to reap a dollar of profit out of 
an enterprise beyond his share of the profit of that enterprise 
as a whole; that if he told them a particular property could be 
bought, or sold, at a certain price, that price was just what the 
prospective vendor or purchaser had named; there was not a 
cent in the transaction anywhere for Mr. AVeyerhaeuser, or for 
any one interested with him or on his side, beyond their share 
in the enterprise as a whole ; and they knew that he honestly 
believed that it was best to buy or sell, if he so advised. 
Neither ^Ir. AYeyerhaeuser nor any association of which he was 
a member ever issued, or directly or indirectly consented to the 
issue of, a dollar of water stock. Indeed, they were apt to 
squeeze it so hard that it was worth, when issued, at least tAvo 
for one. 

So it came to be said by all of those associated with him, 
''Whatever Weyerhaeuser says goes," and from this saying, I 
think, has grown the idea that he at all times had the majority 
in interest and the power, legally, to enforce his views. This 
idea is very far from the truth. Mr. Weyerhaeuser picked his 
associates; he had excellent judgment as to the character of 
other men, and he had the advice of many friends Avho either 
knew something of the man under consideration, or knew some- 
one who did. Having once determined that a man came up to 
his standards, 'Mr. Weyerhaeuser trusted him absolutely and 
permitted him to have as large an interest in a given enterprise 
as was consistent with the rights of others and as the man could 
carry. Mr. Weyerhaeuser never stipulated for, or had for him- 
self, the majority in interest or vote in any one of the many 
companies he was connected with. But because of his personal 
ability, fairness and honesty, and the faith his associates had 
in him, he always had the practical control. 

Mr. Weyerhaeuser would never himself resort to, or tolerate 
in his employees, any unfair or underhanded methods of com- 
petition with others who were not interested or associated with 
him; he believed tliat prosperous neighbors contriliuted more 
to his own prosperity tlian insolvent ones, and always sought 
not to pull down, but to Imild up those with whom he came in 


He was essentially a lumberman; he believed that a man 
could attain great ends only by sticking to his o^vn business. 
He took great pains to become, and he was, well informed, in 
a general way, as -to most other lines of business and their 
needs and possibilities, and he used this information to enable 
him to shape the conduct of his own business. 

As he grew to be a great figure in the lumbering business, 
his advice and financial aid were sought by men in other lines, 
and to a very limited extent he invested in some of them ; but 
he never lost his love for a pine tree, and was always ready to 
buy one, or more, when "it was offered him at what he consid- 
ered a fair price. 

He never dealt in, or had much to do with, any other kind 
of timber. It is related of him that on a certain occasion a man 
tried to sell him a tract of hardwood, and took great pains to 
picture in somewhat glowing terms the wonderful possibilities 
of an investment in the tract. Among other things he sought 
to show that the hardwood could be manufactured into many 
different kinds of wood products from a toothpick to a grand 
piano, while pine could only be used in the construction of 
buildings. ^Mr. Weyerhaeuser listened very patiently and cour- 
teously to the end of the discourse, and then closed the inter- 
view by saying, "Well, all that you say may be true, but I like 
a pine tree because it is always green." 

Time will not permit me to enlarge upon Mr. Weyerhaeus- 
er ^s untiring industry. Until after an illness which to some 
extent incapacitated him from physical exertion, he was con- 
stantly engaged during the summer in traveling to and fro from 
one manufacturing plant to another, advising and directing 
the course to be pursued. His visits were not advertised, but 
}iis managers knew he was liable to drop in at any time, and they 
welcomed his arrival, because, while he never failed to criticise 
and condemn improper or wasteful methods when he found 
them, he never did so unkindly; and if a man was doing the 
best he knew how, he was always praised, even if Mr. AYeyer- 
liaeuser pointed out that tlie course being pursued was wrong. 

An amusing anecdote was related of one manager who had 
the reputation of being a little ''near." This man learned of 
one of iMr. Weyerhaeuser 's visits in advance and ''slicked up" 


until he thought no possible criticism could be made. Mr. 
Weyerhaeuser arrived, and together they started to inspect 
the plant. The manager was not modest in calling attention 
to the fine condition of everything, nor Avas Mr. "Weyerhaeuser 
stinted in his praise of what he saw. But it seems that some- 
body had made the mistake of cutting the strings with which 
the bundles of lath were tied, about twice as long as was nec- 
essary, thus wasting the extra string. Mr. "Weyerhaeuser saw 
it instantly, and, turning to the manager, said, "AYhen did you 
begin to put neckties on them?" 

When the mills were idle in the winter months and active 
logging operations were being carried on, Mr. Weyerhaeuser 
spent most of his time in the woods, and he used to say that it 
was these months in the woods among the pines, sharing the 
rough quarters and homely fare of the men in his employment, 
that he enjoyed most, that this really constituted his vacation 
and gave him strength to perform his tasks. 

Much has been said of Mr. Weyerhaeuser *s secretiveness 
and secret methods of work. He was both socially and in busi- 
ness a very modest man. He abhorred notoriety, ostentation, 
or display of any kind. He did not feel that the public gen- 
erally had, or ought to have, any particular interest in him as 
an individual. The business world in which he moved knew 
him for what he was as a man. That what w^as so known was 
not published broadcast is due, I think, entirely to his own 
modesty and the respect therefor entertained by those who 
knew him. To ail those who were associated with him, and to 
all those who met him in a business or social way, he was frank 
and open to a remarkable degree. He did not hesitate to tell 
all he knew about anything, or anybody, himself included, 
always avoiding, however, any claim for himself of wealth, 
power, or social position. Many times some of his associates 
thouglit he was almost too frank and willing to talk relating to 
his business affairs. Perhaps it is needless to say that he never 
exaggerated or talked for etiect, or made statements he did not 
know to be true. What he said was to be taken at its full 

To one who has known him intimately, at least in a busi- 
ness way, it is a pleasure to speak of him. I have tried to give 



my ideas of Mr. ^Veyerliaeuser as a business man, and of those 
qualities which enabled him to succeed. To recount the vari- 
ous enterprises in which lie has been interested , and his suc- 
cesses or failures, for sometimes he did make mistakes, would 
be to write a book, and, I believe, in the end would throw little 
more light on his essential characteristics than what I have 

Memorials in the Council Meeting^ AIay 11, 1914. 

Warren Upham, Secretary, presented the following bio- 
graphic memorial. 

A member of this Historical Society who had attained a 
wwldwide fame by his work as the State Geologist of r>Iinne- 
sota, Professor N. H. Winchell, has fallen, — let us rather say, 
and more truly, he has been promoted, called up higher. He 
was born in Nortli East, Dutchess county, N. Y., December 17, 
1839 ; and died in a hospital of Minneapolis, the city of his home, 
on Saturday afternoon. May 2, in the seventy-fifth year of his 

Like his brother, Alexander, with whose family he had his 
home during the early part of his university studies, at Ann 
Arbor, Michigan, Newton Horace devoted himself mainly to 
the science of geology, with allied interest in all branches of 
natural history. In Michigan he did much early work for 
botany; and in his latest years, after his geological survey of 
Minnesota was completed, he performed very valuable services 
for this Society on the archaeology and ethnology of this state 
and the northwest. From the later work resulted a quarto 
volume, published in 1911, entitled, ''The Aborigines of ^.lin- 
nesota," 761 pages, with many illustrations and about 500 maps 
of groups of Indian mounds. This volume, and the twenty- 
four Annual Reports and six quarto volumes of Final Reports 
of the Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota, 
are monuments more enduring than bronze, which will be con- 
sulted and studied during all the coming centuries by inves- 




tigators of the origin and history of the races of mankind and 
by all interested in geology or earth lore, not only in the schools 
and universities of Minnesota but of all the world. 

Newton Horace AYinchell in boyhood attended the public 
school and academy at Salisbury, Conn. ; and at the age of six- 
teen years he began teaching in a district school of his native 
town. Two years later, in 1858, he entered the University of 
Michigan, where his brother was the professor of geology. The 
next eight years were spent alternately in studies at the univer- 
sity and in school teaching, the schools taught being in Ann 
Arbor, Grass Lake, Flint, Kalamazoo, Colon, and Port Huron, 
Michigan. Previous to his graduation at the university, in 
1866, he had been two years the superintendent of public 
schools in St. Clair, Mich. ; and next after graduation he was 
again superintendent of schools at Adrian in that state for two 
years, 1867-69. He received from his xilma ^Mater the degree 
of master of arts in 1867. 

During a year, in 1869-70, he was an assistant to Prof. 
Alexander ^Vinchell on the Geological Survey of Michigan; 
and later in 1870 he visited and reported on the copper and 
silver deposits of New Mexico. In 1871 he assisted Prof. J. S. 
Newberry, the state geologist of Ohio, surveying and reporting 
on tw^enty counties in the northwestern part of that state. 

In the summer of 1872, N. H. Winchell was invited by Presi- 
dent Folwell, of the University of Minnesota, to take up the 
work then recently ordered by the legislature for a survey of 
the geology and natural history of this state, to be done under 
the direction of the Board of Regents of the University. In 
this work he continued twenty-eight years, until 1900: and dur- 
ing the first seven years, until 1879, he performed also the full 
duties of the university professorship of geology. Later he re- 
linquished teaching, aside from occasional lectures, and gave 
all his time to the diversified duties of the state survey and the 
curatorship of tlie university museum. 

In the summer of 1871 Professor AVinchell accompanied 
General Custer's expedition to tlie Bhick Hills, brought back 
many valuable additions for the museum, and prepared a report 
which contains tliC first geological map of the interior of the 
Black Hills. 


In 1873 he was one of the organizers of the Minnesota 
Academy of Natural Sciences, which he served during three 
terms as president; and he continued as one of its most active 
members throughout his life. 

He was a fellow of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, and presided over its geological section 
at the Philadelphia meeting in 1881. He- was also one of the 
chief founders of the Geological Society of America, in 1889, 
and was its president in 1902. He was a member of national 
societies of mineralogy and geology in France and Belgium, 
In the International Congress of Geologists he became a mem- 
ber in 1888, being reporter for the American committee on the 
nomenclature of the Paleozoic series; contributed papers in 
French to its subsequent meetings at Boulogne and Zurich; and 
attended its triennial meeting last August in Toronto. 

Under appointment by President Cleveland in 1887, Pro- 
fessor "Winchell was a member of the United States Assay Com- 
mission. His geological reports received a diploma and medal 
at the Paris Exposition of 1889, and a medal at the World's 
Fair in Chicago in 1893. 

He was the chief founder of the American Geologist, a 
monthly magazine, which was published in Minneapolis, under 
his editorship, during eighteen years, 1888-1905, in two volumes 
yearly, forming a series of thirty-six volumes. This work, in 
which he was much assisted by Mrs. Winchell, greatly promoted 
the science of geolog}^, affording means of publication to many 
specialists and amateurs throughout this country. It also 
brought out many biographic sketches, with portraits, of the 
principal early American workers in this wide field of knowl- 

In one of the bulletins of the Minnesota Geological Survey, 
entitled ''The Iron Ores of Minnesota," 430 pages, with maps, 
published in 1891, Prof. N. H. Winchell had the aid of his son, 
Horace Vaughn Winchell; and in a text-book, "Elements of 
Optical Mineralogy," 502 pages, 1909, he was associated in au- 
thorship with his younger son, Prof. Alexander Newton Win- 
chell, of the University of Wisconsin. During parts of tlie 
later years of the ^Minnesota survey he was aided by his son-in- 
lav/, Dr. Ulysses S. Grant, professor of geology in the North- 
western University, Evanston, Illinois. 



In 1895-96 Professor and Mrs. N. H. Winchell spent about 
a year in Paris, France, and again he was there during six 
months in 1898, his attention being given mainly during each 
of these long visits abroad to special studies and investigations 
in petrology. 

My association with Professor N. H. AVinchell began in 
June, 1879. Coming from the Geological Survey of New Hamp- 
shire, in which I had been for several years an assistant, I was 
thenceforward one of the assistants of the Minnesota survey 
six years, until 1885, and again in 1893 and 1894. In the mean- 
time and later, while I was an assistant geologist of the surveys 
of the United States and Canada, on the exploration, mapping, 
and publication of the Glacial Lake Agassiz, which occupied 
the basin of the Red river and of lakes "Winnipeg and Mani- 
toba, my frequent association with Prof. AYinchell kept me con- 
stantly well acquainted with the progress of his Minnesota 
work. Since the spring of 1906 he had been in the service of 
the Minnesota Historical Society, having charge of its Depart- 
ment of Archaeology. During all these thirty-five years I had 
intimately known him, and had increasingly revered and loved 
him. Besides being a skilled geologist, Newton Horace "Win- 
chell was a good citizen, a Christian in faith and practice, be- 
loved by all who knew him. 

Among the many special investigations which Prof. N. H. 
"Wincliell published during the forty-five years of his active 
work as a scientist, author, and editor, none probably has been 
more widely influential upon geologic thought and progress 
than his studies and estimates of the rate of recession of the 
FaUs of St. Anthony, cutting the Mississippi river gorge from 
Fort Snelling to the present site of the falls in Minneapolis. 
This investigation, first published in 1876, gave about 8,000 
years as the time occupied by the gorge erosion, which is like- 
wise the approximate measure of the time that has passed since 
the closing stage of the Ice Age or Glacial period, when the 
border of the waning ice-sheet was melted away on the area 
of Minnesota. 

Artificially chipped quartz fragments and rude aboriginal 
implements found in the i\Iississippi valley drift at Little Falls, 
in central ^linnesota, l^elonging to the time of final melting of 


the ice-sheet tliere, and other traces of man's presence at nearly 
the same time, or even much earlier, in numerous other locali- 
ties of the southern part of our great North American glaciated 
area, have led Professor Winchell and others, as the late Hon. 
J. V. Brower, Professors G. F. "Wright and F. W. Putnam, and 
myself, to a confident belief that mankind occupied this con- 
tinent during the later part of the Ice Age, or even quite prob- 
ably much earlier in that period, and possibly even before our 
continental glaciation began. This very interesting line of in- 
vestigation was the theme of the last paper written by Pro- 
fessor AYinchell, entitled ''The Antiquity of Man in America 
Compared with Europe," which he presented as a lecture be- 
fore the Iowa Academy of Sciences in Cedar Falls, Iowa, on 
Friday evening, April 24, only a week before he died. 

The work on which he was engaged for this Historical So- 
ciety, during his last eight years, based on very extensive col- 
lections, by Hon. J. V. Brower, of aboriginal implements from 
Minnesota and other states west to the Rocky mountains and 
south to Kansas, enabled Professor AYinchell to take up very 
fully the questions of man's antiquity and of his relation to 
the Ice Age. 

During the years 1909-10 Professor Winchell, as a member 
of the Museum Committee of this Society, gave much attention 
to investigations of the rune stone found near Kensington, in 
Douglas county, bearing inscriptions purporting to be a record 
of a party of Swedes and Norwegians coming there in the year 
1362. The report of this committee, concluding that the inscrip- 
tions are probably true and of that very ancient date, was first 
published by this Society in December, 1910, and is reprinted in 
pages 221-286 of this volume, with illustrative plates and maps. 
Professor Winchell was the author of the report, and he was 
entirely confident of the reliability of this conclusion, in which 
each of his associates in the committee concurred. 

The last publication in his work for this Society was in the 
summer of 1913, entitled "The "Weathering of Aboriginal Stone 
Artifacts, No. 1; A Consideration of the Paleoliths of Kansas,'' 
forming Part I of Volume XVI, M. IL S. Collections, 186 pages, 
with a map, 19 plates, and numerous text illustrations. 

He had enjoyed somewhat good health until the last week, 


althougli suffering in some degree with a chronic trouble of 
many years, and his death resulted from a needed surgical 
operation done on the preceding day. 

Geologist, naturalist, ethnologist, archaeologist, historian, 
my well trusted guide and comrade through half a lifetime, toil- 
ing ever upward, Farewell ! 

Green be the turf above thee, 

Friend of my better days! 
None knew thee but to love thee, 
Nor named thee but to praise." 

William W. FolwELL, the first president of the University 
of Minnesota, said: 

I willingly respond to the request for a few words in ap- 
preciation of Professor ^Yinchell. Regents Pillsbury and 
Nicols, both members of the state senate in 1872, had little 
difficulty in securing the passage of a bill drawn by the writer, 
for the establishment of a Geological and Natural History Sur- 
vey of Minnesota. The plan was to have the scientific work of 
the survey carried on by members of the University faculty, 
under the general oversight of the board of regents. 

From the candidates for the new professorship of geology. 
Professor Newton H. Winchell was easily selected. He had 
been graduated from the University of ^lichigan, where his dis- 
tinguished brother, then one of the leading geologists of the 
country, was professor. He had been principal of a high school, 
and had taught in the University which had graduated him. 
He had had three years 'experience as assistant on the geological 
surveys of ^Michigan and Ohio. This combination of gifts and 
experience seemed to fit him expressly for the double service in 
Minnesota. A few years of labor fully justified the recom- 
mendations of friends and the judgment of the regents. 

For seven years Professor Winchell carried all or nearly all 
the teaching in the department of geology and mineralogy. By 
that time there was a good deal of clamor for immediate eco- 
nomic results from the survey, in response to which the regents 
relieved him of all instruction to devote his whole time and 
strength to the survey. 

Had lie remained an active member of the faculty, and gone 
in and out among us, it would not be necessary now to remind 



the faculty and the whole University that the man whose body 
we laid to rest a week ago has given the University a wider 
repute than all of us put together. His final report on the 
geology of Minnesota in six noble quartos is on the shelves 
of all the great libraries of the world. One whose attainments 
entitle his opinion to credence has said of this work: '^No 
state publication of like nature surpasses in scientific impor- 
tance this survey by Mr. Winchell, and it could be said none 
equals it.'* 

My wish is to remind you that a truly great scholar has been 
taken from the University circle, and that ]\Iinnesota has lost 
one of her most useful citizens. Professor Newton Horace 
Winchell's name is forever inscribed on the roll of our most 
distinguished men. 

Colonel James Hamilton Davidson, of St. Paul, said: 
It has been my good fortune to be brought into very close 
relationship and personal friendship with three members of this 
Society, namely, John Fletcher Williams, General James H. 
Baker, and Professor N. H. Winchell. The bond of friendship 
between the two former and myself grew somewhat out of the 
fact that they were early graduates of the Ohio Wesleyan Uni- 
versity at Delaware, Ohio, where I received my degrees. They 
were all wonderfully helpful to this great society which has 
been collecting its records and its treasures for more than half 
a century. 

I am glad to know that this Society's library and other col- 
lections will soon be housed in a suitable fireproof building 
where these treasures, which could never be replaced, will be 
carefully housed and cared for, a storehouse of information for 
all coming generations. 

In his printed reports and scientific works, which are many, 
Prof. N. H. Winchell will live through coming ages. I venture 
to make this suggestion, that, when the new Historical Society 
Building is completed and the work of ornamenting it is under- 
taken, a life size statue of purest Parian marble be erected at 
the entrance to commemorate this great man and his historic 


Memorials Presented by Warren Upham. 

SamueIv Emery Adams, elected to life membership in this 
Society January 10, 1876, was born in Reading, Vt., December 
1, 1828 ; and died at his home in Minneapolis, March 29, 1912. 
He came to Minnesota in 1856, settling in Monticello; was a 
state senator, 1857-60: was paymaster in the civil war, and 
was brevetted lieutenant colonel ; resided in Minneapolis after 
1883, being in real estate business, and was an alderman many 
years. He was a prominent freemason. 

Charles Edwin Allen, of Cedar Grove, Maine, who was 
elected to corresponding membership February 8, 1909, died 
at his home October 28, 1911. 

Charles Gordon Ames, who during half a century was a 
corresponding member of this Society, was born in Dorchester, 
Mass., October 3, 1828 ; and died in Boston, Mass., April 15, 
1912. He came to Minnesota in 1851, as a missionary of the 
Free Baptist church, but, his theological views having changed, 
he joined the Unitarian denomination. He remained in St. 
Anthony Falls until 1859 ; later was a pastor in Illinois, New 
York and Ciilifornia, and in Philadelphia, and after 1888 in 
Boston. He is commemorated in "A Spiritual Autobiography, 
with an Epilogue by Alice Ames W'inter," 229 pages, 1913. 

Arthur Converse Anderson, elected an annual member 
of this Society February 8, 1897, was born in Bethel, Yt., De- 
cember 2, 1859; and died at his home in White Bear, Minn., 
May 29, 1909. He settled in St. Paul in 1883 ; was assistant 
cashier of the St. Paul National Bank, 1883-8, cashier 1888- 
1902; and its president from 1902 until 1906, when it was con- 
solidated with the CcMpitiil National Bank. 


Daniel A. J. Bakep was born in 1822 in New Sharon, 
Maine; and died in Minneapolis, October 2, 1909. He came 
to Minnesota in 1849, and taught at St. Paul, in 1850-51, the 
first public school in the territory, having 103 pupils in attend- 
ance. After practicing law here three years, he joined Avith 
others in 1854 in pre-empting the site and founding the town 
of Superior, AVisconsin. He was appointed judge of the dis- 
trict court by the governor of AVisconsin, and held this com- 
mission three years. In 1857 he was a member of the consti- 
tutional convention of Minnesota; and thenceforward he re- 
sided in Ramsey county, being its superintendent of schools for 
ten years. He built a large residence and a greenhouse in 1867 
on his farm in the southwest part of Rose township, later in- 
cluded in the city of St. Paul. Judge Baker became a life mem- 
ber of this Historical Society on January 15, 1856. 

Adolph Francis Alphonse BandeliEr, archaeologist, *was 
born in Bern, Switzerland, August 6, 1840; and died in Se- 
ville, Spain, March 18, 1914. He came to the United States in 
his youth; traveled extensively for the interests of arch- 
aeology, ethnology, and history, in the southwestern United 
States, Mexico, Central America, Peru, and Bolivia ; was 
elected a corresponding member of this Society on April 8, 1907. 

George AVashington Batchelder, elected a life member 
December 12, 1904, was born in Danville, Vt., February 18, 
1826 ; and died in Faribault, Alinn., January 9, 1910. He was 
graduated at the University of A^ermont, 1851 ; and four years 
later, having been admitted to practice law, he came to Min- 
nesota, settling at Faribault. In 1872-3 he was a state senator. 

Albert Stillman Batchellor, elected a corresponding 
member September 10, 1894, was born in Bethlehem, N. H., April 
22, 1850; and died in Littleton, N. II., June 15, 1913. He was 
graduated at Dartmouth College, 1872; practiced law, settling 
in Littleton; and was the State Historian and Editor of the 
New Hampshire State Papers after 1890. 



John Edsox Bell, elected to annual membership January 

13, 1908, was born in Brownville, N. Y., October 10, 1834; and 
died in Excelsior, Minn., September 10, 1909. He came to Min- 
nesota in 1857, settling in ■Minneapolis, and engaged in mercan- 
tile business. In 1870 he became cashier of the Hennepin 
County Savings Bank, and after 1889 was its president till 
his death. He was prominent in church, Sunday School, and 
Y. M. C. A. work. 

Peter Berkey was born near Johnstown, Pa., September 

14, 1822; and died in St. Paul, April 16, 1909. When thirteen 
years of age he became a driver on the Pennsylvania canaU and 
afterward was captain of a fast canal packet plying between 
Johnstown and Pittsburg. He came to Minnesota in 1853, set- 
tling in St. Paul, and with John Nicols established a hardware 
business. He was president of the St. Paul, Stillwater and Tay- 
lor's Falls railroad company, 1871-76, and of the St. Paul Na- 
tional Bank, 1883-92; was a representative in the Legislature, 
1872. January 15, 1856, Captain Berkey was elected a life 
member of this Historical Society, of which he was a councilor 
from 1864 to 1870, being for a part of that time its treasurer. 

Charles Henry Bigelow, elected an annual member De- 
cember 11, 1899, was born in Easton, N. Y., June 4, 1835; and 
died in St. Paul, July 31, 1911. He settled at St. Paul in 1864. 
engaging "in lumber business and insurance; was president of 
the St. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company, 1876-1911. 

Clara Wooster Abbie Blackman, elected a life member- 
September 14, 1908, died at her home in St. Paul, April 13, 1913.. 
She was a grade teacher in the Franklin School, 1874-85 ; 
principal of the Longfellow School twenty-two years, 1885- 
1907; and later was the compiler of a manuscript Blaekman-, 

Julian Clarence Bryant, elected a life member January 
12, 1914, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, Febmary 9, 1852 ; died 
in St. Paul, November 18, 1914. He came with his, parents to» 



Minnesota in 1859 ; was graduated at the University of ^linne- 
sota, 1878; was superintendent of schools in Owatonna three 
years ; settled in St. Paul, 1883 : studied law, and Avas admitted 
to the bar; during many years, 1886-1912, was successively 
principal of the Humboldt High School, the Central High 
School, and the Madison School. 

Augustus R. Capkhart^ elected a corresponding member 
May 8, 1905, was born in Georgia in 1836 ; settled in St. Paul in 
1856 ; practiced law and dealt in real estate ; removed to Phoe- 
nix, Arizona, in 1905 ; and died there, December 8, 1912. 

Theodore G. Carter was born in Allegany county, N. Y.. 
in February, 1832 ; and died in St. Peter, Minn., August 7, 1914. 
He came to Minnesota in 1856; two years later settled in St. 
Peter, and Avas cashier in a bank ; served in the Seventh ]Minne- 
sota regiment in the civil Avar, attaining the rank of captain; 
afterAA^ard engaged in real estate and insurance business; AA-as 
elected to life mem1)ership in this Society May 10, 1897. 

James Erwin Child, elected to annual membership Febru- 
ary 12, 1906, AA-as born in Jefferson county, N. Y., December 19, 
1833 ; and died in Waseca, Minn., January 25, 1912. He came 
to Minnesota in 1855, settling in "Wilton, removed to AYaseca in 
1868 ; was a laAA^yer and ncAvspaper editor ; a representative in 
the state legislature, 1861, 1874, and 1883; a state senator in 
1872; Prohibition candidate for governor in 1886; author of 
History of Waseca County," 848 pages, 1905. 

Simeon P. Child, elected a life member December 11, 
1899, Avas born in Ohio in 1836; and died at his home near 
Shakopee, Minn., ]\lay 26, 1912. He came to Minnesota in 1855. 
settling in Waseca county ; served in the Indian and civil Avars : 
removed to Blue Earth City, 1866, to St. Paul, 1892, and to a 
farm near Shakopee, 1900; Avas a representative in the legis- 
lature, 1872-3 and 1877, and a state senator, 1874-5. 



Francis Byron Clarke, elected a life member November 
13, 1882, was born in :\Iadison county, N. Y., July 1, 1839 ; and 
died in Portland, Oregon, April 21, 1911. He settled in St. Paul 
in 1871 ; was in the employ of the AYest AVisconsin railway 
company; later was traffic manager of the Great Northern rail- 
way, and in 1905 removed to Oregon. 

Eugene B. Crane, elected an annual member January 9, 
1911, was born in Sharon, Ohio, November 1, 1810 ; was grad- 
uated in law ai the University of Michigan, 1866 ; came to Min- 
nesota in 1870, settling at Austin; removed to Minneapolis in 
1902 ; died at Ocean Park, California, November 4, 1912. 

Frank Bertine Daugherty, contractor, elected to life 
membership September 14, 1903, was born in Rosendale, AYis., 
June 7, 1850; died in Pine City, Minn., June 8, 1911. He set- 
tled in Duluth in 1878; was a state senator, 1891-3 and 1899- 

Thomas Hunter Dickson, elected to annual membership 
December 14, 1908, was born in Philadelphia, Pa., December 4, • 
1840; died in St. Paul, May 14, 1912. He came to Alinnesota 
in 1880, settling in St. Paul; was freight agent of the Great 
Northern railway, 1880-1901, and later of the Northern Pacific 

Reuben Thomas Durrett, elected a corresponding mem- 
ber February S, 1897, was born in Henry county, Kentucky, 
Jan. 22, 1824 ; died in Louisville, Ky., September 16, 1913. He 
was graduated at Brown University, 1849, and in law at the 
University of Louisville, 1850, where he settled in law practice ; 
was founder of the Filson Club, 1884, and was through his life 
its president and supporter of its very valuable historical publi- 

Richmond Pearl Everett, corresponding member, elected 
December 10, 1894, was born in Providence, R. L, September 6, 
1826, and resided there, engaging in mercantile business; was 



treasurer of the Rhode Island Historical Society thirty-five 
years, 1867-1902; died at a sanitarium in Attleboro, Mass., 
March 9, 1910. 

Henry Shields Fairchild was born in "Warren county, 
Ohio, August 18, 1826 ; died in St. Paul, September 18. 1913. 
He came to Minnesota in 1857, settling in St. Paul, where he 
engaged through his life in real estate business. He aided 
greatly in securing for the state the site of the new capitol and 
the state fair ground. He was elected a life member of this 
Society November 13, 1882; was a member of the Executive 
Council from January 8, 1894, until his death ; author of 
''Sketches of the Early History of Real Estate in St. Paul," 
M. H. S. Collections, vol. X, 1905, pages 417-443, with his por- 

George R. Finch, elected to life membership November 13, 
1882, was born in Delaware, Ohio, September 24, 1839 ; died in 
St. Paul, June 1, 1910. He came to Minnesota in 1863, settling 
in this city, and engaged in wholesale dry goods business. After 
1888 he was the senior member of his firm, its corporate name 
for many years being Finch, Van Slyck, Young, and Company. 

Alcee Fortier^ elected to honorary membership April 8, 
1907, was born in St. James Parish, La., June 5, 1856; died in 
New Orleans, February 14, 1914. He w^as educated at the Uni- 
versity of Virginia and in New Orleans ; was professor of 
Romance languages, Tulane University, from 1880 through his 
life; author of many historical works, including the History of 
Louisiana, four volumes, 1904. 

FIenry Gannett, elected an honorary member March 11, 
1907, was born at Bath, Maine, August 24, 1846 ; died in AYash- 
ington, D. C, November 5, 1914. He was graduated at the 
Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard University, 1869; was 
topographer in surveys of the Territories by Dr. F. V. Hayden, 
1872-79; Avas geographer of the censuses of 1880, '90, and 1900, 
and of the U. S. Geological Survey after 1882, through his life; 
author of many reports on geography and statistics. 



Charles Bhnajah Gilbert, elected a life member March 
10, 1800, was born in Wilton, Conn., March 9, 1855 ; died in 
New York City, August 27, 1913. He was graduated from 
Williams College, 1876 ; came to Minnesota in 1878, and taught 
in Mankato and AVinona ; settled in St. Paul in 1883 ; was prin- 
cipal of the high school six years, and superintendent of the 
city schools, 1889-96 ; removed to Rochester, N. Y., and later to 
New York City; author and editor of many educational books. 

Joseph Alexander Gileillax, elected a life member ]\[arch 
■8, 1897, was born near Londonderry, Ireland, October 23, 1838 ; 
died in New York City, November 20, 1913. lie came to Min- 
nesota in 1857 ; studied at the General Theological Seminary, 
New York, 1865-9 ; was Episcopal rector in Duluth and Brain- 
erd, and later was missionary to the Ojibway Indians in north- 
ern Minnesota, 1873-98: removed to Washington, D. C. ; author 
of '^The Ojibway, a Novel of Indian Life," 157 pages, 1904. 

Earle S. Goodrich was born in Genesee county, N. Y., 
July 27, 1827; and died in St. Paul, September 6, 1913. He 
studied law, and learned the printer's trade; came to Minne- 
sota in 1854, settling in St. Paul; purchased The Pioneer, and 
in May, 1854, began its issue as the first daily newspaper of 
Minnesota Territory; was commissioned as a captain in the 
Civil War; later was manager of the St. Paul Gas Company, 
and engaged in railroad construction. He was elected to this 
Historical Society on January 15, 1856; was a member of its 
Council from March 21, 1856, to February 16, 1864, and again 
from Januar}' 20, 1879, to November 11, 1889. 

Halsev R. Hall, elected a life member March 9, 1903. 
was born in Hudson, Ohio, August 3, 1834; died in Minneapolis, 
July 17, 1913. He engaged in newspaper work throughout his 
life, being in Ohio until 1882, except the year 1870 in St. Paul. 
After 1882 he resided in this city, but in 1905 removed to ^Un- 
neapolis. In 1902 he presented to this Society 90 bound vol- 
umes of newspapers, 1850-80, which had been published by his 
fatlier and liimself in Pavenna, Ohio. 


OsEE Matsox Hall, elected a life member April 13, 1908, 
was bom in Conneaut, Ohio, September 10, 1817 ; died in St. 
Paul, November 26, 1911. He settled in Red AVing, }^Iinn., in 
1868; was admitted to practice law in 1872; was a state sen- 
ator, 1885 ; representative in Congress, 1891-5 ; member of tiie 
Minnesota Tax Commission from 1907 until his death. 

Herbert Leslie Haydex, elected to membership November 
13, 1911, was born in Onondaga county, N. Y., March 23, 1850 ; 
and died in ^Madison, ]\Iinn., November 20, 1911. He came to 
Minnesota in 1875 ; settled in Lac qui Parle in 1878 ; was ad- 
mitted to practice law, 1881; removed to ^Madison, 1884, and 
was secretary and treasurer of the townsite company ; was 
county attorney of Lac qui Parle county, 1891-2 and 1895-6. 

Hexrv Williamsox Hayxes, elected to honorary member- 
ship February 8, 1897, was born in Bangor, Maine, September 
20, 1831 ; was graduated at Harvard University, 1851 ; prac- 
ticed law, and afterward was professor in the University of 
Vermont, 1867-72 ; later was an explorer and writer in archae- 
ology, and resided in Boston, Mass., where he died February 
16, 1912. 

Isaac D. Heard, elected a life member October 11, 1889, 
was born in Goshen, N. Y„ August 31, 1834, and died there on 
June 17, 1913. He came to St. Paul in 1851, and resided here 
forty-three years : studied law, and w^as city attorney, 1856 and 
1865-7, and county attorney, 1857-63; was a state senator in 
1871 ; removed east, on account of ill health, in 1891. He served 
in a cavalry compam^ during the Sioux war, 1862, and was 
judge advocate at the trial of 303 Sioux prisoners; author of 
''History of the Sioux ^Var and Massacres of 1862 and 1863,'^ 
354 pages, 1863. 

Rev. J. C. Herdmax, of Calgary, Alberta, was elected a 
corresponding member January 13, 1902 ; was superintendent 
of Presbyterian Home ^Missions, and a vice president of the 
Western Canada Historical Society; died June 7, 1910. 


Sheldon Jackson, elet'ted a corresponding member Feb- 
ruary 8, 1897, was born in Minaville, N. Y., ^lay 18, 1834 ; died 
in Asbeville, X. C. ^lay 2, 1909. He was graduated from Union 
University, ISoo, and Pi-ineeton Theological Seminary, 1858 : 
was pastor in ^^linnesota at La Crescent, 1859-64, and Rochester, 
1864-69 : went to Alaska in 1877, as the first Presbyterian mis- 
sionary there. In 1891-92 he introduced domestic reindeer into 
Alaska, 171 reindeer being imported in 1892 from Siberia. By 
further importations and the natural increase, the herd had 
grown in 1905 to 10.241 in number. He was the author of many 
published reports on education, missions, and economic condi- 
tions in Alaska. 

Edwin Amks Jaggard, elected a life member January 9, 
1911, was born in Altoona, Pa.. June 21, 1859; died in Hamil- 
ton, Bermuda. February 13, 1911. He was graduated at Dick- 
inson College. 1879, and in law at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, 1882 ; settled at St. Paul in 1882 ; was a member of the 
law^ faculty of the University of ^linnesota after 1891 ; was 
judge in the Second judicial district, 1899-1904, and associate 
justice of the Supreme Court from 1905 until his death; was 
author of several text books on law. 

Daniel S. B. Johnston, elected an annual member Feb- 
ruary 8, 1897, was born in South Bainbridge, N. Y., May 17. 
1832; died at his liome in St. Paul, November 17, 1914. He 
came to ^Minnesota in 1855; settled in St. Anthony, and en- 
gaged in teaching and newspaper publication ; resided in St. 
Paul after 1864, conducting loan and real estate business; was 
donor of the site of the Young AVomen's Christian Association 
building in this eity, 1907. He Avas author of ^Minnesota Jour- 
nalism in the Territorial Period." this Society's Collections, 
vol. X, 1905, pages 247-351, with his portrait; the continuation 
of this subject to 1865, vol. XII, 1908, pages 183-262; and a 
paper in the preceding pages 411-434 of this volume. 

William Harris Laird, elected a life member January 11, 
1904, was born in Union county, Pa., February 24, 1833; died 



at a hospital in Baltimore, ^Id., February 5, 1910. He came to 
Minnesota in 1855, settling in Winona, and in the firm of Laird, 
Norton and Co., formed in 1856, engaged extensively in lum- 
bering and lumber manufacturing. He was donor of the Public 
Library building in Winona, and president of the trustees of 
Carleton College. 

Joseph LockeY; elected to annual membership December 
11, 1899, was born in Yorkshire, England, January 1, 1S3G ; 
died in St. Paul, March 4, 1909. He came with his parents to 
the LTnited States Avhen six years old; settled in ^Minnesota in 
1860 as a merchant at Lake City; served in tlie Sixth IMinne- 
sota regiment during the Sioux war, 1862-3 ; was U. S. deputy 
commissioner of pensions, 1870-6: national bank examiner, 
1876-83; cashier and later president of the National German 
American Bank of St. Paul, 1883-1903 ; president of the Amer- 
ican National Bank after 1903. 

Thomas Lowry, elected a life member November 13, 1882. 
was born in Logan county, 111., February 27, 1813; died in ^lin- 
neapolis, February 4, 1909. He was admitted to the' bar in 
1867, and the same year came to Minnesota, settling in Min- 
neapolis, where he practiced law and dealt in real estate : was 
president and principal stockowner of the company operating 
the street railways of Minneapolis and St. Paul, called the 
Twin City Rapid Transit Company; author of "Personal Remi- 
niscences of Abraham Lincoln," privately printed, 32 pages. 

Alfred Thayer Mahan, elected an honorary member Jan- 
uary 9, 1911, was born in "West Point, N. Y., September 27, 
1840; died in Washington, D. C, December 1, 1914. He vcus 
graduated at the U. S. Naval Academy, 1859 ; served in the V. 
S. Navy, 1856-96, rising to the rank of captain in 1885; retired 
in 1896, and later resided in or near New York City; was ad- 
vanced to tlie rank of rear admiral in 1906 ; author of many his- 
torical and biographic works, chiefly on naval defence and war- 



Robert Laird McCormick, elected an honorary member 
January 13, 1902, was born near Lockhaven, Pa., October 29, 
1847 ; died in Sacramento, Cal., February 5, 1911. He was con- 
nected with the Laird-Norton Lumber Co.. of "Winona, Minn., 
1868-74 ; removed to AVaseca ; was a state senator, 1881 ; later 
was manager of tlie North AYiseonsin Lumber Co., residing at 
PTayward, Wis. ; was president of the AYiseonsin Historical So- 
-ciety; removed to Tacoma, AVash., in 1900, and was secretary 
-of the AYeyerhaeuser Lumber Co. He went to California, seek- 
ing health, a few weeks before his death, 

Charles Jairus Martin, elected to life membership Sep- 
tember 10, 1900, Avas born in Clarendon. N. Y., April 1, 1842 ; 
died June 15, 1910. He served in the 40th Wisconsin regiment 
in the Civil AYar ; came to Alinnesota in 1874, settling at Min- 
neapolis as a partner of C. C. AYashburn in flour milling; was 
■secretary and tt-easurer of the Yv^ashburn-Crosby Co. from its 
incorporation in 1888. 


George Wasiiingtox Martin, elected to corresponding 
membership February 12, 1906, was born in Ilollidaysburg, Pa., 
June 30, 1841: died in Topeka. Kansas, March 27. 1914. He 
learned the printer's trade, and began in that business at Junc- 
tion City, Kansas, in 1862 ; was register of the U. S. Land 
Office there, 1865-6 and 1869-70: was state printer, 1873-81; 
was secretary of tlic Kansas Historical Society, residing in To- 
peka, after 1899. 

Secretary IMartin will be long remembered with gratitude and 
honor by the people of Kansas, for his work as an editor, for his 
many contributions to tlie history of the state, and for his suc- 
cessful efforts, witli others, in providing the new Memorial 
Building, at a cost of about .$500,000, in which are housed tlie 
Historical Library, the state archives, and files of all the state 

William Worrall Mayo, elected a life member September 
11, 1905, was born in Manchester, p:nghind. May 31, 1819; died 
in Rochester, ^linn., IMarch 6, 1911. He was graduated in med- 


iciiie at the University of ^lissouri, 1854 ; came to Minnesota in 
1854, and settled at St. Paul ; removed in 1858 to Le Sueur 
county; was surgeon at New Ulm in the Indian war, 1862; later 
resided in Rochester, and in 1889 founded St. Mary's Hospital; 
was a state senator, 1891-3. 

Fr-\ncis Davis !\IiLLET, artist, elected a corresponding- 
member April 8, 1907, was born in Mattapoisett, ]Mass., No- 
vember 3, 184-6 ; died in the sinking of the steamship ''Titanic," 
North Atlantic ocean, April 15, 1912. He was graduated at 
Harvard University, 1869 ; studied at the Royal Academy of 
Fine Arts, Antwerp, 1871-2; was the painter, in 1905-07, of two- 
large paintings in the governor's reception room of the capitoL 
"The Treaty of Traverse des Sioux," and "The Fourth ^^lin- 
nesota Regiment entering Yicksburg. " 

William A. AIorix, elected to annual membership Febru- 
ary 10, 1908, was born in Albert Lea, Minn., July 29, 18G4 : 
died ^lay 22, 1912. He was graduated at Pillsbury Academy. 
Owatonna, 1884; engaged in real estate business, residing in 
Albert Lea, and was prominent in securing railroads and pub- 
lic buildings for that town. 

Clinton Morrison, elected a life member January 13, 1908. 
was born in Livermore, ]\Iaine, January 21. 1842; died in 
Minneapolis, r^Iarch 11, 1913. lie came to Minnesota in 1854 
with his parents, and resided in ^Minneapolis ; engaged in mer- 
cantile, lumber and banking enterprises; was vice president 
and manager of the ^Minneapolis Harvester Works; was presi- 
dent of the Farmers' and Mechanics' Savings Bank, 1876-1905: 
donor, in 1911, of the former homestead of ]iis father, Dorilus 
Morrison, comprising ten acres, as the site of the Minneapolis 
Institute of Arts. 

John Mcir, elected to honorary membership January 12. 
1914, was born in Dun))ar, Scotland, April 21, 1838; died in 
Los Angeles* California, December 24, 1914. He came in boy- 
hood to the United States with liis parents, who settled on a 
frontier farm in Wisconsin ; studied at the University of AVis- 



consin; traveled extensively in the Pacific states, Alaska, and 
foreign lands; resided during his latest years in Martinez, Cal. ; 
author of books and many magazine articles, treating of natural 
history, scenery, forest preservation, and the establishment of 
national parks. 

Marcus Philip Xiciiols, elected an annual member De- 
cember 12, 1910, was born at :Mt. Carmel, 111., May 28, 183G : 
died in St. Paul. October 7, 1911. He came to ^Minnesota witli 
his parents in 1851, and ever afterward resided in this city; 
was much interested in Congregational home missionary work. 

John D. O'Brien was born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1851 ; 
died at Fort Snelling, April 27, 1913. He came to Minnesota 
with his fatlier, Dillon O'Brien, in ]863, and resided in St. Paul 
after 1865 ; was admitted to the bar in 1873, and practiced 
law; was elected a life member of this Society September 14, 
1903, and was a member of its council from April 11, 1904, until 
his death. 

George Wright Peavey, elected to life membership Sep- 
tember 8, 1902, was born in Sioux City, Iowa, May 20, 1877 : 
died in Minneapolis, June 8, 1913. He studied at Yale Uni- 
versity; was president of the Peavey Elevator Company, wiiich 
his father founded, 1902-07; later traveled extensively in the 
Old AVorld. 

Curtis Hussev Pettit, elected a life member November 

11, 1907, was born in Hanover, Ohio, September 18, 1833; died 
in Minneapolis May 11, 1914. He came to Minnesota in 1855, 
settling in Minneapolis; was interested in the manufacture of 
lumber and tlour, and in other large business enterprises ; was 
a state senator in 1866 and 1868-71, and a representative in the 
legislature in 1874-6 and 1887. 

David Ramaley, elected to annual membership January 

12, 1914, was born in Pittsburg, Pa., August 9, 1828; died at 
his home in St. Paul, August 21, 1914. He settled in this city 
in 1856; opened the first job printing office there, 1862; was 
founder, with Harlan P. Hall, of the St. Paul Dispatch, lA-l)- 
ruary 29, 1868. 


Henry Clay Raxnkv, elected a corresponding: member 
December 9, 1895, was born in Freedom, Ohio, June 1, 1829: 
died October 7, 1913. He was admitted to practice law in 
1852 ; served in the civil war ; settled in Cleveland, Ohio, and 
was prominent in railway management and banking; was a 
trustee of the Western Reserve Historical Society, and presi- 
dent of the Cleveland Museum of Art. 

Leonard August Rosing, elected a life member December 
12, 1904, was born in Malmo, Sweden, August 29, 1861 ; died 
in St. Paul, April 14, 1909. He came to Goodhue county, ^lin- 
nesota, with his parents, in 1869 ; engaged in mercantile busi- 
ness at Cannon Falls, 1881-98; was private secretary of Gov- 
ernor Lind, 1899-1901 ; Democratic candidate for Governor, 
1902 ; member of the State Board of Control, 1905-09, residing 
in St. Paul. 

Theodore Leopold Schurmeier, elected a life member 
January 13, 1902, was born in St. Louis, Mo., IMarcli 14, 1852 ; 
died in Richmond, Va., June 2, 1914. He came with his par- 
ents to St. Paul when only two years old; was a member of 
one of the largest mercantile firms in the city, and had many 
other financial interests. 

DoLSON Bush Searle, elected a life member June 11, 1883. 
was born in Allegany, N. Y., June 4, 1841; died in St. Cloud, 
Minn., December 12, 1909. He served in the civil war; was 
graduated at the Columbia Law College, ATashington, D. C. 
1868; settled in St. Cloud, Minn., 1871; was city attorney six 
years, county attorney two years, and U. S. district attorney, 
1882-85 ; was judge of the seventh judicial district, 1887-1907. 

Timothy J. Sheehan, elected to annual membership April 
11, 1898, was born in County Cork, Ireland, December 21, 1835; 
died at his home in St. Paul, July 11, 1913. He came to tlie 
United States in 1850, and to :\Iinnesota in 1856, settling at 
Albert Lea; served in the Fourth ]Minnesota regiment, 1861-5: 
received a captain's commission for his gallant defence of Fort 
Ridgely during the Sioux outbreak in 1862, and was brevettcd 
lieutenant colonel in 1865; was sheriff of Freeborn county, 


1871-83, and Indian agent at AVhite Earth, 1885-9 ; was deputy 
U. S. Marshal, 1890-1907, residing in St. Paul. 

Thomas Henry Shevlin, elected to life membership Oc- 
tober 8, 1906, was born in Albany, N, Y., January 3, 1852; died 
in Pasadena, Cal., January 15, 1912. He came to ^linnesota 
in 1886, settling in [Minneapolis; was president of several log- 
ging and lumber manuafacturing companies; donor of the 
Alice A. Shevlin Hall, University of ^linnesota, built in 1906. 

GoLDwiN Smith, elected an honorary member February 8, 
1897, was born in Reading, England, August 13, 1823 ; died in 
Toronto, Canada, June 7, 1910. He was graduated at Oxford 
University, 1845 ; was professor of modern history in that Uni- 
versity, 1858-66 ; removed to the United States in 1867 ; was 
professor of English and constitutional history in Cornell Uni- 
versity, 1868-71 ; later was a non-resident professor there, re- 
siding in Toronto"; author of many historical works. 

Robert Armstrong Smith, banker, elected to life member- 
ship December 11, 1882, was born in Boonville, Ind., June 13, 
1827 ; died in St. Paul, February 12, 1913. He was graduated 
in law at the University of Indiana, 1850; came to Minnesota 
in 1853, settling in St. Paul ; was Territorial librarian, 1853-8 ; 
treasurer of Ramsey county, 1856-68; a representative in the 
legislature in 1885, and a state senator in 1887-9; mayor of St. 
Paul, 1888-92, 1894-96, and 1900-08; and postmaster, 1896-1900. 

Truman M. Smith, elected a life member January 15, 
18^6, was born in Danby, Vt., June 19, 1825 ; died in St. Paul, 
September 18, 1909. He settled in St. Paul in 1851 ; owned a 
private bank, and afterwards was a commission merchant; 
removed to San Diego, Cal., in 1887; returned to St. Paul a 
few weeks before his death. 

Samuel C. Staples, elected to annual membership Novem- 
ber 8, 1909, was born in Newfield, ^Maine, September 11, 1831 ; 
died in St. Paul, September 29, 1911. He came to Minnesota 
in 1852, and the next year he settled on a farm claim on the 
Dodd road close southwest of St. Paul, which was ever after- 
ward his home ; was a builder and contractor. 


H. Ward Stone, banker, elected a life member April 10, 
1905, was born in Wisconsin in 1849 ; died in Minneapolis, April 
7, 1913. He settled in Minnesota in 1870 : was receiver of the 
U. S. land office at Benson eight years, and later engaged in 
banking there ; was a representative in the legislature in 1897, 
and a state senator, 1903-05 ; removed to Minneapolis, 1910. 

Reuben Gold Thwaites, elected a corresponding member 
February 8, 1897, was born in Dorchester, Mass., ^lay 15, 1853 ; 
was educated in public schools there; studied at Yale Uni- 
versity, 1871-5; was managing editor of the ^Visconsin State 
Journal, Madison, 1876-86; secretary and superintendent of 
the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, after 1886; author 
of many books on the history of Wisconsin and the West ; 
editor of many important historical books and reprints, includ- 
ing the Jesuit Relations, 73 volumes, 1896-1901, Early Western 
Travels, 32 volumes, 1901-07, and the Original Journals of 
Lewis and Clark, 8 volumes, 1905. He died in Madison, Wis., 
October 22, 1913. 

Three times Thwaites and his wife made very interesting 
journeys, of which he wrote three books: "Historic Water- 
ways ; Six Hundred Miles of Canoeing down the Rock, Fox, 
and Wisconsin Rivers," journeys in 1887, published the next 
year; "Our Cj^cling Tour in England," travel in 1891, pub- 
lished in 1892; and "Afloat on the Ohio; a Historical Pilgrim- 
age of a Thousand Miles in a Skiff, from Redstone to Cairo," a, 
journey in ^lay and June, 1894, published in 1897, and re- 
printed in 1900 and 1903. 

Secretary Thwaites was the worthy successor of Secretary 
Draper, who was the great collector of manuscript materials for 
western history. In a memorial volume (91 pages, 1914), Pro- 
fessor Frederick J. Turner says of Dr. Thwaites: "Short in 
stature, but with a compelling personality, his cheery, winning 
spirit shining out behind his twinkling eyes, always ready with 
a joke or a story that impressed a point upon his hearers ; alert, 
decisive, receptive, helpful, a man of honor and of character, 
active in the Unitarian Church and trusted by the Catholic 
clergy ; an author whose sty-le was graphic, lively, and so care- 



fully disciplined that it concealed the care with which he 
worked out each sentence; a writer with imagination, a con- 
scientious scholar, and a man of affairs, Dr. Thwaites combined 

in himself most unusual qualities Draper was the 

founder; Thwaites was the great historical editor and mod- 
ernizer, the builder of a new type of state historical society." 

Through the enthusiasm, genius, and industry of these ex- 
pert workers in western American history, "Wisconsin has built 
up the foremost western historical society, library, portrait col- 
lection, and museum. Her noble and beautiful historical library 
building was erected in the middle years of the long service, 
more than a quarter of a century, of Dr. Thwaites as secretary 
and superintendent. It marks a new era in the collection, pres- 
ervation, and publication of history. 

James Beach Wakefield, elected to life membership Sep- 
tember 10, 1894, was born in Winsted, Conn., ^larcli 21, 1825 : 
and died at his home in Blue Earth, Minn.. August 26, 1910. 
He was graduated at Trinity College, Hartford, Conn., 181:6; 
was admitted to practice law, 1851 ; came to Minnesota in 1854, 
and settled two years later at Blue Earth ; was a representative 
in the legislature in 1858, 1863, and 1866, being speaker the 
last year; was a state senator, 1867-9; lieutenant governor, 
1876-80; and a member of Congress, 1883-7. In 1899 he pre- 
sented the greater part of his library to this Historical Society, 
a gift of 1,100 volumes, the largest private gift ever received by 
its Library, 

George Welsh, elected an annual member February 10, 
1908, was born in Ontario, Canada, in 1863 ; died in St. Paul, 
November 29, 1911. He came to jMinnesota, settling in Morton, 
and engaged in real estate business; was state immigration 
commissioner after 1907. 

MiLO White, elected a life member December 8, 1884, was 
barn in Fletcher, Yt., August 17, 1830; died in Chatficld, Minn., 
May 18, 1913. He came to Minnesota in 1855 ; settled in Chat- 
field, and engaged in mercantile business; was a state senator, 
1872-6, and 1881-2; and a representative in Congress, 1883-7. 


Oric Ogilvip: Whited, elected a life member March 11, 
1912, was born in Fitcliville, Ohio, January 20, 1854; died in 
Minneapolis, Auj^nst 6, 1012. He was graduated at the State 
Normal School, AVinona. ]^tinn., 1872; taught several years in 
Olmsted county, and later was the county superintendent of 
schools; was admitted to practice law, 1884; settled in Min- 
neapolis in 1890, and engaged in real estate business and law 

William Chapman Williston was born in Cheraw, S. C, 
June 22, 1830 ; came with his parents to Ohio in 1834, and there 
attended the public schools and in 1854 was admitted to the 
bar ; removed to ^Minnesota in 1857, settling in Red Wing, which 
\ was ever afterward his home ; served as captain in the Seventh 

Minnesota regiment in tlie Sioux war and the civil war, 1862-5 ; 
returned to Red AVing and to his law practice; was a represen- 
tative in the legislature. 1873-4, and a state senator, 1876-7; 
was judge in the First judicial district from 1891 through his 
life. Judge AVilliston was elected to life membership in this So- 
ciety January 12, 1903; and was a member of its council after 
March 12, 1906. He died very suddenly June 22, 1909, at 
Goodhue, ^linn., while attending a meeting of the Old Settlers^ 
Association of Goodhue county. 

Thomas Wilson, elected a life member October 13, 1902,, 
w^as born in Tyrone county, Ireland, May 16, 1827 ; died in St. 
Paul, April 3, 1910. He came to the United States when twelve 
years old; was graduated at Alleghany College, 1852; was 
admitted to practice law, 1855, at Meadville, Pa. ; came to ^Lin- 
nesota the same year, settling at Winona ; Avas a member of 
the constitutional convention, 1857; was judge of the Third 
judicial district, 1858-64; was associate justice of the Minne- 
sota Supreme Court in 1864, and its chief justice, 1865-69 ; was 
a representative in the legislature, 1881 ; a state senator, 1883-5 : 
and a representative in Congress, 1887-9 ; removed to St. Paul 
in 1892, and until his deatli was general counsel of the Chicago,. 
St. Paul, Minneapolis and Omaha railway company. 


See the Contexts, at the beginning of this volume, for a compre- 
hensive view of its series of Papers and Addresses, and for the order 
of the subjects treated in the several papers. 

Able, Captain Daniel, 529, 530. 
Aborigines of Minnesota, S24, 828. 
Academy of Music, Minneapolis, 

Acta et Dicta. Preface , 285, 791. 

Acton, Minn., beginning of the 
Sioux Massacre, 349-355; bat- 
tles, 355-366. 

Adam of Bremen, 230, 231. 

Adams, Col. Samuel E.. 162; obitu- 
ary sketch, S31. 

Addison, Mrs. Caroline H., 601. 

Address at the Unveiling of the 
Statue of General Shields, by 
Archbishop .John Ireland, 731- 

Addresses on the Presentation of 
the Portrait of Professor Jabez 
Brooks, 741-748. 

Afton, Minn., 375. 

Agassiz, Glacial Lake, 827. 

Agricultural College lands, 301, 302, 

Agricultural societies, 70-73, 79. 
Agriculture, College and School of, 

Aird, .James, 371. 
Aird, Margaret. 371, 372. 
Akeley, Healy C. 472, 474-8. 
Akeley, Minn., 477, 478. 
Alaska, reindeer, 839, 
Aldrich, Hon. Cyrus. 489. 494, 690, 


Allen, Charles E., obituary note, 831. 
Allouez bay. lake Superior, 385. 
Amendments of state constitution. 

203, 212. 214. 3uS. 309. 
American Fur Company, 372, 394. 
American Geologist, S26. 
American House, St. Paul, 523, 524, 


Ames, Dr. Alfred E., 480, 487, 507. 


Ames, Rev. Charles G., obituarv 

sketch, 831. 
Ames, Charles W., 752. 
Ames, Michael E. 815. 
Ames, Oliver, 337. 
Ames, William L.. 348. 
Anderson, Andrew, 278-280, 285. 
Anderson, Arthur C, obituarv 

sketch. 831. 
Anderson, Dr. C. L.. 504. 
Anderson, Jane. 372. 
Anderson, Prof. Rasmus B., 256, 277, 

278, 280, 283, 285. 
Anderson, Captain Thomas. 372. 
Andrews, Gen. C. C, 553, 555, 556. 


Annandale, Minn., 367. 
Anoka, 53, 54, 101, 219, 553, 554.- 
Anthony Wayne, steamer, 529, 53(t. 
Anti-Monopolist, newspaper, 155. 
162, 176. 

Anti-monopoly party. 126-129. 133. 
134, 136, 141, 142, 152, 158, 160. 

Appleby, Mrs. Cornelia D. W., 549. 

Apostle islands, 390. 

Areas, Minneapolis park system. 

605; St. Paul park system. 630. 
Arbitration, for publishers and 

printers, 703-706. 
Archaeology, 795, 796, 824. 827, 828,. 

832, 838. 
Armstrong. Hon. Augustus. 560. 
Armstrong, Hon. and INIrs. George 

W.. 549. 
Armstrong, J. D.. 706. 
Armstrong, John. 462. 
Armstrong, Hon. Thomas H., 561'. 
Art Museum, Minneapolis, 767. 769, 


Associated Press, 702. 



Athenaeum, Minneapolis, 494, 504, 

Atkinson, F. G., 771. 
Atkinson, J. B., 354. 
Atwater, Judge Isaac, 487, 488. 
Austin, Gov. Horace, 43, 86, 87, 95, 

96, 99, 101, 111, 114, 136, 148. 

175, 206, 207, 326, 446, 557. 558, 

560, 561, 563, 564, 566-8, 571, 695, 


Avenues and streets, Minneapolis, 

names, 513, 514. 
Averill, Gen. John T., 91, 557, 558, 

582, 597. 
Ayers, Dr. Otis, 326, 327-329. 

Bailey, Everett H., 812; Biographic 
memorial of Hon. Channing 
Seabury, 802-804; Memorial of 
Henry P. Upham, 810-811. 

Baker, Mrs. Ann, 350. 

Baker, Daniel A. J., 551; obituary 
sketch, 832. 

Baker, Hon. Edward D., 715. 

Baker, Howard, 350-354, 358, 360, 

Baker, Gen. James H., 481, 577-8, 
778, 814, 830; Biographic me- 
morials, 753-7. 

Balcombe. Hon. St. A. D., 815. 

Bald Eagle. Sioux, 361. 

Bandelier. Adolph F. A., obituary 
sketch, 832. 

Banfil, John, 525. 

Banking, St. Paul, 807, 812. 

Banks, Gen. Nathaniel P., 723. 

Bannack. Montana. 633, 634. 635. 

Banning, William L., 464, 493, 570, 
617, 619, 693. 

Barclay, Anthony, British commis- 
sioner, 380, 383, 385, 388. 

Barker, Hon. Henry F., 587. 

Barrett, Gen. Theodore H., 428, 430- 

Barto, -Hon. Alphonso, 559. 

Barton, Hon. Ara, 565. 

Bass, Jacob W., 519. 

Bass, :Mrs. Jacob W.. 539-540. 

Bassett, Joel B., 506. 

Batchelder, Hon. George W., obitu- 
ary sketch, 832. 

Batchellor, Albert S., obituary 
sketch, 832. 

Bausman, A. L., 504. 

Baxter, Hon. Luther L., 559, 560. 

Beard, Henry B., 602. 
Becker, Hon. George L., 218, 693, 

Beecher, Catherine, 532. 
Beeman, Hon. Samuel S.. 555, 559. 
Beginning of Railroad Building in 

Minnesota, by John H. Randall, 

Belanger island. 374. 
Bell, David €., 509. 
Bell, James S., 771. 
Bell, John E., 509; obituarv sketch, 


BeUe Plaine, Minn., 6S8, 689. 

Benton, Hon. Thomas H., 717. 

■Benz, Hon. George. 559. 560. 

Berkey, Captain Peter, obituary 
sketch, 833. 

Berry, Hon. John M.. 759. 

Berry, William M., 608. 

Bibliography, railroad legislation, 
183-188; Kensington Rune 
Stone, 281-286; northern bound- 
ary of Minnesota. 390-392. 

Bierbauer, Captain William, 326. 

Big Eagle, Sioux chief, 351. 

Big Thunder. Sioux. 373. 

Big Woods, 220, 350, 351. 

Bigelow, Charles H., obituary 
sketch, 833. 

Bigelow, Horace E., 807. 

Biographic Memorial of Dr. Charles 
N. Hewitt, bv Prof. William W. 
Folwell, 669-6S6. 

Biographic ^Memorial of Frederick 
Driscoll, by Captain Henry A. 
Castle, 687-710. 

Birch Coulie, 358, 359, 361, 365. 

Bishop, Harriet E., 520, 531, 532, 

Bishop, Gen. Judson W., 465, 721. 

Bissell, William A., 374, 375, 376. 

Bixby, Hon. Tams, 584. 

Black Dog, Sioux, 366, 371, 373. 

Black Hills, 825. 

Blackbirds, 438. 

Blackman, Clara W. A., obituary 

sketch, 833. 
Blackwell, John, 353. 
Blaine, Hon. James G., 573, 574, 57.', 

584, 585, 586, 663. 
Blake, John D., 109. 12S, 137, 141. 
Blake. Hon. John W.. 559. 
Blakeley, Hon. David, 701. 
Blakeley, Captain Russell, 392, 571, 




Blizzards, 415, 416, 426, 551-2. 
Blue Earth county, 436-8, 443, 449. 
Blue Earth river, 436, 438, 449. 
Bluff City, Kansas, park, 599. 
Bogy, Hon. Lewis V., 726, 733. 
Bois des Sioux river, 412, 419-422, 

Bolles, Lemuel, 375. 

Bonds issued by the state for rail- 
roads, 32, 35-49, 195-214, 305, 

Borup, Dr. Charles W. W., 542. 

Borup and Oakes, 484. 

Bothne, Prof. Gisle, 256, 268, 286. 

Bottineau, Pierre and Charles, 411- 
416, 417, 418, 420-423. 

Bottineau prairie, 505. 

Boulevards, Minneapolis and St. 
Paul, 604, 605, 622-630. 

Boundary Surveys, Northern Min- 
nesota, in 1822 to 1826, under 
- the Treaty of Ghent, by Hon. 
William E. Culkin. 379-392. 

Bovey, Charles C, and William H., 
771, 773. 

Bowman, George D., 487, 488. 

Boyhood Remembrances of Life 
among the Dakotas and the 
Massacre in 1862. by John Ames 
Humphrey. 337-348. 

Bozeman, John M., 643, 

•Bozeman pass, Montana, 642. 

Brackett, George A., 571, 572. 

Braden, Hon. William W., 297, 298. 

Bradley. Newton. 690. 

Brainerd and Northern railway, 477. 

Bramwood, J. W.. 704. 

Branham, Jesse V., Jr., 359, 360, 361, 
362, 366. 

Breck, Rev. James Lloyd, 526. 536. 
Breckenridge, :*Iinn., 220, 419, 421, 

422, 428, 431, 432, 433, 434. 
Breckinridge, Hon. John C, 717, 


Breda, Prof. O. J., 225, 242. 244, 256, 
281, 284. 

Breed. Rev. David R., 693; Memo- 
rial of Nathaniel P. Langford, 

Breese, Hon. Sidney. 717. 

Bremer, Fredrika, 532-3. 

Bridger, James, guide. 639. 

Brill, Hon. Hascal R.. 559, 561; Ad- 
dress on the Presentation of 
the portrait of Professor Jabez 
Brooks, 741-3. 

Bridge, first, in Minneapolis, 501; 

second, 512. 
Broad, E., 512. 

Bromley, Edward A., 364, 365, 497. 

Brookline, Mass., parkway, 606. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., lecture by General 
Shields, 727. 

Brooks, Rev. Cyrus. 744. 

Brooks, Rev. David. 745. 

Brooks, Professor Jabez, Addresses 
on the Presentation of his Por- 
trait, 741-748. 

Brott, George F., 411, 433, 434. 

Brower, Hon. J. V., 320, 392, 559, 

Brown, Ed., 467. 

Brown, Hon. J. B., 689. 

Brown, John W., 373. 

Brown, Hon. Joseph R., 197, 372, 

377, 480. 
Brown, Hon. William, 168. 
Brown's falls, 480. - 
Browning, Hon. Orville H., 715. 
Brownsdale, Minn., 125. 
Bryant, Julian C, obituary sketch, 


Buache, geographer, 389. 
Buchanan, President James, 720. 
Buckendorf, William, 507. 
Buell, Major Salmon A., 326. 
Buffalo hunting, 415-422, 428-430, 

431, 451. 
Bulger, James, 510. 
Bull. B. S.. 506. 

Burbank, James C, 615, 693. 802. 
Burlington Heights, near St. Paul, 

Burr, Judge W. T., 581. 
Bushnell, W., 715. 

Butler, Gen. Benjamin F., 725, 726. 
Butler, Eloise, 604. 
Butler, Dr. Levi, 466, 470, 471, 472, 

Butler, Nathan. 363, 795. 
Byron, quoted. 649. 

Calhoun, Hon. John C, 394, 717, 736. 

Calhoun, Samuel, 615. 

California, lumbering, 463, 474. 477; 

national parks, 666; admission 

to Union, 717, 718, 736. 
Camden park, Minneapolis, 603. 
Camp, Major George A., 471-473. 
Canals, proposed, 149-151, 162, 173, 





Canoe travel, 247, 248, 251, 320, 384, 

385, 386, 432. 
Canyon, Yellowstone, 645, 646, 658, 


Capehart, Augustus R., obituary 

sketch, 834. 
Capitol, 788; statue of General 

Shields, 729, 731-740; paintings 

in the governor's room, S42. 
Capitol Commission, 803, 804. 
Capitol grounds and Capitol 

Heights, St. Paul, 629, 836. 
Capitol, Old, 788. 
Cardinal, Peter, 322. 
Carle, Frank A., 701. 
Carleton College, 801. 
Carr, Jerome, 731. 
Carrollton, Mo., 724, 725, 728, 729, 


Carter, Captain Theodore G., obitu- 
ary sketch, 834. 

Carver, Hon, Henry L., 557, 

Carver, Captain .Jonathan, 320, 624; 
quoted, 621. 

Case, George, 493. 

Case, James R., 378. 

Case, John H., Historical Notes of 
Grey Cloud Island and its Vi- 
cinity, 371-378. 

Cass, Hon. Lewis, 503, 717. 

Castle, Captain Henry A., Reminis- 
cences of Minnesota Politics, 
553-598; personal references, 
553, 554, 557, 559, 560, 565. 571, 
576, 584, 586, 587, 588, 589-598. 
730; testimonial by Hon. R. J. 
Tracewell, 596; Biographic Me- 
morial of Frederick Driscoll, 
687-710; paper, General James 
Shields, Soldier, Orator, States- 
man, 711-730. 

Cathcart, Alexander H., 527, 535, 
536, 537, 

Cathcart, John, 551. 

Cathcart, Mrs. Rebecca Marshall, A 
Sheaf of Remembrances, 515- 

Catholic Historical Society, St. 

Paul, Preface, 285. 
Catlin, Dr. T. J., 338. 
Catlin, George, artist, 267. 
Cedar lake, :Minneapolis, 603. 
Cedar Mills, 358. 362. 
Census of 1890, 699, 700, 836. 

Centerville, Minn., Early Dakota 
Trails and Settlements, by Al- 
bert M. Goodrich, 315-322. 

Central House, St. Paul, 524, 531. 

Central Park, St. Paul, 613. 

Chain lakes, Martin county, 449; 
Crow Wing river, 478. 

Chamberlain, Selah, 40. 44. 46, 47, 
204, 206, 208, 210, 214, 216, 217, 

Chanyaska lake, 448, 450. 
Chapman, Joseph, 771. 
Chapman, W. S., 462, 463. 
Chapultepec, Mexican War, 715, 716, 

Charities, 768-773, 799, 808. 813. 
Charters, Territorial, of railroads, 
5-29, 64. 

Chase, Hon. Salmon P., 717, 753. 
Chechegum, a Chippewa, 467, 468. 
Cheever, William A., 498. 
Cheever's landing, 533-4. 
Chengwatana, 465. 
Chequamegon, Wis.. 317. 
Cherokee Heights, St. Paul, 626. 
Chicago Historical Society, 284. 
Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul 

railroad company, 120, 129, 130, 

153, 154, 310. 
Child, Hon. James E., obituary 

sketch, 834. 
Child, Hon. Simeon P., 559, 561; 

obituary sketch, 834. 
Chippewa Indians; see Ojibways. 
Chippewa scrip, 465. 
Chittenden, Gen. H. M., 658, 661, 


Cholera epidemic, 1832. 517. 
Christian, George H., 488. 
Christiania, University, 285, 286. 
Churches, early, in St. Paul, 526, 
534, 541. 

Civil War, 1861-65, 455, 484, 496, 505. 

506, 507, 512, 535, 632, 670-672. 

689, 694, 722-4, 728, 733, 738. 753. 

757, 777, 778. 
Clagett, John R., 762. 
Clagett, Hon. William H., 661-665; 

letter to this Historical Society. 


Clapp, Hon. Moses E.. 5S4, 593. 
Clapp. Newel H., Memorial of Fred- 
erick Weyerhaeuser, 817-824. 
Clark, Hon. Charles H., 512, 559. 
Clark, Hon. Greenleaf, 577, 787. 
Clark, Joseph H., 505. 



Clark, Lieut. W. A., 362, 365. 
Clarke, Francis B., obituary sketch, 

Clarke, Nehemiah P., 757. 
Clarke, Hon Ziba B., 585, 586. 
Clay, Henry, statesman, 717, 736. 

Clearwater, Minn., 358. 
Clearwater river, northern Minn., 

Cleveland, President Grover, 591, 

592, 805, 826. 
Cleveland, Horace W. S., 608. 
Clough, Gov. David M., 593, 684, 


Cobb, Rev. Daniel, 744. 
Cochran, Thomas, 693. 
Co-education, 801. 
Coffin, Captain Samuel. 326. 
Coggswell, Hon. Amos, 152, 169, 

693, 815. 
Goldberg, Lars, 222. 
Cole. Hon. Gordon E., 693. 
Coleman, Mr. and Mrs. Thomas W., 


Coleraine, Minn., 467. 
Colfax, Hon. Schuyler, 814. 
Coliseum, University of Minnesota, 

Collins, Hon. Loren W., 554, 596; 
Biographic memorial, by Hon. 
Colin F. Macdonald, 757-762; 
Memorial of David L. Kings- 
bury, 779-780. 

Columbia Fur Company, 480. 

Columbia Park. Minneapolis, 604. 

Como Avenue Parkway and Boule- 
vard, St. Paul, 625, 626. 

Como Park, St. Paul. 614-619, 624, 
625, 630. 

Comstock, Hon. Solomon G., 591. 
Conkling, J. C. 715. 
Connecticut, railroad legislation, 

Conner, E. H., 501. 
Connor's point, Superior, Wis., 385, 

Constitution, state, amendments, 

203, 212, 214. 
Constitutional Convention, 9, 184, 

214, 292, 403, SOI, 814, 815, 832, 


Control of railroads, attempted, 

1861-1870, 61-70. 
Cook, C. W., 640. 
Cook, Mrs. John B., 546. 

Cooke, Elbridge C. 771. 
Cooke, Jay, 131. 

Coolbaugh, Daniel M., 482, 487, 492. 

Coolbaugh, Rev. Frank C., Reminis- 
cences of the Early Days of 
Minnesota, 1851 to 1861, 479- 

Cooley, Thomas M., quoted, 179, 

Cooper, Hon. David, 197. 

Cooper, James Fenimore. 490. 

Cornell, Hon. F. R. E., 558, 693. 

Cornish. Hon. William D., 559. 

Coteau des Prairies, 417. 

Court House Square, St. Paul, 610. 

Cowen, Gen. B. R.. 667. 

Cowper, quoted, 655. 

Cox, Hon. E. St. Julien, 140, 333, 

559. 560. 
Crandall, Hon. Charles S., 141. 
Crandall, James H., 365. 
Crane, Eugene B., obituary sketch, 


Cranes, sandhill, 438. 

Crary, Rev. Benjamin F., 744. 

Cray, Hon. Lorin, Experiences in 
Southwestern Minnesota, 1859 
to 1867, 435-454; Biographic me- 
morial of Gen. James H. Baker, 

Credit Mobilier, 132. 

Cretin, Bishop Joseph, 783, 791. 

Crocker, William G., 771. 

Crooks, Col. William, 217. 219, 335. 

"Crooks, William," locomotive, 217, 

Crookston, Minn., 473. 

Crosby, Hon. Francis M,, Biographic 
memorial, by Edward C. String- 
er, 762-4. 

Crosby, Franklin M., 771. 

Crosby, John, 766. 771. 773. 

Crow Indians, 643. 

Crow Wing river and chain of 
lakes, 477. 478. 

Crows, 427. 

Culkin, Hon. William E., Northern 
Minnesota Boundary Surveys in 
1822 to 1826, under the Treaty 
of Ghent, 379-392. 

Cummins, D. C, 121. 

Cummins. Hiram, 370. 

Curme, Prof. George O.. 225. 242, 
244, 256, 281. 

Cushman, Charles M., 505, 509. 

Custer, Gen. George A., 356, 359. 



Dakota Indians; see Sioux. 

Dakota Trails, Early, and Settle- 
ments at Centerville, Minn., by 
Albert M. Goodrich, 315-322. 

Dakotas, Boyhood Remembrances 
of Life among the, and the 
Massacre in 1862, by John 
Ames Humphrey, 337-348. 

Dalarne, Sweden, 266, 276, 286. 

Dalecarlian runic alphabet, 266, 275- 
277, 286. 

Dalrymple, Oliver, 693. 

Dance, Judge Walter B., 636. 

Daniels, Dr. Asa W., Reminiscences 
of the Little Crow Uprising, 
323-336; quoted, 376. 

Daniels, Dr. Jared W., 325, 334. 

Dartmouth College decision, 63, 68, 
69, 108. 151, 177-183. 

Daugherty, Hon. Frank B., obituary 
sketch, 835. 

Davidson, Col. James H., 701; Me- 
morial of Prof. Newton H. Win- 
chell, 830. 

Davidson, William F., 693, 802. 

DavL=;, Gov. Cushman K., 45, 126, 
134, 138, 148. 166, 209, 554-5, 558, 
560-571, 573, 576. 577, 580, 581, 
582, 584-6. 588, 589, 591-5, 597, 
693, 696, 805; eulogy by Captain 
Henry A. Castle, 595. 

Davis, Hon. Jefferson, 398, 717, 724, 

Dawes, Hon. Henry L., 664. 
Dawson, William, 613. 
Day, Dr. and Mrs. David, 542-3, 570, 
571, 696. 

Day, Hon. Frank A.. 584, 585. 749. 
Dayton, Lyman, 464. 
Dayton's bluff, St. Paul, 520, 629. 
Dean, J., and Co., 471, 472. 
Dean, Joseph. 498. 
Dean, Hon. William B., 585, 586. 
Dean, William J.. 706. 
Decker, Edward W., 771. 
Decorah Post, 243. 
De Graff, Andrew, 219. 
Delano, Hon. Francis R., 41, 205, 

De Long, A. H., 354. 361-363, 366. 
Demortimer, E., 411. 
Denman, J. S., 124, 157. 
Desnoyer, Stephen, 482, 485. 
Devil's lake, N. D., 370. 
"Diamond Joe," steamer. 458. 

Diary of N. P. Langford, 641-2. 645- 
7, 649-651, 653-4, 657-9, 786. 

Dickinson, Hon. Daniel A., 760. 

Dickinson, Hon. Daniel S., 756. 

Dickson, Thomas H., obituary 
sketch, 835. 

Dieserud, Juul, 284, 285. 

Dillon, Hon. John F., 208. 

Dinehart, Hon. Clarence C, Bio- 
grapic memorial, by Hon. Ju- 
lius A. Schmahl, 764-5. 

Diphtheria, 676. 

Disraeli, quoted, 756. 

Doane, Lieut. Gustavus C, 632, 641, 
646-8. 654. 

Dodd, Captain William B., 323. 325, 
326, 330-332. 

Dodd road, 331, 845. 

Donaldson, Hon. Nicholas M., 721. 

Donations to the Library, 837. 847. 

Donnelly, Hon. Ignatius, 91, 95, 121- 
127, 136, 141, 142, 152, 158-163, 
170, 186. 554, 555, 556, 557, 558, 
570, 573, 693. 

Doughty, Hon. J. E., 170. 

Douglas. Hon. Stephen A., 396. 480, 
713, 715, 717, 720, 733, 756. 

Douglass, Frederick, 560. 

Drainage, 311, 313. 

Drake, Hon. Elias F., 39, 142, 153, 
217, 219, 565, 693, 786. 

Draper, Secretary Lyman C, 846, 

Drew, Hon. Edward B., Preface. 

Driscoll, Hon. Frederick, 584; Bio- 
graphic memorial, by Captain 
Henry A. Castle, 687-710. 

Driscoll, Walter J., 702, 707. 

Ducks, wild. 315, 319. 
^uel. proposed. Shields and Lin- 
coln, 714, 735. 

Dugas, William, 620. 

Du Luth, Daniel Greyselon, 247. 

Duluth, Minn., 129, 150, 379. 381. 384, 
389, 390, 391, 464, 465, 837. 

Duluth and Iron Range railroad 
company, 297, 309, 310. 

Dunn, Ed., 426. 

Dunn, Hon. Robert C, 597. 

Dunnell, Hon. Mark H., 88, 557. 558, 
575-6, 579, 580-582, 597, 693. 

Dun woody, William H., Biographic 
memorial, by President Cyrus 
Northrop, 765-773. 

Dunwoody Industrial Institute. 769- 



Dupre, Oliver, 322. 

Diirant, Captain Edward W.. 559. 

Diirrett, Hon. Reuben T., obituary 

sketch, S35. 
Du Toit, Hon. Frederick E., 559. 
Dyke, Hon. Edwin W., 133, 134. 

Early Dakota Trails and Settle- 
ments at Centerville, Minn., by 
Albert M. Goodrich, 315-322. 

Early Days in Minneapolis, by Dr. 
William E. Leonard,, 497-514. 

Eastman, Major Seth. 400-4»j3. 

Eastman, "William W., 509. 

Eberhart, Go v.' A. O., 730. 

Ecklund, A. M.. 353. 

Eddy, Hon. Frank M.. 584. 

Edgar, William C. quoted. 773. 

Edgerton, Hon. Alonzo .J., 18, 109, 
153, 165, 184, 576, 57S, 580. 

Edgerton, Erastus S.. 693. 

Editorial Association. 554, 694. 

Edwards, Lieutenani: A. M., 328. 

Edwards, Rev. Maurice D.. Memo- 
rial of Rev. Edward C. Mitch- 
ell. 797-800. 

Egan, Hon. James J.. 168. 

Elevators, grain, on railroads, 68, 
•69, 94, 101, 146-148. 

Elfelt brothers. 543, 544. 

Elliot, Dr. Jacob S., donor of Elliot 
Park, Minneapolis, 602. 

Elliott, Dr. A. F.. 5o2. 

Embarrass river, 381, 384, 385-7, 

Emmett, Judge Lafayette, 815. 

Emmett, Mrs. Lafayette. 545. 550. 

Engineer Brigade, Army of the Po- 
tomac, 671. 

Episcopal missions and early 
churches. 526. 527. 

Eskimo, 232, 233. 

Espy, Major John, 5^6, 613. 

Evans, Robert G., 584. 

Evanson, Evan. 354, 363. 

Everett, Hon. Edward, oration in 
St. Paul, 1861, 494. 496, 717. 

Everett, Richmond P., obituary 
sketch, 835. 

Everts, Truman C, 640, 651-654. 

Evjen, John C, 256. 

P^xperiences in Southern Minne- 
sota, 1859 to 1867, by Hon. 
Lorin Cray, 435-454. 

Explosion of flour mills, 512. 

Exposition, Chicasio, 1893, 511. 

Fairchild, Frank, 559. 

Fairchild, Henry S., Memorial of 

Nathaniel P. Langford, 783-6; 

of Hon. William P. Murray, 800- 

802; obituary sketch, 836. 
Fairmont. Minn., fort, 448, 449, 450, 


Fairs, first State, 503; of Hon. Wil- 
liam S. King, 511, 512. 
Falls of St. Anthony, recession. 827. 
Fargo, N. D., 433. 

Faribault, Minn., 134, 719, 721, 732. 
739, 832. 

Farmers' Institutes, 775. 

Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance 
Association, 76, 156. ~ 

Farmers' Union, agricultural jour- 
nal, 76, 77, 117, 122. 135, 156. 

Fernald, Prof. :^r. L., 231, 249. 

Ferry at Minneapolis, 481. 

Fessenden, Hon. William P., 717. 

Finch, George R., obituary sketch, 

Fischer. Joseph, 230, 232. 
Fish, Dakota county, 374; Red river, 

Fisher, "j. W., 615, 619. 

Fisher, Louis E., 701. 

Fisk, Captain James L., expedition 

in 1862, 632, 633. 
Five Million Loan, The. by Prof. 

William W. Folwell, 189-214, 


Flaaten, Nils O., 221. 

Flandrau, Hon. Charles E., 198, 325. 

326, 328, 329, 330, 333. 693. 815. 
Flatey book. 231. 232. 
Fletcher, Hon. Loren, 507, 559, 560, 


Flom, Prof. George T., on the Ken- 
sington Rune Stone, 224, 241, 
247, 256, 270-277, 278. 280, 281, 
283, 285, 286. 

Flour exportation to Europe, 766, 

Flour production, Minneapolis, 500, 
766; explosion of mills, 1878, 

Flower, Gen. Mark D., 566, 567, 571, 
585, 586. 

Floyd, Hon. John B., 399, 403, 404, 

406, 409, 410. 
Fogelblad. Sven, 238, 239, 241, 248, 

249, 277-280, 285. 
Folsom, Hon. David E., 640, 659, 

660, 664, 665. 



Folwell, Prof. William W., 43, 186, 
365, 499, 825; The Five Million 
Loan, 189-214; The Sale of 
Fort Snelling, 1857. 393-410; 
note on the Park System of 
Minneapolis, 607-8; Biographic 
Memorial of Dr. Charles X. 
Hewitt, 669-686; Address on 
the Presentation of the Por- 
trait of Professor Jabez Brooks, 
746-8; Memorial of Prof. New- 
ton H. Winchell. 829. 

Fond du Lac, Minn., 385. 386. 

Ford, John A., 375. 

Forest City, 353, 355, 358, 359, 361. 

Forest lake, 319. 
Forestry, 313, 775-6. 843. 
Forsyth, Major Thomas. 394. 
Fort Abercrombie, 361. 408, 428, 

Fort Dearborn, Chicago, 405. 
Fort Ridgely, 323, 327. 342, 347, 365. 
408, 844. 

Fort Ripley, 401, 402, 408. 409. 461, 

Fort St. Charles, Preface. 

Fort Snelling, 373, 375, 377, 393-410, 
479, 480, 487, 491, 503, 524, 528- 
9, 539, 545, 604, 623, 629, 630, 

Fort Snelling. The Sale of. 1857, by 
Prof. William W. Folwell, 393- 

Fortier, Prof. Alcee, obituary 
sketch, 836. 

Fossum, Prof. Andrew, 227. 247, 
250, 256. 282. 283. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 381. 

Franklin Steele Square. Minneapo- 
lis, 601. 

' Free trade, lumber, 471, 476. 
Freeman, Charles H., 364. 
Freight rates, railroad, 106, 107, 

129. 143, 144, 154. 
Frontier, western, 632, 633. 

Galbraith, Major Thomas J.. 293, 

323, 335, 815. 
Gale, Harlow A., 505, 506. 
Gale. Samuel C, 502, 505, 506. 
Galiier, Rev. Lucian, 790. 
Gannett, Henry, 660 ; obituary 

sketch, 836. 
Gardiner, Montana. 643. 665. 
Gardner, Thomas. 506. 

Garfield, President James A., quot- 
ed, 179. 186; 575, 576. 

Gates. Rev. Horatio. 284. 

Gates, Mrs. William G., 689. 

Geese, wild. 315, 450. 

Genealogy, 809. 

Geneva, X. Y., 669, 670. 673. 

Geological and Xatural History Sur- 
vey, Minnesota, 301. 478, 824- 
827, 829. 830. 

Geological Society of America. 826. 

Geological Survey, U. S., 656. 659. 

Geologists. International Congress 

of, 826. 
Getchell, Alva, 262, 364, 365. 
Getchell. Sergeant D. W., 362. 365. 
Geyser basins, 655. 656-8, 662, 666. 
Ghent. Treaty of, 1814, 379-392. 
Giddings, Hon. Joshua R.. 756. 
Gideon, George W., 362, 364, 365. 
Gilbert, Charles B., obituary sketch. 


Gilfillan, Hon. James. 212, 693. 760. 

Gilfillan. Hon. John B., 587; Memo- 
rial of Henry P. Upham, 811. 

Gilfillan. Rev. Joseph A., obituary 
sketch, 837. 

Gillette, Warren C, 640, 642, 65^1. 

Gilman, Hon. Charles A., 554, 574. 
579, 582, 588. 

Gjessing, Helge, 256, 282. 283. 

Glacial period, 234, 235, 246, 827. 

Glacier Xational Park, 666. 
Glader, Hon. Gustavus A., 363. 
Glencoe, Minn., 306, 358, 376. 
Glenwood park, Minneapolis, 604. 
Godfrey house. Minneapolis. 508. 
Goiffon, Rev. Joseph. 322. 
Gold mining. 633. 

Goodhue. INIrs. James M., 545. 550. 

Goodrich, Albert M., Early Dakota 
Trails and Settlements at Cen- 
terville, Minn., 315-322. 

Goodrich, Earle S., obituary sketch. 

Gordon, Hon. Hanford L., Memo- 
rial of Gen. James H. Baker. 

Gordon, Richards, 542. 

Gorman, Gov. Willis A.. 6, 7, 15, 17. 

19, 22, 190, 191, 197, 546. 54;>. 


Gorman. Mrs. Willis A., 546. 
Gothland, 227, 257. 258. 274. 275. 



Gotzian, Conrad, 802. 
Gould, Chester N., 256, 283. 
Gould, Major Ozro B., 558. 
Governor Ramsey, steamer, 527, 

Governors of Minnesota, Lives, by 
Gen. James H. Baker, 755, 757, 

Grace, Bishop Thomas L., 783. 
Graham, Dr. Archibald, 399-401, 404, 
406, 409. 

Oraham's Point, Red river, 428, 431, 
432, 434. 

Grand Army of the Republic, 729, 
739, 754, 755, 758. 761, 777, 779. 

Grand Canyon, Yellowstone river, 
645, 646, 658, 659. 

Grand Forks, N. D., 473. 

Grand Portage, Minn.. 380, 382, 383, 

Grand Portage, St. Louis river, 386. 
Grand Rapids, Minn., 298. 
Grand Teton, mountain, 656. 
Grangers, Patrons of Husbandry, 

70-87, 120-151, 159-163. 173, 176- 
^ 183, 187. 
Grant, Captain Hiram P., 361. 
Grant, President U. S., 150, 407, 511, 

559, 565, 574, 695, 696, 716, 756. 
Grant, Prof. U. S., 392, 826. 
Grapes in Vinland, 231. 
Grasshoppers, 131. 
Graves, Hon. Charles H., 170, 559. 
Great Northern railway, 190, 203, 

220, 310, 767. 
Great Salt Lake, 639. 
Greeley, Horace, 512, 538, 558. 
Greely, Dr. M. R., 504. 
Green, Prof. Samuel B., Memorial 

by President Northrop, 774-6. 
Greenland. 229, 230-233. 
Grevstad, N. A., 286. 
Grey Cloud, Sioux woman, 371. 
Grey Cloud Island and its Vicinity, 

Historical Notes, by John H. 

Case, 371-378; 408. 
■Grey Iron, Sioux, 371, 376. 
Griggs, Chauncey W.. 806. 
Grimshaw, Robert E., 502, 506. 
Grimshaw, Mrs. S. B., 492. 
Grindeland, Hon. Andrew, 237. 
Grindstones, 455-460. 
Grizzly Bear, 376. 
Groseilliers and Radisson, 319. 
<iuerin, Mr. and Mrs. Vital, 610. 

Hackett, Capt. Charles W., 693. 
Hagen, Prof. O. E., 256, 284. 
Hahn, Hon. William J., 211. 
Hale, Hon. John P., 814. 
Hall, Hon. Albert R., 559. 
Hall, Halsey R. W., obituary sketch, 

Hall, Harlan P., 560. 571, 690, 697, 

701, 843. 
Hall, Hon. Liberty, 562. 
Hall, Hon. Osee M., obituary sketch, 


Hall, Hon. William Sprigg, 721. 
Hall of Fame, Washington, D. C. 

729, 738; Capitol of Minnesota, 

731, 739. 
Halvorson, Hon. Kittel, 591. 
Hamlin, Conde, 701, 706. 
Hamline, Bishop Leonidas L., 801. 
Hamline University, 741-3, 746, 747, 


Hancock, Gen. Winfield S., 575. 
Handy, De Witt C, 357, 363, 366. 
Handy, William C, 701. 
Hardin, Hon. John J., 715. 
Harmon, Allen, 501, 601. 
Harney, Gen. William S.. 404. 
Harriet island, 532, 621, 622. 629. 
Harrington, Captain Lewis, 362. 364. 
Harrison, President Benjamin. 805. 
Hartley. Gilbert, 467. 
Hartwell, Electa, and A. K., 488, 

Hastings, Minn., 120, 371, 377, 378. 
758, 762, 763. 

Hastings and Dakota railroad com- 
pany, 58, 98. 

Hatch, Dr. Philo L., 506. 

Hauser, Gov. Samuel T., of Mon- 
tana, 636, 640, 642, 650, 654, 655. 

Hawaiian music, 529. 

Hay meadows, 467. 

Hayden, Dr. F. V., 648, 659. 660-665. 

Hayden, Herbert L., obituary 
sketch, 838. 

Hayden survey, 656, 659, 836. 

Hayes, President Rutherford B.. 
571, 572. 

Haynes, Prof. Henry W.. obituary 

sketch. 838. 
Hazzard, George H., 613. 
Health, State Board of, 673-5, 677, 

679, 680-4. 
Heard, Hon. Isaac V. D., obituary 

sketch, 838. 
Heatwole, Hon. Joel P., 584. 
Hedberg, J. P., 222. 



Hedges, Judge Cornelius. 640, 641, 
642, 645, 647, 650, 658, 659. 660, 
663, 664, 665. 

Heiskell, AVilliam K., 400-403, 410. 

Helena, Montana, 643, 645, 659. 

Helluland, 230, 232. 

Hennepin, Father Louis, 247, 320, 

Hennepin county, Territorial Pio- 
neers, 508. 

Hennepin island, 512, 521. 

Herdman, Rev. J. C, obituary 
sketch, 838. 

Heroines of pioneer settlement, 
454, 516, 517, 544. 

Hewitt, Dr. Charles N., Biographic 
Memorial, by Prof. William W. 
Folwell, 669-686. 

Hibbing, 308. 

Hicks, Col. Henry G., 558. 

Hill, Alfred J., 392. 

Hill, James J., 459. 460, 461, 466, 
537, 611, 627, 693, 767. 

Hill lake, 467, 468. 

Hinkle, William H., Biographic me- 
morial of Hon. Samuel R. Thay- 
er, 804-5. 

Hinman, Rev. Samuel D., 340. 

Hickey. V\'. O.. 509. 

Historical Notes of Grey Cloud Is- 
land and its Vicinity, by John 
H. Case, 371-378. 

Historical Society; see Minnesota. 

History of the Parks and Public 
Grounds of Minneapolis, by 
Hon. Charles M. Loring, 599- 

History of the Parks and Public 
Grounds of s't. Paul, by Lloyd 
Peabody, 609-630. 

Hi-u-ka, Sioux, 367. 370. . 

Hoag, Charles, 48S, 500. 

Hoar, Hon. George F.. quoted, 566. 

Hobart, Revs. Chauncey and Mor- 
ris, 744. 

Hodges, Hon. Leonard B., 92. 

Hoegh, Dr. Knut, 256, 283. 

Holand, Hjalmar Rued, owner of 
the Kensington Rune Stone, 
223, 226, 23S. 247, 250, 256, 268, 
277-280, 2S1-2S6. 

Holcombe, Hon. William, 815. 

Hole-in-ihe-Day. 491, 529. 

Hollinshead, William. 540. 

Holmes, Thomas G.. 359, 360. 366. 

Holvik, John A., 239, 240, 248, 256. 

Holy Light, Sioux, 373. 

Horsford, Amanda. 531, 543. 

Horticultural Society, 775. 

Horticulture, 537-8, 774. 

Hosmer, Hon. Hezekiah L., 634, 635. 

Hotchkiss, W. A., 488. 

Hotchkiss, Prof. W. O., 2." 6. 

Hotvedt. Joseph, 222. 

Houle, Joseph, 322. 

House of Hoj)e Church, St. Paul, 
706, 707. 

Howard lake, 315, 319. 

Hubbard, Gov. Lucius F., 555, 556, 
559, 063, 569, 570, 571, 573. 576. 
581, 582-4, 597, 677," 803; Ad- 
dress on the Presentation of 
the Portrait of Professor Jabez 
Brooks, 743-4; Biographic Me- 
morial, by Warren Upham, 776- 

Hudson bay. 229-232, 247-8, 282, 284. 

Hudson Bay Company, 371. 390. 480. 
Huey, Lieutenant William, 329. 330. 

Huggins, Rufus, 334. 

Hughes, Archbishop, 719. 

Hughes, Thomas, Biographic me- 
morial of Gen. James H. Baker, 

Humphrey, James K., 531. 
Humphrey, John Ames, Boyhood 

Remembrances of Life among 

the Dakotas and the Massacre 

in 1862, 337-348. 
Humphrey, Dr. Philander P.. 337. 
Hunt, Mrs. Edgar, 547. 
Hunt, J. J., 125. 
Hunt, John, 428-431. 
Huron Indians. 316-319. 
Huseby, Olaf, 256, 284. 
Hutchinson, Minn., 358, 363, 364. 

Hygiene, 672, 678-680. 

Ice age, 234, 235, 246, 827, 828. 
Idaho, state. 666. 

Illinois, railroad legislation, 15, 6.' 

108, 140, 141, 146, 186, 205. 
Illinois Central railroad, 15, 21. 


Illinois Historical Society, 2*0, 2.> 

Immigration to Minnesota, 29o, 4.. ' 
452-454, 485, 486, 497, 521. .-2- 
532, 538-9, 552, 632. 



Indian mounds, 233. 824. 

Indian Mounds Park, St. Paul, 620, 

623, 626, 629, 630. 
Indian trails, 315-321, 375, 489, 643. 
Indians, 489-491, 522. 528. 530, 633. 

643; see also Ojibways. Sioux, 

Ingemau. Ole, 353. 
Ingersoll, Daniel W., 561. 688. 693. 
Inkpaduta, 332. 
Intemperance, 526. 681-2. 
Internal improvement lands. 38-44, 

204, 207, 294, 301-305. 
International Typographical Union, 

703, 704. 
Inver Grove. 374. 

Investment, Board of, 299, 300, 302- 

Iowa, Historical Library, 789. 

Ireland. Archbishop John, 252. 694, 
719, 783, 786, 789; Address at 
the Unveiling of the Statue of 
General Shields, 731-740. 

Ireland. 711, 712, 721, 727, 731-2. 735, 
739, 740. 

Iron ore lands, 297-299, 302-304, 310, 

311, 826. 
Iron Range. 751. 
Irvine, John R., 611. 
Irvine, Mrs. John R., 539. 
Irvine Park, St. Paul, 534, 543. 611, 


Isle Royale. 381. 382. 384. 389. 391. 

Iverslie, P. P., 256, 282, 286. 

Iverson, Hon. Samuel G., State Au- 
ditor, The Public Lands and 
School Fund of Minnesota, 287- 

Ives, Hon. Gideon S., 584. 

Jackson, Iver, 354. 

Jackson, Rev. Sheldon, obituary 
sketch, 839. 

Jackson, Gen. Thomas J. ("Stone- 
wall"), 716, 722-4, 738. 

Jaggard, Hon. Edwin A., obituary 
sketch, 839. 

Jefferson, President Thomas, 543. 

Jesup, Gen. Thomas S., 398. 

Jewett, William J., 443. 

Jewett family, killed by Sioux, 443. 

Johnson. President Andrew. 640. 

Johnson. Emil, 222. 

Johnson, Gates A.. 464. 

Johnson, Gunder, 241-243. 

Johnson, Gov. John A., 486, 597; 
Memorial Address in his honor, 
by Justice Thomas D. O'Brien, 
749-751; Statue at the State 
Capitol, 752. 

Johnson, John E.. 222. 

Johnson, P. M., 353. 

Johnson, Schuyler, 506. 

Johnson Parkway, St. Paul, 630. 

Johnston, Daniel S. B.. A Red River 
Townsite Speculation in 1857. 
411-434; personal references. 
Preface, 411, 434, 485, 697; obit- 
. uary sketch, 839. 

Johnston, Gen. Joseph E., 716. 

Jones, D. C., 459. 

Jones, Edwin S., 503, 506. 

Jones, Hon. Richard A., 90, 106. 109. 

Jones, Robinson, 350-354, 358, 360. 

Jones, Mrs. W. E., 488. 

Judson, Minn., 447, 448, 450. 

Kalm, Peter. 267, 283. 
Kaministiquia river, 381, 383, 388. 
Kandiyohi county, 355. 
Kansas, paleoliths, 828; Historical 

Society and its building, 841. 
Kaposia, 321, 366, 373, 375. 
Kaskaskia. 111., 713. 732, 735. 
Kasota, 334, 335. 337. 
Keating, Prof. William H., 247. 
Keith, Dr. George H., 504. 
Kelley, Oliver H., founder of the 

Patrons of Husbandry, 73-85, 


Kellogg, Hon. Frank B.. 584. 

Kelly, Hon. Patrick H., 693. 

Kelly's Bluff, or Acton, battle in 
Sioux war, 355-366. 

Kenna, Sergeant Michael, 262. 366. 

Kensington Rune Stone, Prelimi- 
nary Report by the Museum 
Committee, 221-286, 828; size 
and description, 225-227. 233- 
237, 246, 248, 286; the inscrip- 
tion, 226, 227, 246, 249-277. 

Kentucky, pioneer settlers, 515. 516. 

Kenwood Boulevard, Minneapolis, 

Kerr, Hon. Charles D., 554. 
Keweenaw peninsula. 389. 
Kiester, Hon. Jacob A.. 153. 
Kimball, Col. Nathan. 723, 738. 
Kindred. Charles F.. 579. 580. 
King, Hon. William S., 488, 511, 568, 
571, 601, 602, 603, 693. 



King's Highway, Minneapolis, 603. 
Kingsbury, Charles W., 779. 
Kingsbury, David L., Biographic 

memorials, 778-780. 
Kittelson, Hon. Charles, 49, 574. 
Kittson, Norman W., 541% 
Kline, Frank J., 474. 
Knappen, Theodore M., 749. 
Kneeland, Cordelia, 545. 
Knickerbacker, Rev. David B., 488. 
Knife lake, Kanabec county, 319. 
Knights of Labor, Minneapolis, 602, 


Knoblauch, Anton, 364. 
Krieger, Louis, 615. 

Labrador, 230, 231, 250. 
- Lady Franklin, steamer, 519. 
Lafayette Square, St. Paul, 613. 
Laird, William H., obituary sketch, 

Lake Calhoun, 480, 512, 513, 602. 
Lake City, 121, 452, 555, 840. 
Lake Christina, 227. 
Lake Como, 618, 619. 623, 630. 
Lake Harriet, 601. 602. 603. 
Lake Henry, 414. 
Lake Minnetonka, 499. 
Lake of the Isles, 602, 603; park, 

Lake of the Woods, Preface, 379, 
380, 382, 389, 392. 

Lake Pepin, 375. 

Lake Phalen, 619, 620, 623, 630. 

Lake Pomme de Terre, 427, 432. 

Lake Rebecca, Hastings, 377, 378. 

Lake Superior, 280-386. 391, 464, 
744-5, 755. 

Lake Superior and Mississippi rail- 
road company. 51, 57, 58, 65, 
117, 129, 130, 309. 

Lake Traverse, 372. 

Lakewood Cemetery, 512; Associa- 
tion, 603. 

Lamotte, Francis, 322. 

Lamprey, Uri L., 613. 

Lamson, Chauncey, 364-370. 

Lamson, James Birney, narrative 
of the killing of Little Crow, 

Lamson', Nathan, 364-370. 

Land grants for interna' improve- 
ments, 38-44, 204, 207, 294, 301- 
305; for railroads. 4-9, 16, 24, 
26, 49-59, 63, 65, 66, 67, 112, 189, 

193, 196, 204-208, 210, 215; for 
schools and the State Univer- 
sity, 287-314. 

Landsvark, Gulick, 222. 

Langdon, Hon. Robert B., 559. 

Langford, Augustine G.. 548, 782. 

Langford, Nathaniel P., 548, 631, 
633-9, 648, 649, 654, 655, 656, 
660-668, 780-9. 

Langford, Nathaniel Pitt, the Vigi- 
lante, the Explorer, the Ex- 
pounder and First Superintend- 
ent of the Yellowstone Park, 
by Olin D. Wheeler, 631-668; 
Biographic memorials, 780-789. 

Laraway, O. M., 506. 

Larson, Albert, 222. 

Lavallee, F. X., 322. 

Lavvler, Bishop John J., Memorial 
of Rev. Ambrose McNulty, 791- 

Laws, relating to state lands, 294- 
299, 312. 

Leadbeater, Mark, 428, 430, 431, 432. 
Leaf mountains, 417. 
Leavenworth, Gen. Henry, 394. 
Le Boutillier, Dr. Charles W., 334. 
Le Due. Gen. William G., Memorial 

of Nathaniel P. Langford. 782-3. 
Lee, Col. Francis, 396. 
Lee, Gen. Robert E.. 716. 
Leech lake, 467, 474, 477, 491. 
Legislation, Railroad, in Minnesota, 

1849-1875, by Rasmus S. Saby, 


Leonard, Hon. Joseph A., 693. 

Leonard, Dr. William E., Early 
Days in Minneapolis, 497-514. 

Leonard, Dr. William H., 504, 506, 
507-8, 511. 

Le Sueur, Pierre Charles, 321. 

Le Sueur, Minn., 323, 325. 

Letterman, Dr., 671. 

Lewis and Clark expedition, 642. 

Lexington Parkway, St. Paul, 625. 

Library Building, proposed for this 
Society, 787-9, 830. 

Lightner, William H., 780; Bio- 
graphic memorial of Henry P. 
Upham, 806-810. 

Lightning lake, 416, 417, 423. 

Lincoln, President Abraham, 553, 
585, 670, 694, 713, 714, 715, 718, 
719, 724, 735, 756, 816, 840. 

Lind, Gov. John, 584, 588, 591, 844. 

Lindeke, William, 613. . 



Linwood Park, St. Paul. 622, 629. 
Liquors, sold to Indians, 324, 351, 

352, 490. 

Listoe, Hon. Soren, 169. 

Litchfield, E. B., 219. 

Little Crow, 324, 329. 333, 341, 343, 

353, 361, 363. 364, 366-370, 373. 
375, 393, 491. 

Little Crow Uprising, Reminis- 
cences, hy Dr. Asa W. Daniels. 

Little Falls, Minn., 408, 432, 827. 
Little Falls and Dakota railroad 

company, 310. 
Little Rock, trading post. 372. 
Little Six, Sioux; see Shakopee. 
Lockey, Joseph, obituary sketch, 


Locomotive, first in Minnesota, 217. 
Logan, Stephen T., 715. 735. 
Logging, 466, 469. 473. 478, 819-823. 
Lombard, Jules. 496. 
Long lake. Pigeon river. 381, 383. 

Longstreet. Gen. James. 716. 

Loring, Hon. Charles M., History 
of . the Parks and Public 
Grounds of Minneapolis, 599- 
607; with a Postscript by Prof. 
William W. Folwell, 607-8. 

Loring Park, 602, 604, 60S. 

Louisiana Purchase, 481, 787. 

Lovejoy, Hon. Owen. 814. 

Lower Sioux Agency, 338-343, 353, 

Lowry. Gen. Sylvan us B.. 530. 
Lowry, Thomas, 693 ; obituary 

sketch, 840. 
Loyal Legion, 729, 739, 754. 761, 777, 

779, 780. 

Lumber industry. 215. 466-478. 523, 

817-824, 840. 841. 845. 
Lynch. James M., 704. 
Lynd, Hon. James W., 320; quoted, 


Lyndale park, Minneapolis, 603. 

Macalester College, 4S4. 

McCardy, Hon. Joseph J., 567, 596. 

McClellan, Gen. George B., 724, 728. 

McClure. Thomas C, 554, 814. 

McCormick. Hon. Robert L.. obitu- 
ary sketch, 841. 

MacDonald, Hon. John L.. 559. 560, 

Macdonald, Hon. Colin F., Bio- 
graphic memorial of Hon. Lo- 
ren W. Collins, 757-762; and of 
Hon. Henry C. Waite, 813-816. 

McGannon, James. 367, 370. 

McGill, Gov. Andrew R., 486, 561, 
563, 566, 567, 588, 589, 590, 597. 

McGraw, James, 354. 

Mack, Charles and Jesse, 441, 442. 

McKinley, President William. 593, 

Mackubin, Hon. Charles N.. 202. 
.MacLaren, Dr. Archibald, 706. 
McLaren, Gen. Robert N., 564, 571, 

575, 584, 695. 
McLeod, Captain George A., 450. 
McMasters, Rev. Sterling Y., 693. 
McMillan, Hon. and Mrs. S. J. R., 

543, 568, 570, 571, 576, 589, 696. 
McNulty, Rev. Ambrose. Biographic 

memorials, by Rev. Francis J. 

Schaefer, 789-791, and Bishop 

John J. Lawler, 791-3. 
Magner, John, 344, 345, 346. 
Mahan, Rear Admiral Alfred T., 

obituary sketch, 840. 
Mail routes, 1849, 2. 
Maine, railroad legislation, 105. 
Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone 

Park, 652, 655, 663. 
Mandan Indians, 267. 
Mankato, 160, 323, 326, 333, 443,445- 

448, 753, 837. 
Mantorville, 166. 
Mariaklagan, 255. 272, 274, 285. 
Markland, 230. 232. 
Marsh, Captain John S., 327, 345, 

346, 348, 357, 362. 
Marsh lands, 315, 317-319. 483, 491. 
Marshall, David, 515. 
Marshall, James, 363, 366. 
Marshall. Joseph M., 517, 521, 522, 


Marshall, Gov. William R., 39, 40, 
41, 42, 153, 204. 205, 397, 517, 
518, 519, 521, 522, 523, 524, 526, 
530, 532, 534. 540, 547, 551, 553, 
554, 556, 561, 574, 575, 577-8, 
597, 662, 690, 693, 695, 758, 782, 

Marshall, Mrs. William R., 547-549. 

Martin, Charles J.. 766; obituary 
sketch, 841. 

Martin, Secretary George W., obit- 
uary sketch, 841. 

Mason, Gen. and Mrs. Edwin C, 
779, 780. 



Massachusetts, railroad legislation, 
105, 169; State Board of Health, 

Massacre in 1862, 323-370; also see 

Masterson, H. F., 537-8. 

Mather, Hon. John C, 399-404, 406. 

Maxfield and Seabury, 803. 

Mayflower Society, 809. 

Mayo, Dr. William W., 326, 327, 329, 

330; obituary sketch, 841. 
Mazurka Hall, St. Paul. 544. 
Medary, Governor Samuel, 191. 
Medical Examining Board, 683. 
Medicine Bottle, Sioux chief, 372- 


Medicine dances, Sioux, 340. 

Meeker, Judge B. B., 396, 524. 815. 

Memorial Address in Honor of 
Governor Johnson, by Justice 
Thomas D. O'Brien, 749-751. 

Memorial Commission, John Albert 
Johnson, 752. 

Memories of the Early Life and 
Development of [Minnesota, by 
Thomas B. Walker, 455-478. 

Mendenhall, Mrs. Abby, Diary, 511. 

Mendota, 331, 375, 479, 481, 519, 539, 
545, 629. 

Menzel, Gregor, 472. 

Merriam, Hon. John L., 565. 

Merriara, Gov. William R., 584, 590, 
591, 613. 

Merriam Park, St. Paul, 551, 

Merrick, Rev. John A., 526, 536. 

Merrill. E. A., 504. 

Merrill, E. W., 485. 

Merriman, O. C, 502. 

Mesaba iron range, 297, 298. 

Methodist denomination in Minne- 
sota, 743-4. 

Mexican War, 715-717, 730, 736-738. 

Michigan, railroad legislation. 205. 

Midway Parkway. St. Paul, 627. 

Mille Lacs, 318, 320, 321. 

Miller, Hugo, 704. 

Miller, Joaquin, poet, 756. 

Miller, Gov. Stephen. 446, 486, 559. 

Millet, Francis D., artist, obituary 
sketch, 842. 

Mills, E. P., 4S5. 

Minneapolis, Preface, 355, 397, 458, 
478, 479, 481, 487. 488-494. 500, 
505, 508, 513, 514, 533, 538, 600, 
699, 700, 746, 769-773. 

Minneapolis, Early Days in. by Dr. 
William E. Leonard, 497-514. 

Minneapolis, History of the Parks 
and Public Grounds, by Hon. 
Charles M. Loring. 599-607; 
with a Postscript by Prof. Wil- 
liam W. Folwell, 607-S. 

Minneapolis Institute of Arts, 767, 
769, 842. 

Minneapolis Journal, 277-280, 281, 

Minneapolis,- men in Sioux war, 355- 
366; public library founded, 
493-4, 504; origin of name, 500. 

Minneapolis and Cedar Valley rail- 
road company, 8, 11, 39, 46, 50, 
53, 54, 55, 192, 199. 

Minneapolis and St. Louis railroad 
company, 148, 173. 816. 

Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault 
Ste. Marie railroad company, 

Minnehaha creek. 397, 528. 
Minnehaha falls. 480, 503, 528. 
Minnehaha park. 500, 503, 603. 604; 

parkway, 603. 
Minnesota Academy of Science, 

795, 826. 

Minnesota Academy of Social Sci- 
ences, 1. 

Minnesota and Northwestern rail- 
road company, 5, 11. 17, IS, 19, 
24, 25, 27, 29, 189. 

Minnesota and Pacific railroad 
company, 8, 11, 24, 29, 45, 50, 
■52, 192, 198, 199. 203. 215, 216. 

Minnesota Historical Society, per- 
manent trust fund, 809; Memo- 
rial Addresses, 731-830; Other 
Deceased Members, 1909-14. 
Memorials by Warren ITpham, 
831-848; proposed Library Build- 
ing, 787-9, 830; donation by 
Hon. James B. Wakefield, 847. 

Minnesota point, Duluth, 385, 390. 

Minnesota Politics, Reminiscences 
of, by Captain Henry A. Caf^tle. 

Minnesota river, 393, 397, 412, 529, 

Minnesota Valley railroad company, 

55, 57. 
Minnetonka, Lake. 499. 
Missions, early, 526. 527. 831. 
Mississippi river, 392, 393. 395. "9i. 

466, 468, 478, 481, 495. 498, 519. 

527-8, 532. 604. 620. 623. 62'^ 

627, 755, 802, 819, 820, 827. 



Mississippi and Lake Superior rail- 
road, 11, 28. 

Mississippi River boulevard, St. 
Paul, 623, 624, 62G, 629. 

Missouri, state capitol burned, 788. 

Missouri river, 632. 

Mitchell, Rev. Edward C, 268, 788; 
Memorials. 793-800. 

Mitchell, John, 390; his map of the 
British colonies, 381, 382, 388. 
389, 390, 391. 

Mitchell, Hon. William, 214, 760. 

Mitchell, William B., 554. 

Monongalia county, 355. 

Montana, 633-666, 784, 786. 

Montana Historical Society, 634, 

Montgomery, Ala., 470. 
Monument at Acton, 350, 363. 
Mooers, Hazen, 371, 372, 373. 
Moore, Prof. John Bassett, 390. 
Morgan, David, 504. 
Morgan, Major George H., 510. 
Morin, William A., obituary sketch, 

Morris. Mrs. Mary C. 601. 
Morrison, Clinton, 767; obituary 

sketch, 842. 
Morrison, Hon. Dorilus, 842. 
Morse, Hon. Frank L., 168, 169. 170, 

174, 175. 

Moss, Mr. and Mrs. Henry L., 531, 

Moulton, J. C, 411-415, 417, 418, 420- 

423, 427. 428, 430-433. 
Mounds, aboriginal. 233. 824. 
Mt. Doane, 648, 666. 
Mt. Everts, 652. 
Mt I.angford, 647, 648, 666. 
Mt. Stevenson, 648. 
Mt. W^ashburn. 644, 645. 652, 666. 
Mountain lions, 652, 653. 
Muir, John, 662; obituary sketch, 


Municipal aid to railroads, 59, 60, 
116, 120, 151. 

Murphy, Captain Edward. 599. 

Murray, Hon. William P., 535. 615. 
764; Biographic memorial, by 
Henry S. 'Fairchild, S00-SU2. 

Museum, Minnesota Historical So- 
ciety, 370, 788, 797. 

Museum Committee, 794, 795. 797, 
828; Preliminary Report on the 
Kensington Rune Stone, 221- 

Names of streets and avenues, Min- 
neapolis, 513, 514. 

Names, geographic, in Yellowstone 
Park, 665, 666; in .Minnesota, 

Napoleon, 756. 

Narratives of the Sioux War. bv 
Marion P. Satterlee. 349-370. 

National parks, 658, 666, 843. 

Native Sons of Minnesota, 508, 513. 

Naugonup, a Chippewa, 467, 468. 

Negro socialism, 470. 

Neighborliness of pioneer settlers, 

Neill, Rev. Edward D., 484, 535, 541, 

621, 693. 
Neill, Mrs. Edward D., 541. 
Nelson, Gov. Knute, 170, 579, 580, 

588, 593, 594, 597. 761, 803. 
Nelson, Hon. Rensselaer R., 693. 
Nemadji river, 385. 
Ness settlement and cemetery, 350, 

354, 355. 
Netherlands, 805. 

New Hampshire, railroad legisla- 
tion, 104. 

New Ulm, 151, 323, 325, 328-334, 365, 
439, 444, 842. 

New Year's Day, 1850, 526. 

New York, railroad legislation, 105. 

Newberry, Prof. John S., 825. 

Newfoundland, 230. 

Newspaper Publishers Association, 
American, 702-704. 

Newspapers, quoted on railroad leg- 
islation, 188; early, in Minne- 
apolis, 487-9, 499, 503, 504, 697, 
839; in St. Paul, 690-692, 696-8, 
837; in Red Wing, 777; early in 
Ohio, 837. 

Newton, Sir Isaac, 692. 

"Niagara," steamboat, burned, 688. 

Nichols, Charles, 699. 

Nichols, Marcus P., Preface, obitu- 
ary sketch, 843. 

Nichols, Samuel H., 588. 

Nicollet island, 532-3, 600. 

Nicols, John, 534. 693. 829, 833. 

Nimocks, W. A., 76, 156. 

Nininger. Minn., 377, 378. 

Nissen. Dr. Henrik, 232. 

Nordstroem, Rev. M. A., 280. 

Normal schools. 314, 746. 

Norman, Rev. O. A., 227, 250, 252, 

Norman Millennial Celebration, 286. 




North, Hon. John W., 815. 

North, Mrs. John W., 527-8, 532-3. 

North Dakota, 803. 

North St. Paul, 701. 

Northern Minnesota Boundary Sur- 
veys in 1822 to 1826, -under the 
Treaty of Ghent, by Hon. Wil- 
liam E. Culkin, 379-392. 

Northern Pacific railroad company, 
' 11, 58, 117, 130, 131, 218, 428, 
509, 642. 

Northmen, 229, 230-233. 

Northrop, President Cyrus, Bio- 
graphic memorial of William 
H. Dunwoody, 764-773; Memo- 
rial of Prof. Samuel B. Green, 

Northup, Anson, 487, 491. 
Northwest Fur Company, 385, 388, 

Northwest Territory, 481. 
Norton, Hon. Daniel S., 693. 
Norton, Harry, 663. 
Nova Scotia, 230, 232, 249. 
Noyes, Charles P., 804. 
Noyes, Daniel R., 693. 
Nussbaumer, Frederick, 609, 618. 

Oak Point, Mississippi river, 468. 
Oakes, Charles H., 405, 465, 542. 
Gates, Gen. William C, 724, 738. 
Oberlin College, 338. 
O'Brien, John D., obituary sketch. 

O'Brien, Patrick, 695, 696. 

O'Brien, Justice Thomas D., 791; 
Memorial Address in Honor of 
Governor Johnson, 749-751. 

Ochagach, Assiniboine chief, 389, 

O'Connor, Andrew, sculptor, 752. 
Officer, Mr. and Mrs. Harvey, 546. 
Ogilvy, John, British commissioner, 

Ohage, Dr. Justus, 621. 

Ohio newspapers, donated, 837. 

Ohio railroad legislation, 105; geo- 
logical survey, 825. 

Ohman, Edward, 221, 224. 

Ohman, Olof. discoverer of the 
Kensington Rune Stone, 221- 
226; 233, 237, 238-246, 248, 249, 
278, 280, 285. 

Ojibways, 316, 321, 384, 393, 408, 
411, 416, 467-470, 479, 489-491, 
528-9, 837. 

"Uld Bets," Sioux woman, 491. 
Oliver, Lieut. William G., 377. 
Oliver's Grove (Hastings), 377, 378. 
Olmsted, Frederick Law, quoted, 

Olson, John M., 222. 
Olson, Prof. Julius E., 256. ' 
Olson, Samuel. 222, 223, 224, 245. 
Osseo, Minn., 358. 
Other Day, John, 355. 
Otis, Hon. George L., 557. 
Ottawa Indians, 316, 317. 
Otter, 426. 

Otter Tail lake, 432. 

Otter Tail river, 417, 419, 424, 426, 

Ottumwa, Iowa, 728. 
Owatonna, 87, 88, 103, 124, 126, 127. 

128, 155, 166, 175, 834. 
Owen, Sidney M., 591. 

Paintings in the capitol, 842. 

Paist, William, 158. 

Palmer, Gov. John M., of Illinois. 

83, 715, 735. 
Panic of 1857, 31, 193, 216, 410, 4::;3. 

534, 537; of 1873, 130, 131, 470. 

471, 476; of 1893, 476, 617. 
Paris, Treaty of, 1783, 379, 381, 389. 
Park Place, St. Paul, 526, 536. 
Parker, Mrs. Rodney, landlady of 

the American House, St. Paul, 

520, 523. 

Parks and Public Grounds of Min- 
neapolis, History, by Hon. 
Charles M. Loring, 599-607. 

Parks and Public Grounds of St. 
Paul, History, by Lloyd Pea- 
body, 609-630. 

Parkways, Minneapolis and Sr. 
Paul, 604, 605, 622-630. 

Parsons, George I., 127, 135, 158, 
159, 161, 162, 163. 

Passenger rates, railroad, 107. 

Patmore, Tom, 432. 

Patrons of Husbandry, 70-87. 120- 
151, 159-163, 173, 176-183, 187. 

Pattison, Judge George, 72